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2017 (351)

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Air pollution has become a global problem and affects nearly all of us. Most of the pollution is of anthropogenic origin and therefore we are obliged to improve this situation. In solving this problem basically our only partners are plants with their enormous biologically active surface area. Plants themselves are also victims of air pollution but because they are sedentary they developed very efficient defence mechanisms, which can also be exploited to improve the humanosphere. For their life processes plants require intensive gas exchange, during which air contaminants are accumulated on leaf surfaces or absorbed into the tissues. Some of the pollutants are included by plants in their own metabolism while others are sequestered. In some plant species, the processes of removing pollutants from the air is conducted in a very efficient way and therefore they are used in the environmental friendly biotechnology called phytoremediation. For urban areas, outdoor phytoremediation is recommended while indoor phytoremediation can be applied in our homes and workplaces. Because in near future purifying outdoor air to protect human health and well-being does not look the most promising, an important and increasing role will be played by indoor phytoremediation.

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During August 2013, white-grayish lesions, typical of Sclerotinia stem rot, had developed around leaf axils on the stems of turnip rape ‘Pepita’ in a field at the NIBIO research station Apelsvoll in Oppland County, Norway. Sclerotia were collected from inside infected turnip rape stubble and from harvested seeds, surface sterilized, bisected, and placed onto potato dextrose agar (PDA). Following 1 to 2 days incubation at 20°C, fast-growing white mycelium characteristic of Sclerotinia was observed, and within 5 to 7 days, new sclerotia had started to develop. Sclerotia size and growing pattern although variable was characteristic of S. sclerotiorum. DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing of the ITS regions of the rDNA was then carried out for 20 isolates. BLASTn analysis of 475 bp amplicons showed that 15 isolates were S. sclerotiorum, while five were identified as S. subarctica (previously called Sclerotinia sp 1; Holst-Jensen et al. 1998; Winton et al. 2006, 2007), with 100% identity to a U.K. S. subarctica isolate (Clarkson et al. 2010). A representative ITS region sequence was deposited in GenBank (accession no. KX929095). The identity of the S. subarctica isolates was further confirmed by the lack of a 304-bp intron in the LSU rDNA compared with S. sclerotiorum (Holst-Jensen et al. 1998), which was visualized by PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis. Sclerotia of two S. subarctica isolates were placed on PDA and incubated for 7 days. Agar plugs of actively growing mycelium were used for the pathogenicity testing of spring oilseed rape plants (‘Mosaik’) in the greenhouse. Plants were inoculated at growth stage BBCH 57/59 (preflowering) and BBCH 64 (40% of flowers open) by attaching two PDA plugs of actively growing mycelium per main stems with small needles, using four plants per treatment. Noninoculated PDA agar plugs were attached to the control plants. The experiment was repeated three times. Symptoms typical of stem rot appeared after 1 to 2 weeks of incubation at 16 to 20°C, 100% relative humidity. Stems started to develop white lesions with fluffy mycelium around the inoculation sites. Control plants did not show the characteristic symptoms for Sclerotinia infection. After senescence of the plants, sclerotia were collected from inside the stems and cultured on PDA. White mycelium started to grow after 1 to 2 days and new sclerotia were formed within 7 days, similar to the ones used for producing the initial isolate. Brassica oil seed crops are cultivated as important break crops in the cereal-based production system in Norway and can be severely affected by Sclerotinia stem rot. The disease is observed in all regions where Brassica oil seed crops are grown, and in severe cases, a reduction in oilseed yield of 25% has been recorded in untreated control treatments of fungicide trials. Although S. subarctica has been previously reported on wild hosts (Holst-Jensen et al. 1998), this is the first report of the pathogen on a crop plant in Norway. In the United Kingdom, Clarkson et al. (2010) demonstrated pathogenicity of S. subarctica isolated from Ranunculus acris on oilseed rape. As symptoms for S. subarctica and S. sclerotiorum are indistinguishable, S. subarctica might be present undetected in many farmer fields.

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A szennyvíziszap hasznosításának perspektivikus lehetősége hazánkban a mezőgazdasági célú felhasználás. Lehetőség van a víztelenített szennyvíziszap ún. injektálására, illetve a komposztálás utáni hasznosításra. A komposztálás egyik speciális válfaja a vermikomposztálás, amikor a kiindulási alapanyagokat gilisztákkal, vagy gilisztákban gazdag humusszal keverik, így a lebontás hatékonyságát a giliszták keverő hatásával, illetve lebontó tevékenységükkel növelik. A különböző életformatípusokba sorolt fajok közt szélsőséges körülményekhez alkalmazkodott, kizárólag trágya-, illetve komposztlakók is megtalálhatók, vagyis azok a fajok, amelyek bomlásban lévő szervesanyagok további feltárásában vesznek részt. Így a vermikomposztálás szempontjából jelentős fajok Eisenia sp., Eudrilus eugeniae, és Perionyx excavatus. A vermikomposztálás szerepének, lehetőségeinek vizsgálatakor a hagyományos komposztálással való összehasonlítás elkerülhetetlen. A vermikomposzt előállításának legfontosabb szempontja a giliszták optimális életkörülményeinek biztosítása, elsősorban a hőmérséklet, nedvességtartalom, levegőzöttség tekintetében. Ez többlet odafigyelést igényel. A hagyományos komposztálás egyik fontos jellemzője a termofil fázis, mely során a szennyvíziszapban található patogén szervezetek elpusztulnak. A vermikomposztálás során a földigiliszták hőérzékenysége miatt, kimarad a termofil fázis, azonban a földigiliszták tevékenységének, jelenlétének köszönhetően hasonló sterilitás érhető el. Tápanyagtartalom vonatkozásában a vermikomposzt nagyobb mennyiségben tartalmaz összes és felvehető makrotápelemet a hagyományos komposztokhoz képest. A vermikomposztálás további előnye a földigiliszták által kiválasztott növényi hormonhatású anyagok jelenléte. Környezetvédelmi szempontból a földigiliszták nehézfém akkumulációs képessége, valamint a speciális bélflóra által biztosított szerves szennyezők lebontásában való szerepük hozzájárulhat a szennyvíziszapok vermikomposztálásának jövőbeni terjedéséhez. Miközben a vermikomposzt számos előnnyel rendelkezik, hazánkban való elterjedéséhez még jó néhány akadályt le kell győznie. A földtulajdonosok sok esetben a szennyvíziszap komposztra nem tápanyag- és talajjavító anyagként gondolnak, hanem sokkal inkább kockázatos hulladékként, amelyek használatával elszennyezhetik talajaikat és a rajta termő növényeket. Habár számtalan szennyvíziszappal kapcsolatos ismeretanyag létezik, a hazai körülmények közötti Vermikomposztálás, mint a szennyvíziszap-komposztálás alternatív megoldása: Szemle 409 hosszú távú hatások vizsgálatáról szóló, a jelenkor aggályait is taglaló eredmények még hiányoznak. A vermikomposztálás tehát perspektivikus, innovatív technológia a szennyvíziszap hasznosítás terén. Azok a szennyvíziszapok, szennyvíziszap komposztok, amelyek szennyező anyag tartalmuk miatt nem felelnek meg az 50/2001. (IV. 3.) Korm. rendelet alapján a mezőgazdasági felhasználásra, a vermikomposztálás révén arra alkalmassá tehetőek.

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A talajok tulajdonságainak javítása céljából végzett bioszénnel történő kezelések hatása a különböző fizikai, kémiai és biológiai tulajdonságú talajok esetében még nem teljesen ismert. Kísérleteinket homoktalajon végeztük az MTA ATK TAKI Őrbottyánban lévő kísérleti telepén, ahol kukoricát vetettek. Hét kezelést vizsgáltunk, négy ismétlésben. Három esetben a talaj különböző dózisban bioszenet és konstans dózisú műtrágyát tartalmazott (0,1 m/m%; 0,5 m/m%; 1 m/m%; jelölésük BC0,1M; BC0,5M; BC1,0M), három esetben pedig a fent említett bioszén dózisokat egységesen 10 t/ha komposzttal egészítettük ki (BC0,1K; BC0,5K; BC1,0K). Ezek mellett pedig kialakítottunk egy bioszén és komposzt mentes abszolút kontroll (K) kezelést is. Kutatásunk során talajszondákkal monitoroztuk a talajnedvességtartalmának alakulását, valamint statikus kamrás mintavételi eljárással a talajlégzést is mértük a kezelésekben. A talajnedvesség éves átlagát nézve 1% bioszénnel és komposzttal kezelt parcella esetében a talaj nedvességtartalma nem szignifikáns mértékben növekedett a bioszén és komposzt mentes abszolút kontroll környezethez képest. Csapadékesemények alkalmával az 1% bioszenet és komposztot tartalmazó parcellában nőtt meg legjobban a talajnedvesség, illetve hasonlóan alakult a nedvességtartalom a 0,5% bioszénnel kezelt műtrágyás parcellában is. Csapadékesemények után az összes bioszenet és műtrágyát, illetve bioszenet és komposztot tartalmazó parcellában gyorsabban száradt ki a talaj a kontrollhoz képest. A csapadékban szegényebb, szárazabb időszak alkalmával egyedül az 1% bioszenet és komposztot tartalmazó kezelés talajnedvessége volt magasabb a kontrollhoz képest, a 0,5% bioszénnel és műtrágyával kezelt, komposzt mentes esetben a nedvesség hasonlóan alakult a kontrollhoz viszonyítva, az összes többi esetben jóval az alatt maradtak az értékek. Összességében megállapítható, hogy a komposztot tartalmazó talajok érzékenyebben reagáltak a csapadékra, a legjobb vízgazdálkodást az 1% bioszén és komposzt kezelés esetében értük el. Önmagában a bioszén nagy mennyiségű (1,0 m/m%) adagolása nem volt egyértelműen talajnedvesség-növelő hatású. A bioszén szén-dioxid forgalomra történő hatását a talajlégzés mérésével vizsgáltuk. A bioszénnel, valamint műtrágyával kezelt és a kontroll kezelések között csak néhány esetben volt különbség. A komposzttal kevert bioszén kezelések alkalmával hasonló eredményre jutottunk, mint a műtrágyával kevert bioszén esetében. Eredményeink alapján arra következtethetünk, hogy a talajlégzés nem függött a bioszén dózisától. A bioszén talajlégzésre gyakorolt hatása közvetett módon, a talajnedvesség befolyásolásán keresztül valósul meg, mivel bioszenet alkalmazva bizonyos esetekben a talajnedvesség emelkedett a kontrollhoz képest, ekkor a talajlégzés ugyancsak magasabb lett, amely jelenség a komposzttal kezelt esetekben jól megfigyelhető volt.

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Enzymes are major components of organism defense against toxic chemicals in their environment. Despite the passage of more than 200 million years of life presence these enzymes now play an important role in detoxifying chemicals man-made addiction and it may be a useful biomarker. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is intracellular enzyme year found early in all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes). LDH catalyzes the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid and back, as it converts NAD + to NADH and back. A dehydrogenase enzyme transfers a hydride from one molecule to another. LDH enzyme exists in four distinct classes: first is NAD (P) -dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase; other LDHs act on D-lactic and / or is dependent on cytochome C: Dlactate dehydrogenase (cytochome) and L-lactate (L-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochome). LDH is expressed extensively in body tissues, such as blood cells and heart muscle. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is widely distributed throughout the body, as seen mainly in the kidney, myocardium, skeletal muscle, brain, liver and lungs. Because it is released during tissue damage, it is a marker of common injuries such as heart failure and disease.

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This study describes the first Norwegian microbial source tracking (MST) approach for water quality control and pollution removal from catchment run-off in a nature-based treatment system (NBTS) with a constructed wetland. The applied MST tools combined microbial analyses and molecular tests to detect and define the source(s) and dominant origin(s) of faecal water contamination. Faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and host-specific Bacteroidales 16 s rRNA gene markers have been employed. The study revealed that the newly developed contribution profiling of faecal origin derived from the Bacteroidales DNA could quantitatively distinguish between human and non-human pollution origins. Further, the outcomes of the MST test have been compared with the results of both physicochemical analyses and tests of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). A strong positive correlation was discovered between the human marker and PPCPs. Gabapentin was the most frequently detected compound and it showed the uppermost positive correlation with the human marker. The study demonstrated that the NBTS performs satisfactorily with the removal of E. coli but not PPCPs. Interestingly, the presence of PPCPs in the water samples was not correlated with high concentrations of E. coli. Neither has the latter an apparent correlation with the human marker.

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BACKGROUND The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is one of the most promising insect species for use in animal feed. However, studies investigating feed and food safety aspects of using black soldier fly as feed are scarce. In this study, we fed black soldier fly larvae feeding media enriched with seaweed, which contains naturally high concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential transfer of such undesirable substances from the feeding media to the larvae. RESULTS The larvae accumulated cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic. Concentrations of these elements in the larvae increased when more seaweed was added to the feeding media. The highest retention was seen for cadmium (up to 93%) and the lowest for total arsenic (up to 22%). When seaweed inclusion exceeded 20% in the media, this resulted in larval concentrations of cadmium and total arsenic above the current European Union maximum levels for these elements in complete feed. CONCLUSION Our results confirm that insect larvae can accumulate heavy metals and arsenic when present in the feeding media. A broader understanding of the occurrence of these undesirable substances in processed larvae products is needed to assess feed and food safety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry

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Artikkelen tar for seg levetid for infiltrasjonsanlegg for avløpsvann og ser spesielt på binding av fosfor og gjentetting som kan begrense levetiden. Det refereres til norske og internasjonale undersøkelser. I Norge er det generelt gode erfaringer med infiltrasjon som rensemetode og regnes som en robust metode som tåler variasjoner i hydraulisk belastning og oppnår rensing på mange viktige parametere. Undersøkelser av eldre anlegg, etablert før 1985, viser imidlertid at anleggene ofte er plassert på dårlige egnede masser, har for lite areal eller mangelfull utforming i forhold til dagens krav. Infiltrasjonsanlegg i gode masser, og spesielt med nyere design, kan forventes å ha lang levetid (mer enn 20 ‐ 25 år), men lokale forhold kan begrense levetiden. Artikkelen har forslag til tema som bør undersøkes nærmere i forhold til å vurdere levetid på norske infiltrasjonsanlegg.

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More and more ecologists have started to resurvey communities sampled in earlier decades to determine long-term shifts in community composition and infer the likely drivers of the ecological changes observed. However, to assess the relative importance of and interactions among multiple drivers, joint analyses of resurvey data from many regions spanning large environmental gradients are needed. In this article, we illustrate how combining resurvey data from multiple regions can increase the likelihood of driver orthogonality within the design and show that repeatedly surveying across multiple regions provides higher representativeness and comprehensiveness, allowing us to answer more completely a broader range of questions. We provide general guidelines to aid the implementation of multiregion resurvey databases. In so doing, we aim to encourage resurvey database development across other community types and biomes to advance global environmental change research.

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An intercomparison of climate change impacts projected by nine regional-scale hydrological models for 12 large river basins on all continents was performed, and sources of uncertainty were quantified in the framework of the ISIMIP project. The models ECOMAG, HBV, HYMOD, HYPE, mHM, SWAT, SWIM, VIC and WaterGAP3 were applied in the following basins: Rhine and Tagus in Europe, Niger and Blue Nile in Africa, Ganges, Lena, Upper Yellow and Upper Yangtze in Asia, Upper Mississippi, MacKenzie and Upper Amazon in America, and Darling in Australia. The model calibration and validation was done using WATCH climate data for the period 1971–2000. The results, evaluated with 14 criteria, are mostly satisfactory, except for the low flow. Climate change impacts were analyzed using projections from five global climate models under four representative concentration pathways. Trends in the period 2070–2099 in relation to the reference period 1975–2004 were evaluated for three variables: the long-term mean annual flow and high and low flow percentiles Q10 and Q90, as well as for flows in three months high- and low-flow periods denoted as HF and LF. For three river basins: the Lena, MacKenzie and Tagus strong trends in all five variables were found (except for Q10 in the MacKenzie); trends with moderate certainty for three to five variables were confirmed for the Rhine, Ganges and Upper Mississippi; and increases in HF and LF were found for the Upper Amazon, Upper Yangtze and Upper Yellow. The analysis of projected streamflow seasonality demonstrated increasing streamflow volumes during the high-flow period in four basins influenced by monsoonal precipitation (Ganges, Upper Amazon, Upper Yangtze and Upper Yellow), an amplification of the snowmelt flood peaks in the Lena and MacKenzie, and a substantial decrease of discharge in the Tagus (all months). The overall average fractions of uncertainty for the annual mean flow projections in the multi-model ensemble applied for all basins were 57% for GCMs, 27% for RCPs, and 16% for hydrological models.

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Land management and spatial planning are closely linked to the adaptation of water management to climate change impacts. Land management has an influence on the ability of the soil to retain precipitation or flood water and sustainable land use can help to better manage risks related to both increased precipitation/flooding and water scarcity. Land and soil management can also realize significant synergies between climate change adaptation and mitigation. Agriculture as a key form of land use will play a crucial role in adaptive spatial planning approaches. Intensive agriculture in flood-prone areas is at risk of substantial economic loss in the case of flooding. On the other hand, the increased challenges for flood risk management will create a demand for new ways of accommodating flood water and managing flows, which may increase economic opportunities for water farming. There are sufficient reasons to understand land drainage arrangements importance. Drainage has been identified as the forgotten factor in sustaining a sustainable irrigated agriculture. Surface and subsurface drainage provides a lot of functions that meet some actual and challenging needs. Some of these functions are: resource base protection for food production; sustaining and increasing the yields and rural incomes; irrigation investment protection etc. This paper is based on an analysis of managing water excess in north-western Romania using Romanian expertise in this field but also the results from some bilateral projects between Romania, Norway and Iceland.

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Plants are sessile organisms that lack a specialized immune system to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Instead, plants have complex regulatory networks that determine the appropriate distribution of resources between the developmental and the defense programs. In the last years, epigenetic regulation of repeats and gene expression has evolved as an important player in the transcriptional regulation of stress‐related genes. Here, we review the current knowledge about how different stresses interact with different levels of epigenetic control of the genome. Moreover, we analyze the different examples of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance and connect them with the known features of genome epigenetic regulation. Although yet to be explored, the interplay between epigenetics and stress resistance seems to be a relevant and dynamic player of the interaction of plants with their environments.

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Deficient trace elements concentration in soils, forages, and animals have been reported in several areas of Balkan region. Main challenge in overcoming low productivity of forage and animal production in this region is the lack of data on the nutritional status of the pastures and soils. This study examined the nutrient and pseudo total concentration of trace elements in soil and herbage plants, and the potential deficiency or excess with regards to crop and livestock production. Soil and plant samples from 100 sampling points were collected in the mountainous grasslands of Manjača (between longitudes 16°56′ and 17°8′ east; and latitudes 44°33′ and 44° 42′ north) and Vlašić (between longitudes 17°14′ and 17°29′ east; and latitudes 44°25′ and 44°37′ north). Soil samples were analysed for soil texture, pseudo total concentration (5 ml HNO3) of trace elements (TE), pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), while plant samples were analysed for TE. The soil pH varied from strongly acidic to moderately alkaline. The concentration of SOC varied from 0.5% to 12.3%. Most of the soil samples were finer-textured soils high in silt content. The average concentrations of Na, P, Zn, Se, Cu, Co, and B were low in both soil and herbage plants. Plant K, Ca, Mg, Mo, and Mn concentrations were sufficiently high to meet the requirements of grazing animals, while Fe concentrations was elevated in certain areas. High levels of Mo were found in both soil and plants. The results suggest that imbalances observed in natural pastures of Manjača and Vlašić area, caused by low soil TE concentration and other soil and plant properties, could contribute to poor animal nutrition.

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Ice encasement (IE) is the most economically important winter stress in Scandinavia; however, little is known about the IE tolerance of different turfgrass species and subspecies except that creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is more tolerant than annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of IE and two protective covers (plastic and plastic over a 10-mm woven mat) on the winter survival of six cool-season turfgrasses commonly used on golf greens. The experiment was conducted on a sand-based green at Apelsvoll, Norway (60°42′ N, 10°51′ E) during the winters of 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Turfgrass samples (8 cm in diameter, 10 cm deep) were removed from the plots at the time of cover installation and throughout the winter. The samples were potted and percent live turfgrass cover assessed after 21 d of regrowth in a growth chamber. Percent turfgrass cover, percent disease, and turfgrass quality were also registered in the field plots in spring. Results indicated that velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.) had superior tolerance to IE, surviving for 98 and 119 d of IE during the winters of 2011–2012 and 2012–2013, respectively. The order of IE tolerance in 2012–2013 was: velvet bentgrass > creeping bentgrass > Chewing’s fescue (Festuca. rubra L. ssp. commutata), slender creeping red fescue (F. rubra L. ssp. litoralis) ≥ colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris) > annual bluegrass. Colonial bentgrass responded negatively to both protective covers in 2012 due to the development of Microdocium nivale. None of the species benefited from the plastic cover alone, compared with natural snow conditions. Annual bluegrass was the only species that benefited from plastic over a woven mat.

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This study presents an approach for predicting stand-level forest attributes utilizing mobile laser scanning data collected as a nonprobability sample. Firstly, recordings of stem density were made at point locations every 10th metre along a subjectively chosen mobile laser scanning track in a forest stand. Secondly, kriging was applied to predict stem density values for the centre point of all grid cells ina5m×5m lattice across the stand. Thirdly, due to nondetectability issues, a correction term was computed based on distance sampling theory. Lastly, the mean stem density at stand level was predicted as the mean of the point-level predictions multiplied with the correction factor, and the corresponding variance was estimated. Many factors contribute to the uncertainty of the stand-level prediction; in the variance estimator, we accounted for the uncertainties due to kriging prediction and due to estimating a detectability model from the laser scanning data. The results from our new approach were found to correspond fairly well to estimates obtained using field measurements from an independent set of 54 circular sample plots. The predicted number of stems in the stand based on the proposed methodology was 1366 with a 12.9% relative standard error. The corresponding estimate based on the field plots was 1677 with a 7.5% relative standard error.

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Root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans, is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp) was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans’ endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.

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Research concerning the cultural practice of golf course fairways is important because legislation on pesticide reduction in Europe and North America may potentially cause serious weed problems. Establishing a strong, competitive turfgrass sward may aid in reducing the invasion of broadleaved weeds and Poa annua L. The objective of this research was to determine changes in the grass species composition and weed occurrence of in-use fairway turfs after repeated overseeding of three grass species separately: Lolium perenne L., Festuca rubra L., and Poa pratensis L., all at rates 300 kg ha−1. Overseeding was conducted with a disc seeder, alone or in combination with extra fertilizer (50 kg N + 34 kg P ha−1) in either May or September on three Danish golf courses from 2011 to 2013. Results showed no increase in the population of F. rubra or P. pratensis after 3 yr of overseeding. Lolium perenne was successfully introduced when seeded in autumn and when extra fertilizer was added immediately after overseeding. None of the overseeding treatments reduced the occurrence of P. annua, Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg., Bellis perennis L., or Trifolium repens L. The results are discussed in relation to the fact that the fairways were unirrigated and that they were open to play after overseeding.

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Few studies have reported findings on the use of Pochonia chlamydosporia for the management of plant-parasitic nematodes under field conditions. In this chapter we describe experiences of P. chlamydosporia application in temperate crops grown in the UK, Norway and Poland. To date, the fungus has been recovered from different endoparasitic nematodes from a range of locations across Europe. Pochonia chlamydosporia is an egg parasite as well as a saprophyte and plant endophyte and is primarily applied as a biological control agent to reduce nematode multiplication. In the UK, several field and micro-plot experiments have demonstrated that the fungus is capable of causing ca 50% reductions in the multiplication of Globodera pallida in potatoes. Further work was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility between P. chlamydosporia applications and the fungicide azoxystrobin which is used for managing the soil borne fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Although P. chlamydosporia is sensitive to azoxystrobin, there is evidence to suggest that it may not affect its efficacy as a biological control agent. In Norway, the fungus has been isolated from various cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp. and Globodera spp.), however, under in vitro conditions it was found to lose pathogenicity. Work undertaken in Poland has shown that strains of P. chlamydosporia can reduce populations of H. schachtii in sugar beet. Sugar beet grown in a 3 year rotation in combination with a mustard green manure increased egg parasitism by P. chlamydosporia in comparison to other treatments which included the addition of straw or manure. Further work is discussed on the ability of strains of P. chlamydosporia to parasitize eggs of Meloidogyne incognita, M. hapla and M. arenaria at a range of temperatures.

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Revegetation of roadsides is an opportunity for grassland restoration, yet these habitats are prone to be colonised by invasive alien plant species (IAS). Therefore, the selection of seed mixtures for revegetation should consider potential competition with IAS present in the soil seed bank or arriving by traffic-related seed rain. We investigated whether the limiting similarity hypothesis, in terms of plant seed-size-output strategy, could be used to design native grassland communities resistant to IAS. In a greenhouse experiment, a small- or a large-seeded IAS was sown into factorial combinations of two native communities with small or large seed-size-output strategies attwo sowing densities. Height and aboveground biomass of the IAS were measured after four and eight weeks, respectively. Small-seeded native communities at high density were highly effective in suppressing the small- and large-seeded IAS, mostly controlled by a density effect. Thus, limiting similarity in seed-size-output strategy only partly explained resistance to IAS, while density-driven suppression was more effective.

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Catchment scale hydrological models are promising tools for simulating the effect of catchment-specific processes and management on soil and water resources. Here, we present a model intercomparison study of runoff simulations using three different semi-distributed rainfall-runoff catchment models. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of the Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenavdelning (HBV-Light); Precipitation, Evapotranspiration and Runoff Simulator for Solute Transport (PERSiST); and INtegrated CAtchment (INCA) models on Somogybabod Catchment, near Lake Balaton, Hungary. The models were calibrated and validated against observed discharge data at the outlet of the catchment for the period of January 1, 2006 –July 12, 2015. Model performance was evaluated using graphical representations, e.g. daily and monthly hydrographs and Flow Duration Curves (FDC) and model evaluation statistic; Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The simulation results showed that the models provided good estimates of monthly average discharge (0.60–0.90 NSE; 0.60–0.91 R2) and satisfactory results for daily discharge (0.46–0.62 NSE; 0.50–0.67 R2). We found that the application of hydrological models serves as a powerful basis for ensemble modelling of average runoff and could enhance our understanding of the eco-hydrological and transport processes within catchments. On the other hand, it can highlight the uncertainty of model forecasts and the importance of goal specific evaluation.

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Image analysis is essential through a wide range of scientific areas and most of them have one task in common, i.e. object detection. Thus automated detection algorithms had generated a lot of interest. This proposal identifies objects with similar features on a frame. The inputs are the image where to look at, and a single appearance of the object we are looking for. The object is searched by a sliding window of various sizes. A positive detection is given by a cascaded classifier that compares input patches from sliding window to the object model. The cascaded classifier has three stages: variance comparison, layers of pixel comparisons and patch correlation. Object model is a collection of templates which are generated from scales and rotations of the first appearance. This algorithm is capable to handle change in scale, in plane rotation, illumination, partial occlusion and background clutter. The proposed framework was tested on high cluttered background aerial image, for identifying palm oil trees. Promising results were achieved, suggesting this is a powerful tool for remote sensing image analysis and has potential applications for a wide range of sciences which require image analysis.

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Forests and wooded land cover 39% of the land area of Norway, with two conifer species, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris, dominating the forest area. Twenty-five of 35 native forest tree species have their northern limit in this country. The genetic resources of 18 species are considered to be vulnerable or threatened either at a local or national level. Genetic information is available for 13 of the native species, with Picea abies being the species that has been most thoroughly characterised. The National Programme for Forest Genetic Resources is administered by the Norwegian Genetic Resource Centre. This programme covers four major areas: generating knowledge and monitoring processes influencing genetic resources; in situ and ex situ conservation activities; sustainable use and development of forest genetic resources; and networking, coordination and dissemination of knowledge. In situ conservation of genetic resources of forest tree species is carried out in nature reserves. Twenty-three gene conservation units, covering ten species, have been established in such reserves. Ex situ conservation of forest genetic resources is achieved through collections in arboreta and botanical gardens and in the long-term field plantations of research and breeding programmes. In addition, seed samples of selected forest tree species are stored at Svalbard Global Seed Vault. Forests in Norway are regenerated both by natural and artificial means. A revised tree breeding strategy, with emphasis on Picea abies, has been developed to improve climatic adaptation, growth and quality, without decreasing the genetic diversity in future forests or the potential for adaptation to future climatic conditions.

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Successional dynamics in plant community assembly may result from both deterministic and stochastic ecological processes. The relative importance of different ecological processes is expected to vary over the successional sequence, between different plant functional groups, and with the disturbance levels and land-use management regimes of the successional systems. We evaluate the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in bryophyte and vascular plant community assembly after fire in grazed and ungrazed anthropogenic coastal heathlands in Northern Europe. A replicated series of post-fire successions (n = 12) were initiated under grazed and ungrazed conditions, and vegetation data were recorded in permanent plots over 13 years. We used redundancy analysis (RDA) to test for deterministic successional patterns in species composition repeated across the replicate successional series and analyses of co-occurrence to evaluate to what extent species respond synchronously along the successional gradient. Change in species co-occurrences over succession indicates stochastic successional dynamics at the species level (i.e., species equivalence), whereas constancy in co-occurrence indicates deterministic dynamics (successional niche differentiation). The RDA shows high and deterministic vascular plant community compositional change, especially early in succession. Co-occurrence analyses indicate stochastic species-level dynamics the first two years, which then give way to more deterministic replacements. Grazed and ungrazed successions are similar, but the early stage stochasticity is higher in ungrazed areas. Bryophyte communities in ungrazed successions resemble vascular plant communities. In contrast, bryophytes in grazed successions showed consistently high stochasticity and low determinism in both community composition and species co-occurrence. In conclusion, stochastic and individualistic species responses early in succession give way to more niche-driven dynamics in later successional stages. Grazing reduces predictability in both successional trends and species-level dynamics, especially in plant functional groups that are not well adapted to disturbance. bryophytes; burning; Calluna vulgaris; coexistence; conservation management; determinism; disturbance; grazing; heathland; randomization test; stochasticity; vascular plants.

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This study reports the findings of a distinct Potato virus Y (PVY) isolate found in Northeast China. One hundred and ten samples (leaves and tubers) were collected from potato plants showing mosaic symptoms around the city of Harbin in Heilongjiang province of China. The collected tubers were planted and let to grow in a greenhouse. New potato plants generated from these tubers showed similar symptoms, except for one plant. Subsequent serological analyses revealed PVY as the causing agent of the disease. A novel PVY isolate (referred to as HLJ-C-44 in this study) was isolated from this sample showing unique mild mosaic and crisped leaf margin symptoms. The complete genome of this isolate was analyzed and determined. The results showed that HLJ-C-44 is a typical PVY isolate. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this isolate belongs to the N-Wi strain group of PVY recombinants (PVYN-Wi) and also shared the highest overall sequence identity (nucleotide and amino acid) with other members of this strain group. However, recombination analysis of isolate HLJ-C-44 revealed a recombination pattern that differed from that of other PVYN-Wi isolates. Moreover, biological assays in four different potato cultivars and in Nicotiana tabacum also revealed a different phenotypic response than that of a typical PVYN-Wi isolate. This data, combined, suggest that HLJ-C-44 is a novel PVY recombinant with distinct biological properties.

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Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) is native to South America but has expanded its range and invaded many regions of the world, primarily on flowers and to a lesser extent on horticultural product shipments. As a result of initial invasion into an area, damage caused is usually significant but not necessarily sustained. Currently, it is an economic pest in selected native and invaded regions of the world. Adults cause damage by puncturing abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces for feeding and egg laying sites. Larvae mine the leaf parenchyma tissues which can lead to leaves drying and wilting. We have recorded 365 host plant species from 49 families and more than 106 parasitoid species. In a subset of the Argentinian data, we found that parasitoid community composition attacking L. huidobrensis differs significantly in cultivated and uncultivated plants. No such effect was found at the world level, probably due to differences in collection methods in the different references. We review the existing knowledge as a means of setting the context for new and unpublished data. The main objective is to provide an update of widely dispersed and until now unpublished data, evaluate dispersion of the leafminer and management strategies in different regions of the world, and highlight the need to consider the possible effects of climate change on further regional invasions or expansions.

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This chapter presents an analysis of land cover changes in Eastern Europe between 1990 and 2006, assessed using CORINE (Co-ORdination of INformation on the Environment) Land Cover (CLC) datasets. The plethora of potential land cover change categories were condensed into seven categories of major land use change processes: urbanization, agricultural intensification, agricultural extensification, afforestation, deforestation, construction and management of water bodies, and other changes. The amounts of each change category and their spatial distributions are summarized, and the change categories were also mapped to show the relative amounts of change (per 3 × 3 km2) between 1990 and 2000 and between 2000 and 2006. The results showed that while more afforestation than deforestation was observed in the first period, the reverse was true in the second period, when deforestation outpaced afforestation. Urbanization and suburbanization were major processes in Eastern Europe, particularly around existing major cities, and the speed of this process generally increased from the first to the second period. Both the intensification and extensification of agriculture were common during both periods, but a larger effect was observed in the first period. Overall, land use changes were highest in central Europe and the Baltic countries and lowest in southeast Europe.

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The beneficial effects of consumption of berry fruits on a range of chronic diseases has been attributed (at least in part) to the presence of unique phytochemicals. Recently, we identified novel ursolic acid-based triterpenoid glycosides (TTPNs) in raspberry fruit and demonstrated their survival in human ileal fluids after feeding which confirmed their colon-availability in vivo. In this paper, in vitro digestion studies demonstrated that certain TTPNs were stable under gastrointestinal conditions and confirmed that these components may have been responsible for bioactivity noted in previous studies. Sequential extractions of raspberry puree, isolated seeds and unseeded puree showed that certain TTPN components (e.g. peak T1 m/z 679, and T2 m/z 1358) had different extractabilities in water/solvent mixes and were differentially associated with the seeds. Purified seed TTPNs (mainly T1 and T2) were shown to be anti-genotoxic in HT29 and CCD841 cell based in vitro colonocyte models. Further work confirmed that the seeds contained a wider range of TTPN-like components which were also differentially extractable in water/solvent mixes. This differential extractability could influence the TTPN composition and potential bioactivity of the extracts. There was considerable variation in total content of TTPNs (∼3-fold) and TTPN composition across 13 Rubus genotypes. Thus, TTPNs are likely to be present in raspberry juices and common extracts used for bioactivity studies and substantial variation exists in both content and composition due to genetics, tissue source or extraction conditions, which may all affect observed bioactivity.

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The current downturn of the arctic cryosphere, such as the strong loss of sea ice, melting of ice sheets and glaciers, and permafrost thaw, affects the marine and terrestrial carbon cycles in numerous interconnected ways. Nonetheless, processes in the ocean and on land have been too often considered in isolation while it has become increasingly clear that the two environments are strongly connected: Sea ice decline is one of the main causes of the rapid warming of the Arctic, and the flow of carbon from rivers into the Arctic Ocean affects marine processes and the air–sea exchange of CO2. This review, therefore, provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of the arctic terrestrial and marine carbon cycle, connections in between, and how this complex system is affected by climate change and a declining cryosphere. Ultimately, better knowledge of biogeochemical processes combined with improved model representations of ocean–land interactions are essential to accurately predict the development of arctic ecosystems and associated climate feedbacks.

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Wood biomass for energy is largely produced in Europe from forest land resulting from silvicultural and management practices or from agricultural land in the form of fast growing plantations. The present paper reviews and compares the estimated current potentials for wood biomass production in 25 countries in Europe. The potentials are divided attending to these sources to identify the most suitable method of wood biomass production on a country level, based on its current forest and agriculture levels of production. Data has been collected and compiled from previous models and estimations. The total aggregated available potential in Europe is 76 Mm3 of wood biomass from the forests, with an additional 90 Mm3 from increasing the utilization of forest lands, and 98 Mm3 from fast growing plantations (dedicating 5% of current agricultural land). Germany and France showed high potentials both from agriculture and forest; Finland and Sweden had most of its potential from forest sources; and Spain, Poland, and UK from fast-growing plantations. When considered together, Europe presents a large potential for wood biomass production for energy, and each country should develop different policy strategies of promotion attending to the most available source to realize this potential efficiently.

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Purpose Epidemiological and intervention studies have attempted to link the health effects of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with the consumption of polyphenols and their impact in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have shown that polyphenols can cross the intestinal barrier and reach concentrations in the bloodstream able to exert effects in vivo. However, the effective uptake of polyphenols into the brain is still regarded with some reservations. Here we describe a combination of approaches to examine the putative transport of blackberry-digested polyphenols (BDP) across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and ultimate evaluation of their neuroprotective effects. Methods BDP was obtained by in vitro digestion of blackberry extract and BDP major aglycones (hBDP) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. Chemical characterization and BBB transport of extracts were evaluated by LC–MSn. BBB transport and cytoprotection of both extracts was assessed in HBMEC monolayers. Neuroprotective potential of BDP was assessed in NT2-derived 3D co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes and in primary mouse cerebellar granule cells. BDP-modulated genes were evaluated by microarray analysis. Results Components from BDP and hBDP were shown to be transported across the BBB. Physiologically relevant concentrations of both extracts were cytoprotective at endothelial level and BDP was neuroprotective in primary neurons and in an advanced 3D cell model. The major canonical pathways involved in the neuroprotective effect of BDP were unveiled, including mTOR signaling and the unfolded protein response pathway. Genes such as ASNS and ATF5 emerged as novel BDP-modulated targets. Conclusions BBB transport of BDP and hBDP components reinforces the health benefits of a diet rich in polyphenols in neurodegenerative disorders. Our results suggest some novel pathways and genes that may be involved in the neuroprotective mechanism of the BDP polyphenol components.

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There has long been a claim that winter injuries of grass are a significant economic burden for golf courses in the Nordic countries. To confirm this claim, in 2015 the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research and the Norwegian Golf Federation, with support of the Scandinavian Turfgrass and Environment Research Foundation, conducted a net-based survey about winter injury in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). This comprehensive survey showed that total costs of repair of winter-injured greens and fairways together with lost revenue on golf courses in the Nordic countries can be at least €14 million. In a year with significant winter injuries, the average cost to repair the turf was between €3000 and €12,000 on 88% of the courses. The revenue loss after a winter with considerable injuries was less than €6000 at 50% of the courses, and 25% of the courses reported a loss between €6000 and €12,000 for these years. The causes of winter injuries varied depending on geography and grass species used on the greens. Biotic factors played a major role in the southern part of Scandinavia, and ice and water injuries were most devastating north of 60°N. This paper summarizes some of the answers from the respondents, including information about the dominating grass species on Nordic golf greens.

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Invasion of annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a major concern on red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) putting greens. Our objective was to determine the effect of three seasonal fertilizer distribution treatments on red fescue turf quality and annual bluegrass encroachment. The experiment was conducted over 2 yr on a USGA-specified putting green at NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center Landvik, Norway (58° N). A complete liquid fertilizer was applied weekly for an annual nitrogen input of 11 g m−2 in all treatments. In the FLAT rate treatment, the weekly fertilizer rate was 0.45 g N m−2 wk−1 from 5 May to 28 September. The FALL+ treatment received 0.68 g N m−2 wk−1 from 11 August to 28 September and 0.23 g N m−2 wk−1 from 5 May to 21 June, whereas the SPRING+ treatment was the opposite. The SPRING+ fertilization resulted in significantly better turf quality and significantly less annual bluegrass than the two other treatments in the second year of the study. The FALL+ fertilization gave higher quality ratings in the fall and early spring, but this effect came at the expense of more annual bluegrass. In conclusion, we recommend a fertilizer regime with the highest input from early May until midsummer to produce red fescue putting greens with the highest possible turfgrass quality and minimal encroachment by annual bluegrass.

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The main objective of this work was to analyse how increased harvesting for bioenergy production might affect other Ecosystem Services (ES) in two Norwegian municipalities (Ringsaker and Voss). The aim was to identify locations where synergies or conflicts between ES could be expected. The spatial distribution of eight different ES (3 provision, 3 regulation and 2 cultural services) was modelled using information provided by land use spatial databases and additional data sources. Model parameters were set by integrating existing research and expert knowledge. Maps showing the level of provision of ES were analysed using a moving window to analyse scale dependence in the spatial distribution of ES provision. Map algebra was then used to identify areas providing multiple ES, thus defining the most important areas on which to focus the management of both synergies and trade-offs. Finally, specific ‘binary bundles’ maps, where bioenergy provision was compared with each of the other ES, were developed. The methodology proved its utility to assess the compatibility of bioenergy uses with other services. This straightforward approach is readily replicable in other regions and can be used as a decision support tool for planning and designing provision areas, and to ensure sustainable forest management approaches.

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Growing substrates, fertilizer inputs, and irrigation are important factors for grow-in of sand-based putting greens. The research reported here was triggered by grow-in problems encountered in 2015 after replacing garden compost with Sphagnum peat in the rootzone on a sand-based green at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center, Norway. A pot trial was conducted with the same type of sand amended with: (i) 20% (v/v) garden compost, (ii) 10% (v/v) Sphagnum peat, (iii) equal volumes of (i) and (ii), (iv) 10% (v/v) Sphagnum peat plus lime (200 g CaCO3 m−2), and (v) 10% (v/v) Sphagnum peat plus phosphoric acid, 5 g P m−2. The amendments were tested with or without preplant application of chicken manure (5 g N and 2.5 g P m−2) and at the two irrigation rates: 3 and 12 mm d−1. The pots were seeded with creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), and turfgrass coverage and clipping yields were recorded for 5 wk after seeding. Turfgrass coverage developed significantly faster and clipping yields were significantly higher after amendment with compost than after amendment with peat or peat plus lime. Incorporation of chicken manure did not enhance grow-in on substrates containing full or half rates of compost but improved grow-in on peat, especially when combined with phosphoric acid. Excessive irrigation had no impact on turfgrass coverage but reduced clipping yields on substrates containing compost, compost plus peat, or peat plus phosphoric acid. We conclude that the grow-in problems encountered in 2015 were most likely due to inadequate quality of the Sphagnum peat.

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Turfgrass grow-in on sand-based putting greens usually incurs a high risk for nitrogen (N) leakage. Our objective was to evaluate how substitution of a standard mineral fertilizer with an amino-acid-based fertilizer affects creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) establishment rate and the concentration of nitrate and total N in drainage water. The experiment was conducted from 19 May to 26 July 2016 in the United States Golf Association green field lysimeter facility at Landvik, Norway. The liquid fertilizers arGrow Turf (70% of N as arginine and 30% as lysine) and Wallco (60% of N as nitrate and 40% as ammonium) were applied at ∼2-wk intervals at the two rates of 1.5 or 3.0 g N m−2 application−1. Results showed significantly faster grow-in on plots receiving amino-acid-based fertilizer than on plots receiving mineral fertilizers; the average turfgrass coverage 26 d after the first fertilization was 75 and 36%, respectively. In parallel with this, the average concentration of nitrate and total N in drainage water, as well as the total N loss, were all reduced by 40 to 45%. Arginine and lysine at 1.5 g N m−2 gave faster grow-in than Wallco at 3.0 g N m−2 and was the only treatment in which the drainage water complied with EU’s requirements for maximum concentration of nitrate in drinking water.

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Short-term (three to four years) effects of forest harvesting on soil solution chemistry were investigated at two Norway spruce sites in southern Norway, differing in precipitation amount and topography. Experimental plots were either harvested conventionally (stem-only harvesting, SOH) or whole trees, including crowns, twigs and branches were removed (whole-tree harvesting, WTH), leaving residue piles on the ground for some months before removal. The WTH treatment had two sub-treatments: WTH-pile where there had been piles and WTH-removal, from where residues had been removed to make piles. Increased soil solution concentrations of NO3–N, total N, Ca, Mg and K at 30 cm depth, shown by peaks in concentrations in the years after harvesting, were found at the drier, less steep site in eastern Norway after SOH and WTH-pile, but less so after WTH-removal. At the wetter, steeper site in western Norway, peaks were often observed also at WTH-removal plots, which might reflect within-site differences in water pathways due largely to site topography.

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This paper provides an overview of recent developments in remote and proximal sensing technologies and their basic applicability to various aspects of forest operations. It categorises these applications according to the technologies used and considers their deployment platform in terms of their being space-, airborne or terrestrial. For each combination of technology and application, a brief review of the state-of-the-art has been described from the literature, ranging from the measurement of forests and single trees, the derivation of landscape scale terrain models down to micro-topographic soil disturbance modelling, through infrastructure planning, construction and maintenance, to forest accessibility with ground and cable based harvesting systems. The review then goes on to discuss how these technologies and applications contribute to reducing impacts on forest soils, cultural heritage sites and other areas of special value or interest, after which sensors and methods necessary in autonomous navigation and the use of computer vision on forest machines are discussed. The review concludes that despite the many promising or demonstrated applications of remotely or proximately sensed data in forest operations, almost all are still experimental and have a range of issues that need to be addressed or improved upon before widespread operationalization can take place.

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Mapping and valuating ecosystem services has gained increasing attention over the last years and remains high in the research agenda. In this paper, a mixed methods approach is used to valuate ecosystem services provided by the Divici-Pojejena wetland in Romania. A qualitative part relied on focus group discussions and interviews to identify key stakeholders and the ecosystem services provided by the wetland site. The benefit transfer (BT) method was used for the monetary valuation of the identified ecosystem services that the wetland provides. Bird watching opportunities, water quality, and flood prevention services are among the highest valued services, while the amenity services are the least valued among all wetland services.

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Semi-natural grasslands are important habitats for pollinators because of high abundance of flowering plants. The aim of this study was to assess effects of mowing time on flower resources for pollinators in semi-natural hay meadows. Flowering species in semi-natural hay meadows throughout a landscape in Maramures, Romania were used as indicators of flower resources for pollinators. Botanical surveys were performed in 31 hay meadows and all herbs and shrubs were recorded in hay meadows cut early, intermediate and late in the growing season. All hay meadows included a high number of flower species but the mowing time influenced the available floral resources for pollinators. If mowing time varies between hay meadows within a landscape, flower resources for pollinators will be available throughout the growing season, which is essential in pollination conservation in agricultural landscapes.

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Semi-natural grasslands are in decline due to land use changes. To conserve grassland ecosystems, agrienvironmental schemes facilitate low intensity management of semi-natural grasslands of high nature value. In addition to management of the meadows themselves, the nature value of the hay meadows also depends upon the surrounding landscape. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of the landscape on the biological value of semi-natural hay meadows implemented in the Action Plan for Hay Meadows (APHM) in Norway. The biological value was estimated by richness of all vascular plant species and of vascular plant species associated with semi-natural grassland. Richness was high in semi-natural grasslands, particularly in hay meadows implemented in the APHM. However, the landscape context also influenced the richness of the hay meadows. Species richness increased with hay meadow area and length and edge density of semi-natural habitats types in the landscapes.

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Life cycle assessment (LCA) allows systematic comparisons of environmental performance between different products. The functional unit in LCA for milk production is typically set to 1 kg energy corrected milk. This does not however suffice as definition to allow for comparing different studies. The definition of reference flow can introduce a bias between organic and conventional farming systems. We strongly encourage to include definition of reference flow calculation, choice of algorithm for energy calculation as well as choice of energy content of milk in the communication of any results.

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Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth’s ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. In this paper, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscaling techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.

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Conversion from annual bluegrass or bentgrasses to red fescue could be an efficient way to minimise water use on golf greens. Our objective was to investigate the influ- ences of four irrigation strategies on red fescue water use efficiency, turf quality, growth rate and resistance to annual bluegrass and moss invasion. The trial was car- ried out from August 2013 to August 2015 on a green established according to USGA recommendations under a rainout shelter at Landvik, Norway (58 ° N). On average for 2 years, irrigation to field capacity once per week (FC 1) and deficit irrigation to 60% of FC three times per week (DEF 3) reduced the water consumption by 49% and 72% relative to irrigation to FC three times per week (FC 3). Both DEF 3 and FC 1 retained acceptable turf quality and reduced annual bluegrass in the second year by about one-third. Better control of annual bluegrass was obtained with deficit irrigation to 60% of FC once per week (DEF 1), but this treatment did not produce acceptable turf quality. Compared with FC 3, DEF 3, FC 1 and DEF 1 gave harder surfaces and reduced the moss invasion in the second year by 66%, 90% and 93%, respectively. Irrigation effects on root development and thatch organic matter after 2 years were not significant, although the thatch layer depth was 3 – 4 mm greater in FC 1 than in the other treatments. In conclusion, DEF 3 and FC 1 are both effective irrigation strategies for managing red fescue greens with less water use.

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Perennial fruit crops phenology such as cherry is an ideal bio-indicator of climate change due to their long-lasting features, in particular, dates of flower opening and full bloom. This implies i) the use of several generations of cherry trees/orchards and ii) the use of the same original cherry cultivars, which existed as bearing trees and were replanted after the orchard had been grubbed. A comparison of available definitions of phenological stages in cherry previously used independently throughout Europe showed overlaps and shortcomings; hence, harmonisation was reached in this respect in the COST Cherry FA 1104 working group 2 (cherry phenology and climate change) based largely on the acceptance of the BBCH scale. This contribution presents the agreed phenology stages in both visual and wording evidence. Similarly, this contribution presents the agreed cultivars to be monitored in future for phenology and climate change effects for harmonisation. For sweet cherry, this EU-wide harmonisation includes ‘Burlat’, ‘Cristobalina’ and ‘Rita’ as early, ‘Stella’ and ‘Van’ as medium flowering and ‘Sweetheart’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Bigarreau Noire de Meched/Germersdorfer’ for late flowering cultivars for climate change effects. For sour cherry, this harmonisation resulted in ‘Meteor korai’ and ‘Anglaise Hative’ for early flowering, ‘Chrisana Pandy’ and ‘Erdibotermo’ for medium flowering and ‘Schattemorelle’, ‘Iiva, Ujfehrtoifurtos (Balaton)’ for late flowering.

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In the Nordic countries, soil erosion rates in winter and early spring can exceed those at other times of the year. In particular, snowmelt, combined with rain and soil frost, leads to severe soil erosion, even, e.g., in low risk areas in Norway. In southern Norway, previous attempts to predict soil erosion during winter and spring have not been very accurate owing to a lack of catchment-based data, resulting in a poor understanding of hydrological processes during winter. Therefore, a field study was carried out over three consecutive winters (2013, 2014 and 2015) to gather relevant data. In parallel, the development of the snow cover, soil temperature and ice content during these three winters was simulated with the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model for two different soils (sand, clay). The field observations carried out in winter revealed high complexity and diversity in the hydrological processes occurring in the catchment. Major soil erosion was caused by a small rain event on frozen ground before snow cover was established, while snowmelt played no significant role in terms of soil erosion in the study period. Four factors that determine the extent of runoff and erosion were of particular importance: (1) soil water content at freezing; (2) whether soil is frozen or unfrozen at a particular moment; (3) the state of the snow pack; and (4) tillage practices prior to winter. SHAW performed well in this application and proved that it is a valuable tool for investigating and simulating snow cover development, soil temperature and extent of freezing in soil profiles.

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We present a revised checklist of harvestmen (Opiliones) covering all the Nordic countries, including Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Altogether 31 species from 18 genera and four families are currently known, of which 23 are from Norway, 21 from Sweden, 17 from Finland, 25 from Denmark, five from the Faroe Islands and four from Iceland. Five species are documented for the first time in Norway: Lacinius dentiger (C. L. Koch, 1847), Lacinius horridus (Panzer, 1794), Opilio saxatilis C. L. Koch, 1839, Leiobunum blackwalli Meade, 1861 and Leiobunum limbatum L. Koch, 1861.

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Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is normally a short-lived perennial with no vegetative propagation and the number of plants in the field declines rapidly. In organic farming, the amount of clover in the field is decisive for the N2 fixation and yield, the protein content and quality of the forage produced. In Nordland County (66.27°N), there is a farm with some red clover plants in more than 15 years old grassland. In the presented study we examined grassland botanical content and attempted to recognise age of red clover plants. Our hypotheses was 1) that extensive grassland management promotes self-seeding of red clover 2) self-seeding maintaining a desired content of red clover over time. In addition, we tested two harvesting regimes of the first cut for seed maturation and seed quality at two locations in Norway. Red clover plants in old swards showed very high age and a branched root system. Only very few seedlings were found in old sward suggesting that self-seeding was insignificant. Experiments with leaving the grassland after the first cut for seed production of clover failed due to poor seed maturation. Surface seeding of red clover in pure grass plots gave good results, especially with early spring seeding.

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Global warming will most likely lead to increased drought stress in forest trees. We wanted to describe the adaptive responses of fine roots and fungal hyphae, at different soil depths, in a Norway spruce stand to long-term drought stress induced by precipitation exclusion over two growing seasons. We used soil cores, minirhizotrons and nylon meshes to estimate growth, biomass and distribution of fine roots and fungal hyphae at different soil depths. In control plots fine roots proliferated in upper soil layers, whereas in drought plots there was no fine root growth in upper soil layers and roots mostly occupied deeper soil layers. Fungal hyphae followed the same pattern as fine roots, with the highest biomass in deeper soil layers in drought plots. We conclude that both fine roots and fungal hyphae respond to long-term drought stress by growing into deeper soil layers.

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Production of chrysogine has been reported from several fungal genera including Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Fusarium. Anthranilic acid and pyruvic acid, which are expected precursors of chrysogine, enhance production of this compound. A possible route for the biosynthesis using these substrates is via a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). Through comparative analysis of the NRPSs from genome-sequenced producers of chrysogine we identified a candidate NRPS cluster comprising five additional genes named chry2–6. Deletion of the two-module NRPS (NRPS14 = chry1) abolished chrysogine production in Fusarium graminearum, indicating that the gene cluster is responsible for chrysogine biosynthesis. Overexpression of NRPS14 enhanced chrysogine production, suggesting that the NRPS is the bottleneck in the biosynthetic pathway.

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Dollar spot is a destructive and widespread disease affecting most turfgrass species, but until recently it has been absent from the Scandinavian countries of northern Europe. In the fall of 2014, disease symptoms consistent with dollar spot were observed on a golf course fairway in Sweden. A fungus was isolated from symptomatic turf and identified as Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on the basis of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, morphology, and culture characteristics. The ITS sequence was identical to isolates of S. homoeocarpa from the eastern and midwestern United States. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled, confirming the S. homoeocarpa isolate as the causal agent. This is the first report of turfgrass dollar spot in Sweden and only the second report of the disease from Scandinavia. Because pesticides are rarely used in the cultivation of Scandinavian turfgrass, dollar spot disease may prove difficult to control through conventional means and potentially represents a major threat to the industry.

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Several studies focus on the effects of climate variability on female and male gender relations as perceived through various biophysical and socio-economic aspects. More emphasis is given on the impacts of extreme weather events on rural communities of less developed regions. The results are often interpreted in a qualitative manner through policy measures that may reduce gender inequalities. However, the interpretation of the qualitative results to more crisp and measurable outputs is often not attained while the validation of the findings is rarely ensured. The current study suggests a gender-differentiated impact framework based on qualitative and quantitative components for the assessment of climate variability effects on rural communities in South India. Fifteen villages mostly practicing rice farming in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states were selected as representative drought-prone case studies. The study results advocate that the qualitative outcomes were validated from the quantitative approach but for a few cases which could be attributed to methodological and case-specific differentiations. Policy recommendations are made on common gender trainings in water-resistant crops and livestock activities for the alleviation of drought impact and abatement of gender inequalities. Also, entrepreneurship workshops for women could enhance gender balance and diverse family income from the current sole dependence on farming revenues. Regional climate adaptation programs could be better implemented when the specific features and capacities of local communities are taken into consideration.

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The quality requirements of wood biofuels are regulated by a series of harmonized international standards. These standards define the technical parameter limits that influence the quality of solid biomass as a fuel. In 2014 the European reference standard for solid biofuel was replaced by the International ISO standard. In the case of wood chips, the main difference between the European and International standards is the definition of particle size distribution classes. In this context, this study analyses the quality of wood chips and its variation over the years according to the “former” (EN 14691-4) and “in force” (ISO 17225-4) standards. A Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) model was built to predict the best quality of wood chips and to clarify the relationship between quality and standard parameters, time and changes in the standard regulations. The results show that, compared to the EN standards, classification with the ISO standards increases the samples belonging to the best quality classes and decreases the not classified samples. Furthermore, all the SIMCA models have a high sensitivity (>90%), reflect the differences introduced to the quality standards and are therefore suitable for monitoring the quality of wood chips and their changes.

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This paper presents one of the first quantitative scenario assessments for future water sup- ply and demand in Asia to 2050. The assessment, developed by the Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) initiative, uses the latest set of global climate change and socioeconomic scenarios and state-of-the-art global hydrological models. In Asia, water demand for irrigation, industry, and households is projected to increase substantially in the coming decades (30–40% by 2050 compared to 2010). These changes are expected to exacerbate water stress, especially in the current hotspots such as north India and Pakistan, and north China. By 2050, 20% of the land area in the Asia-Pacific region, with a population of 1.6–2 bil- lion, is projected to experience severe water stress. We find that socioeconomic changes are the main drivers of worsening water scarcity in Asia, with climate change impacts further increasing the challenge into the 21st century. Moreover, a detailed basin-level analysis of the hydro-economic conditions of 40 Asian basins shows that although the coping capacity of all basins is expected to improve due to gross domestic product (GDP) growth, some basins continuously face severe water challenges. These basins will potentially be home to up to 1.6 billion people by mid-21st century.

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One of the key questions in ecosystem restoration is the choice of the seed material for restoring plant communities. The most common strategy is to use local seed sources, based on the argument that many plants are locally adapted and thus local seed sources should provide the best restoration success. However, the evidence for local adaptation is inconsistent, and some of these inconsistencies may be due to dif- ferent experimental approaches that have been used to test for local adaptation. We illustrate how conclusions about local adaptation depend on the experimental design and in particular on the method of data analysis. We used data from a multispecies reciprocal transplant experiment and analyzed them in three different ways: (1) com- paring local vs. foreign plants within species and sites, corresponding to tests of the “local is best” paradigm in ecological restoration, (2) comparing sympatric vs. allopatric populations across sites but within species, and (3) comparing sympatric and allopatric populations across multiple species. These approaches reflect different experimental designs: While a local vs. foreign comparison can be done even in small experiments with a single species and site, the other two approaches require a reciprocal transplant experiment with one or multiple species, respectively. The three different analyses led to contrasting results. While the local/foreign approach indicated lack of local adapta - tion or even maladaptation, the more general sympatric/allopatric approach rather suggested local adaptation, and the most general cross- species sympatric/allopatric test provided significant evidence for local adaptation. The analyses demonstrate how the design of experiments and methods of data analysis impact conclusions on the presence or absence of local adaptation. While small- scale, single- species experiments may be useful for identifying the appropriate seed material for a specific restoration project, general patterns can only be detected in reciprocal transplant experiments with multiple species and sites.

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BACKGROUND: The non-edible parts of horticultural crops, such as leaves, contain substantial amounts of valuable bioactive compounds which are currently only little exploited. For example, strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaves may be a promising bioresource for diverse health-related applications. However, product standardization sets a real challenge, especially when the leaf material comes from varying cultivars. The first step towards better quality control of berry fruit leaf-based ingredients and supplements is to understand metabolites present and their stability in d ifferent plant cultivars, so this study surveyed the distribution of potentially bioactive strawberry leaf metabolites in six different strawberry cultivars. Non-targeted metabolite profiling analysis using LC/qTOF-ESI-MS with data processing via principal component analysis and k-means clustering analysis was utilized to examine differences and commonalities between the leaf metabolite profiles. RESULTS: Quercetin and kaempferol derivatives were the dominant flavonol groups in strawberry leaves. Previously described and novel caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives were among the major phenolic acids. In addition, ellagitannins were one of the distinguishing compound classes in strawberry leaves. In general, strawberry leaves also contained high levels of octadecatrienoic acid derivatives, precursors of valuable odour compounds. CONCLUSION: The specific bioactive compounds found in the leaves of different strawberry cultivars offer the potential for the selection of optimized leaf materials for added-value food and non-food applications.

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Climate change is expected to alter average temperature and precipitation values and to increase the variability of precipitation events, which may lead to even more intense and frequent water hazards. Water hazards engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of water hazards; protection of environments, both local and global, from the potentially deleterious effects of water hazards; and improvement of environmental quality for mitigating the negative effects of water hazards. An integrated approach of water hazards engineering based on mapping, nature-based and technical solutions will constitute a feasible solution in the process of adapting to challenges generated by climate changes worldwide. This paper will debate this concept also providing some examples from several European countries.

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Schistidium relictum is described as a new northwest North American and Siberian species of moss. Important distinguishing characters include dull, nearly black plants, with stems densely and evenly foliated, weakly spreading leaves that usually lack awns, and the mostly 1-stratose distal leaf laminae with 2(–3) -stratose margins. The species has a remarkable disjunct distribution pattern with most of the sites where it has been found having been unglaciated during the Pleistocene glaciations. It is restricted to areas with occurrence of calcareous bedrock, especially limestones. It appears to be rather isolated genetically based on molecular studies of total ITS. It is sister to the large clade, ‘Apocarpum’, which consists of species which probably embody its closest known extant relatives.

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Age-related complications such as neurodegenerative disorders are increasing and remain cureless. The possibility of altering the progression or the development of these multifactorial diseases through diet is an emerging and attractive approach with increasing experimental support. We examined the potential of known bioavailable phenolic sulfates, arising from colonic metabolism of berries, to influence hallmarks of neurodegenerative processes. In silico predictions and in vitro transport studies across blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells, at circulating concentrations, provided evidence for differential transport, likely related to chemical structure. Moreover, endothelial metabolism of these phenolic sulfates produced a plethora of novel chemical entities with further potential bioactivies. Pre-conditioning with phenolic sulfates improved cellular responses to oxidative, excitotoxicity and inflammatory injuries and this attenuation of neuroinflammation was achieved via modulation of NF-κB pathway. Our results support the hypothesis that these small molecules, derived from dietary (poly)phenols may cross the BBB, reach brain cells, modulate microglia-mediated inflammation and exert neuroprotective effects, with potential for alleviation of neurodegenerative diseases.

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Currently, sugar snap peas are harvested manually. In high-cost countries like Norway, such a labour-intensive practise implies particularly large costs for the farmer. Hence, automated alternatives are highly sought after. This project explored a concept for robotic autonomous identification and tracking of sugar snap pea pods. The approach was based on a combination of visible–near infrared reflection measurements and image analysis, along with visual servoing. A proof-of-concept harvesting platform was implemented by mounting a robotic arm with hand-mounted sensors on a mobile unit. The platform was tested under plastic greenhouse conditions on potted plants of the sugar snap pea variety Cascadia using LED-lights and a partial shade. The results showed that it was feasible to differentiate the pods from the surrounding foliage using the light reflection at the spectral range around 970 nm combined with elementary image segmentation and shape modelling methods. The proof-of-concept harvesting platform was tested on 48 representative agricultural environments comprising dense canopy, varying pod sizes, partial occlusions and different working distances. A set of 104 images were analysed during the teleoperation experiment. The true positive detection rate was 93 and 87% for images acquired at long distances and at close distances, respectively. The robot arm achieved a success rate of 54% for autonomous visual servoing to a pre-grasp pose around targeted pods on 22 untouched scenarios. This study shows the potential of developing a prototype robot for semi-automated sugar snap pea harvesting.

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In this paper, we examine citizen and consumer attitudes towards, and preferences for, private and public goods from organic agriculture in Norway. The study is based on a survey among 939 Norwegians. The results show that in the role as citizens, the respondents hold a moderate belief in the superiority of organic farming concerning the production of public goods, but they give relatively low priority to prompting organic farming compared to other agricultural policy goals. In the role as consumers (choice experiment), the respondents were willing to pay for several attributes of organic food. Only 6% of the respondents buy organic food as often as they can. The most important reasons for buying organic food are health and environmental concerns, while animal welfare has little importance. Lack of perceived superiority regarding health benefits, taste, safety and environment are important reasons for not consuming (more) organic food among those who rarely or never buy organic food.

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In Arctic tundra, plant pathogens have substantial effects on the growth and survival of hosts, and impacts on the carbon balance at the scale of ecological systems. To understand these effects on carbon dynamics across different scales including plant organ, individual, population and ecosystem, we focused on two primary factors: host productivity reduction and carbon consumption by the pathogen. We measured the effect of the pathogen on photosynthetic and respiratory activity in the host. We also measured respiration and the amount of carbon in the pathogen. We constructed a model based on these two factors, and calculated pathogenic effects on the carbon balance at different organismal and ecological scales. We found that carbon was reduced in infected leaves by 118% compared with healthy leaves; the major factor causing this loss was pathogenic carbon consumption. The carbon balance at the population and ecosystem levels decreased by 35% and 20%, respectively, at an infection rate of 30%. This case study provides the first evidence that a host plant can lose more carbon through pathogenic carbon consumption than through a reduction in productivity. Such a pathogenic effect could greatly change ecosystem carbon cycling without decreasing annual productivity.

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Following a land cover and land management change (LCMC), local surface temperature responds to both a change in available energy and a change in the way energy is redistributed by various non-radiative mechanisms. However, the extent to which non-radiative mechanisms contribute to the local direct temperature response for different types of LCMC across the world remains uncertain. Here, we combine extensive records of remote sensing and in situ observation to show that non-radiative mechanisms dominate the local response in most regions for eight of nine common LCMC perturbations. We find that forest cover gains lead to an annual cooling in all regions south of the upper conterminous United States, northern Europe, and Siberia—reinforcing the attractiveness of re-/afforestation as a local mitigation and adaptation measure in these regions. Our results affirm the importance of accounting for non-radiative mechanisms when evaluating local land-based mitigation or adaptation policies.

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The absorption of anthropogenic CO 2 by the oceans is causing a reduction in the pH of the surface waters termed ocean acidification (OA). This could have substantial effects on marine coastal environments where fleshy (non-calcareous) macroalgae are dominant primary producers and ecosystem engineers. Few OA studies have focused on the early life stages of large macroalgae such as kelps. This study evaluated the effects of seawater pH on the ontogenic development of meiospores of the native kelp Macrocystis pyrifera and the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifi da , in south-eastern New Zealand. Meiospores of both kelps were released into four seawater pH treatments (pH T 7.20, extreme OA predicted for 2300; pH T 7.65, OA predicted for 2100; pH T 8.01, ambient pH; and pH T 8.40, pre-industrial pH) and cultured for 15 d. Meiospore germination, germling growth rate, and gametophyte size and sex ratio were monitored and measured. Exposure to reduced pH T (7.20 and 7.65) had pos itive effects on germling growth rate and gametophyte size in both M. pyrifera and U. pinnatifida , whereas, higher pH T (8.01 and 8.40) reduced the gametophyte size in both kelps. Sex ratio of gametophytes of both kelps was biased toward females under all pH T treatm ents, except for U. pinnatifida at pH T 7.65. Germling growth rate under OA was significantly higher in M. pyrifera compared to U. pinnatifida but gametophyte development was equal for both kelps under all seawater pH T treatments, indicating that the microscopic stages of the native M. pyrifera and the invasive U. pinnatifida will respond similarly to OA.

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In order to evaluate the mineral composition of forage crops in respect to dairy cow nutrition 40 soil and corresponding plant (alfalfa, grasses and silage corn) samples were collected from 15 locations in Serbia and analyzed for the concentration of macro- (P, K, and Ca) and microelements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Co, Se, and Mo). On average, the soils were well provided with the studied elements from the aspect of plant nutrition, but the analyzed fodder crops could not secure suffi cient amounts of Cu, Zn, Se, and Ca for dairy cow nutrition. Principal components analysis was applied in order to determine the connection between the concentrations of macro- and microelements in forage crops and their grouping into components responsible for most of the variability in mineral content. The mineral composition of alfalfa was defi ned by three components (Se, Zn, and Cu) which accounted for the largest part of the established variability. The variability of mineral composition of grasses was defi ned by four components (Zn, K, Se, and P) and that of silage corn by the concentrations of Fe, Mn, and K.

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Today’s modern precision agriculture applications have a huge demand for data with high spatial and temporal resolution. This leads to the need of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) as sensor platforms providing both, easy use and a high area coverage. This study shows the successful development of a prototype hybrid UAV for practical applications in precision agriculture. The UAV consists of an off-the-shelf fixed-wing fuselage, which has been enhanced with multi-rotor functionality. It was programmed to perform pre-defined waypoint missions completely autonomously, including vertical take-off, horizontal flight, and vertical landing. The UAV was tested for its return-to-home (RTH) accuracy, power consumption and general flight performance at different wind speeds. The RTH accuracy was 43.7 cm in average, with a root-mean-square error of 39.9 cm. The power consumption raised with an increase in wind speed. An extrapolation of the analysed power consumption to conditions without wind resulted in an estimated 40 km travel range, when we assumed a 25 % safety margin of remaining battery capacity. This translates to a maximal area coverage of 300 ha for a scenario with 18 m/s airspeed, 50 minutes flight time, 120 m AGL altitude, and a desired 70 % of image side-lap and 85 % forward-lap. The ground sample distance with an in-built RGB camera was 3.5 cm, which we consider sufficient for farm-scale mapping missions for most precision agriculture applications.

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The European winter moth, Operophtera brumata, is a non-native pest in the Northeastern USA causing defoliation of forest trees and crops such as apples and blueberries. This species is known to hybridize with O. bruceata, the Bruce spanworm, a native species across North America, although it is not known if there are hybrid generations beyond F1. To study winter moth population genetics and hybridization with Bruce spanworm, we developed two sets of genetic markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites, using genomic approaches. Both types of markers were validated using samples from the two species and their hybrids. We identified 1216 SNPs and 24 variable microsatellite loci. From them we developed a subset of 95 species-diagnostic SNPs and ten microsatellite loci that could be used for hybrid identification. We further validated the ten microsatellite loci by screening field collected samples of both species and putative hybrids. In addition to confirming the presence of F1 hybrids reported in previous studies, we found evidence for multi-generation asymmetric hybridization, as suggested by the occurrence of hybrid backcrosses with the winter month, but not with the Bruce spanworm. Laboratory crosses between winter moth females and Bruce spanworm males resulted in a higher proportion of viable eggs than the reciprocal cross, supporting this pattern. We discuss the possible roles of population demographics, sex chromosome genetic incompatibility, and bacterial symbionts as causes of this asymmetrical hybridization and the utility of the developed markers for future studies.

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Small-area estimation is a subject area of growing importance in forest inventories. Modelling the link between a study variable Y and auxiliary variables X— in pursuit of an improved accuracy in estimators—is typically done at the level of a sampling unit. However, for various reasons, it may only be possible to formulate a linking model at the level of an area of interest (AOI). Area-level models and their potential have rarely been explored in forestry. This study demonstrates, with data (Y = stem volume per ha) from four actual inventories aided by aerial laser scanner data (3 cases) or photogrammetric point clouds (1 case), application of three distinct models representing the currency of area-level modelling. The studied AOIs varied in size from forest management units to forest districts, and municipalities. The variance explained by X declined sharply with the average size of an AOI. In comparison with a direct estimate mean of Y in an AOI, all three models achieved practically important reduction in the relative root-mean-squared error of an AOI mean. In terms of the reduction in mean-squared errors, a model with a spatial location effect was overall most attractive. We recommend the pursuit of a spatial model component in area-level modelling as promising within the context of a forest inventory.

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Forest stands are important units of management. A stand-by-stand estimation of the mean and variance of an attribute of interest (Y) remains a priority in forest enterprise inventories. The advent of powerful and cost effective remotely sensed auxiliary variables (X) correlated with Y means that a census of X in the forest enterprise is increasingly available. In combination with a probability sample of Y, the census affords a modeldependent stand-level inference. It is important, however, that the sampling design affords an estimation of possible stand-effects in the model linking X to Y.We demonstrate, with simulated data, that failing to quantify non-zero stand-effects in the intercept of a linear population-level model can lead to a serious underestimation of the uncertainty in a model-dependent estimate of a stand mean, and by extension a confidence interval with poor coverage.We also provide an approximation to the variance of stand-effects in an intercept for the case when a sampling design does not afford estimation. Furthermore, we propose a method to correct a potential negative bias in an estimate of the variance of stand-effects when a sampling design prescribes few stands with small within-stand sample sizes.

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In the context of testing the construct validity of stated preference studies, some researchers advocate the use of an “adding-up test” designed to gauge whether elicited values are sufficiently sensitive to a change in the scope (i.e. size) of a good. Crucial to the applicability of this test in practice, which relies on endowing a subsample of respondents with a good free of charge, is that the income effects due to endowment are negligible. In this study, we apply the adding-up test in an experimental value elicitation format to examine the potential effect of endowment as part of the test design on the adding-up property of elicited values. The results show that the adding-up property can be affected by free provision of part of the bundle.

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The water vapour sorption behaviour of a range of sheep wool types and alpaca was studied using dynamic vapour sorption. Sorption isotherms were interpreted using the polymer sorption model developed by Vrentas and Vrentas. Satisfactory fits were obtained for absorption and desorption isotherms with the adjustment of parameters outside the scope of what is allowed. This is possibly because the underlying Flory–Huggins approach does not take into account any clustering of sorbate within the polymer. Water clustering in the wool fibre, determined using the Zimm–Lundberg clustering function, starts above a fibre moisture content of approximately 20%. Sorption kinetics were analysed using the parallel exponential kinetics model, providing excellent fits and allowed for calculation of a fibre modulus at different relative humidities; the values were reasonable at the upper end of the hygroscopic range, but were overestimated at the lower end of the range.

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Several mathematical models have been proposed for describing particle‐size distribution (PSD) data, but their characteristics and accuracy have not been investigated for the < 0.002, 0.002–0.05 and 0.05–2.0‐mm fractions separately. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of various PSD models and to evaluate the accuracy of fitting to the entire PSD curve and to each of the three fractions separately. Thirty‐six PSD models were fitted to the experimental data of 160 soil samples from Iran. The beerkan estimation of soil transfer (BEST), Fredlund unimodal and bimodal, two‐ and three‐parameter Weibull, Rosin–Rammler and van Genuchten models provided the best fit to the experimental data of the three size fractions above, but with a different order of performance for the different fractions. For all textural fractions, the following models performed substantially less well than the other models: the offset‐non‐renormalized lognormal, simple lognormal, S‐curve, Schuhmann, Yang, Turcotte and Gompertz models. A comparison of the overall accuracy and simplicity of the models indicated that the BEST, two‐ and three‐parameter Weibull and Rosin–Rammler models provided the best fit to the experimental data for the entire curve, which is similar but does not correspond fully to the findings of a similar, earlier study. We found that the number of model parameters and the type of equation did not explain the models' fitting capabilities. We also found that the iterated function system (IFS) model performed better than the PSD models for all fractions. Comprehensive comparisons of PSD models will be of value to future model users, but it is important to note that such comparisons will remain dataset dependent. This is likely to continue until they are tested on a near‐infinite synthetic dataset that covers all possible data options.

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Identifying and ranking nutrient loss risk areas are important steps towards integrated catchment management. This study aimed to apply the P index model at the Posses catchment, south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied the P index for the current land use at the Posses catchment and for two hypothetical scenarios: scenario 1, in which P fertilizer was applied to all land uses, except for native forests; and scenario 2, which considered the use of P fertilizer as in scenario 1, and that the Environmental Protection Areas referring to the riparian forests and springs were totally restored. Considering current land use, almost the whole catchment area (91.4%) displayed a low P loss risk. The highest P index was associated to croplands and eucalyptus plantations. Regarding scenario 1, areas under pasture fell into the low (15.1%), medium (45.5%), high (27.1%) and very high (12.3%) P index categories. Environmental Protection Areas on scenario 2 decreased the P loss risk from the scenario 1 in 37.6%. Hence, the model outputs indicate that the reforestation of buffer zones can decrease P loss risk in the case increasing use of P fertilizer. The P index model is a potential support tool to promote judicious use of fertilizers and conservation practices at the Posses catchment.

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Green roofs are used increasingly to alleviate peaks of water discharge into the sewage systems in urban areas. Surface runoff from roofs contain pollutants from dry and wet deposition, and green roofs offer a possibility to reduce the amounts of pollutants in the water discharged from roofs by degradation and filtering. These pollutants would otherwise enter wastewater treatments plants and ultimately end up in sewage sludge that is spread on agricultural soils. The most common substrates used in green roofs have limited capacity for filtration and sorption. Also, more sustainable alternatives are sought, due to the high carbon footprint of these materials. Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by pyrolysis of biomass, and several types of biochar have been described as good sorbents and filter materials. Biochar is also a light and carbon negative material, which may fulfill other desired criteria for new green roof substrates. We here report on an experiment where two types of biochar, produced from olive husks at 450 °C or from forest waste at 850 ° C were mixed with volcanic rock or peat, and tested for retention capacity of phenanthrene and six heavy metals in a column experiment with unsaturated gravimetric water flow lasting for 3 weeks. The results suggest that biochar as a component in green roof substrates perform better than traditional materials, concerning retention of the tested pollutants, and that different types of biochar have different properties in this respect.

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Many cities and urban areas are located in flood plains because land is fertile and flat which is suitable for agriculture and urban development. Rivers provide water supply for domestic, industrial and irrigation uses; they also provide convenient means for navigation, transportation and communication. Cities have large percentage of impervious areas that prevent effective infiltration of rainfall into soil. To have successful flood control and flood risk management, we should consider not only hydraulic and engineering aspects but also socio-economic and environment aspects. Flood management should have involvement of various stakeholders including concerned authorities such as urban planners, civil and water resources engineers, civil disaster defence authorities, health and social services, etc. The best flood mitigation measures from all main points of view – social, economic and environmental are natural water retention measures. Natural water retention measures cover a diversity of measures that are implemented by different sectors or considered in different planning processes dealing with water, food risk management, biodiversity protection, climate change adaptation or urban planning. Some of these measures aim to directly modify the ecosystem, while others focus on changes of practice of economic operators. The paper presents natural water retention measures suitable for application in urban areas.

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Improved transport planning and pricing is dependent on correct cycle times. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of road curvature, surface roughness, gradient and truck weight on the operating speed of a conventional 60-tonne gross vehicle weight logging truck. The study used a 320-km test track consisting of both public and forest roads. The track was driven with various gross vehicle weights. Speed data was retrieved from the truck’s CAN-bus system and road data was measured with a profilograph. The key factors for operating speed were curvature and surface roughness, both of which were correlated to each other as well as partially captured by functional road class. Regression analysis quantified the individual effects of these factors as well as gradient, undulation and interactions with truck weight. A regression model is presented which explained 80% of the variation in operating speed. The results were consistent with previous studies, and the proposed models can be used to improve transport planning, cost estimation, operative route path selection and road investments.

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Seed biology is important for emergence in the field and for future weed infestations. This chapter focuses on seed biology, germination, dormancy and efforts in predicting weed emergence from seeds from a European perspective. It presents a brief overview of population dynamics in time and space, the factors influencing the dynamics and how population dynamics can be modelled. Emergence from the seed-bank starts with germination, pre-emergence growth and finally emergence. In addition to seeds, vegetatively propagated material is briefly mentioned. Dormancy influences under what conditions that germination can occur and regulates timing of germination. Population dynamics are important for understanding the whole system and are often based on the life-cycle of weeds: seed-bank, seedlings, adult plants, seed production and dispersal. Challenges in modelling emergence and population dynamics are large, due to differences between and within populations of species, variability in species response and there being many weed species in the same field with contrasting characteristics.

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The determination of environmentally minimum water level in lakes is essential for the protection of their ecosystems. The assessment of minimum water level depends on a number of biotic and abiotic factors of the lake ecosystem; however, in many cases these factors are not easy to collect and assess in their entirety. At the same time, the lakes in many cases consist an important water reserve to meet the requirements arising from economic activities, e.g. industry, agriculture. In this paper, the morphological features in four lakes – Vegoritida, Petron, Cheimaditida and Zazari – of Northern Greece are analysed in order to assess their environmentally minimum water level. The morphological analysis is based on the relationship of the lake surface area and volume with the water level. An optimization method is applied taking into account that the biodiversity is favoured as the surface area covered by the lake is increased and the human water requirements are satisfied to the greatest possible extent by the available water volume of the lake. The environmentally minimum water level determined by the morphological analysis in the four lakes is compared with the minimum water level based on the analysis of the requirements of fish fauna and macrophytes.

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The statistical model MESAW (Matrix Equations for Source Apportionment on Watershed) was used to estimate the diffuse unit-area source emission coefficients of nitrogen in Estonian rivers. The input data included monitored riverine loads, point sources and land use categories from a total of 50 rivers/catchment areas. Two independent studies were conducted: the estimation of emission coefficients for the whole of Estonia and for a smaller study area near Tallinn. The results from both cases showed that drained peat soils were the highest diffuse source contributor in unit-area loads. The results show that the unit-area loads from drained peat soils were up to 2.3 times higher than from arable land. Moreover, a comparison of emission coefficients for the whole of Estonia and for the Tallinn catchment area indicated that coefficients can vary significantly between sources and single years. Additional detailed studies and monitoring are needed to support these conclusions.

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Dothistroma septosporum, a notorious pine needle pathogen with an unknown historical geographic origin and poorly known distribution pathways, is nowadays found almost in all areas inhabited by pines (Pinus spp.). The main aim of this study was to determine the relationship between North European and East Asian populations. In total, 238 Eurasian D. septosporum isolates from 11 countries, including 211 isolates from northern Europe, 16 isolates from Russian Far East and 11 isolates from Bhutan were analysed using 11 species-specific microsatellite and mating type markers. The most diverse populations were found in northern Europe, including the Baltic countries, Finland and European Russia. Notably, D. septosporum has not caused heavy damage to P. sylvestris in northern Europe, which may suggest a long co-existence of the host and the pathogen. No indication was obtained that the Russian Far East or Bhutan could be the indigenous area of D. septosporum, as the genetic diversity of the fungus there was low and evidence suggests gene flow from northern Europe to Russian Far East. On the western coast of Norway, a unique genetic pattern was observed, which differed from haplotypes dominating other Fennoscandian populations. As an agent of dothistroma needle blight, only D. septosporum was documented in northern Europe and Asia, while D. pini was found in Ukraine and Serbia.

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Shallow (<1 m deep) snowpacks on agricultural areas are an important hydrological component in many countries, which determines how much meltwater is potentially available for overland flow, causing soil erosion and flooding at the end of winter. Therefore, it is important to understand the development of shallow snowpacks in a spatially distributed manner. This study combined field observations with spatially distributed snow modelling using the UEBGrid model, for three consecutive winters (2013–2015) in southern Norway. Model performance was evaluated by comparing the spatially distributed snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements over time with the simulated SWE. UEBGrid replicated SWE development at catchment scale with satisfactory accuracy for the three winters. The different calibration approaches which were necessary for winters 2013 and 2015 showed the delicacy of modelling the change in shallow snowpacks. Especially the refreezing of meltwater and prohibited runoff and infiltration of meltwater by frozen soils and ice layers can make simulations of shallow snowpacks challenging.

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Armillaria possesses several intriguing characteristics that have inspired wide interest in understanding phylogenetic relationships within and among species of this genus. Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence– based analyses of Armillaria provide only limited information for phylogenetic studies among widely divergent taxa. More recent studies have shown that translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) sequences are highly informative for phylogenetic analysis of Armillaria species within diverse global regions. This study used Neighbor-net and coalescence-based Bayesian analyses to examine phylogenetic relationships of newly determined and existing tef1 sequences derived from diverse Armillaria species from across the Northern Hemisphere, with Southern Hemisphere Armillaria species included for reference. Based on the Bayesian analysis of tef1 sequences, Armillaria species from the Northern Hemisphere are generally contained within the following four superclades, which are named according to the specific epithet of the most frequently cited species within the superclade: (i) Socialis/Tabescens (exannulate) superclade including Eurasian A. ectypa, North American A. socialis (A. tabescens), and Eurasian A. socialis (A. tabescens) clades; (ii) Mellea superclade including undescribed annulate North American Armillaria sp. (Mexico) and four separate clades of A. mellea (Europe and Iran, eastern Asia, and two groups from North America); (iii) Gallica superclade including Armillaria Nag E (Japan), multiple clades of A. gallica (Asia and Europe), A. calvescens (eastern North America), A. cepistipes (North America), A. altimontana (western USA), A. nabsnona (North America and Japan), and at least two A. gallica clades (North America); and (iv) Solidipes/Ostoyae superclade including two A. solidipes/ostoyae clades (North America), A. gemina (eastern USA), A. solidipes/ostoyae (Eurasia), A. cepistipes (Europe and Japan), A. sinapina (North America and Japan), and A. borealis (Eurasia) clade 2. Of note is that A. borealis (Eurasia) clade 1 appears basal to the Solidipes/Ostoyae and Gallica superclades. The Neighbor-net analysis showed similar phylogenetic relationships. This study further demonstrates the utility of tef1 for global phylogenetic studies of Armillaria species and provides critical insights into multiple taxonomic issues that warrant further study.

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In the Nordic countries, changes in pore structure during winter can affect e.g. water transport capacity in soils after winter. A reduction in pore space can cause an increase in runoff volume due to snowmelt and rain, resulting in flooding and soil erosion. This study quantified the effect of freezing-thawing cycles (FTCs) on the macropore structure of a silt and a sandy soil. Six consecutive FTCs were applied to intact soil samples, which were scanned after 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 FTCs with an industrial X-ray scanner. Using state-of-the-art image processing and analysis techniques, changes in soil macropore network characteristics were quantified. The results showed that freezing-thawing affected the looser sandy soil more than the silt with its more cohesive structure. However, in both soils freezing-thawing had a negative effect on properties of macropore networks (e.g. reduction in macroporosity, thickness and specific surface area of macropores). These findings can help improve understanding of how undisturbed soils react to different winter conditions, which can be beneficial in the development of models for predicting flooding and soil erosion.

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The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major etiologic agent for severe liver diseases ( e.g . cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Approximately 140 million people have chronic HCV infections and about 500 000 die yearly from HCV-related liver pathologies. To date, there is no licensed vaccine available to prevent HCV infection and production of a HCV vaccine remains a major challenge. Here, we report the successful production of the HCV E1E2 heterodimer, an important vaccine candidate, in an edible crop (lettuce, Lactuca s ativa ) using Agrobacterium - mediated transient expression technology. The wild-type dimer (E1E2) and a variant without an N-glycosylation site in the E2 polypeptide (E1E2 Δ N6) were expressed, and appropriate N-glycosylation pattern and functionality of the E1E2 dimers were demonstrated. The humoral immune response induced by the HCV proteins was investigated in mice following oral administration of lettuce antigens with or without previous intramuscular prime with the mammalian HEK293T cell-expressed HCV dimer. Immunization by oral feeding only resulted in development of weak serum levels of anti-HCV IgM for both antigens; however, the E1E2 Δ N6 proteins produced higher amounts of secretory IgA, suggesting improved immunogenic properties of the N-glycosylation mutant. The mice group receiving the intramuscular injection followed by two oral boosts with the lettuce E1E2 dimer developed a systemic but also a mucosal immune response, as demonstrated by the presence of anti-HCV secretory IgA in faeces extracts. In summary, our study demonstrates the feasibility of producing complex viral antigens in lettuce, using plant transient expression technology, with great potential for future low-cost oral vaccine development.

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Vitality of pollen, in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth (pollen tube length and pollen tube growth rate) were investigated in Oblačinska sour cherry in order to determine the differences between clones which have divergent yielding potential. For this purpose two ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones with high fruit set and high yields (II/2, III/9) and two with low fruit set and low-yielding (XI/3 and XIII/1) were used in this study. Pollen germination was done on artificial medium containing 14% sucrose and 0.3% agar-agar at room temperature (23°C). Pollen tube growth was stopped with a drop of 40% formaldehyde, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after contact with the medium. The maximum percentage of germination ranged from 13.01% (clone II/2, after 1 h) to 54.19% (clone III/9, after 24 h). Pollen tube length varied from 64.84 μm (clone XIII/1, after 1 h) to >1,100 μm (clones II/2 and III/9, after 24 h). Pollen growth rate was quite high (up to 1.71 μm min-1) after 6 h of germination, but rather decreasing until 24 h of germination (0.560.83 μm min-1). The dynamics of in vitro pollen tubes growth among the clones were quite different, especially after 12 h and 24 h of germination. Clones that are singled out as fruitful (II/2 and III/9) gave much better results regarding pollen germination and pollen tube growth in comparison to clones which were characterized by low fruit set and yields (XI/3 and XIII/1).

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 Auxin gradients are sustained by series of influx and efflux carriers whose subcellular local- ization is sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous factors. Recently the localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED (PIN) 6 was reported to be tissue- specific and regulated through unknown mechanisms.  Here, we used genetic, molecular and pharmacological approaches to characterize the molecular mechanism(s) controlling the subcellular localization of PIN6.  PIN6 localizes to endomembrane domains in tissues with low PIN6 expression levels such as roots, but localizes at the plasma membrane (PM) in tissues with increased PIN6 expression such as the inflorescence stem and nectary glands. We provide evidence that this dual local- ization is controlled by PIN6 phosphorylation and demonstrate that PIN6 is phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) MPK4 and MPK6. The analysis of transgenic plants expressing PIN6 at PM or in endomembrane domains reveals that PIN6 subcellular localization is critical for Arabidopsis inflorescence stem elongation post-flowering (bolting). In line with a role for PIN6 in plant bolting, inflorescence stems elongate faster in pin6 mutant plants than in wild-type plants.  We propose that PIN6 subcellular localization is under the control of developmental signals acting on tissue-specific determinants controlling PIN6-expression levels and PIN6 phosphorylation.

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High-profile cases of exploitative labour practices have increased concerns over agricultural working conditions. However, it is unclear to what extent the public is willing to trade-off fair working conditions for higher prices. We implement a large-scale survey in Greece to uncover consumer preferences for a food labelling system that certifies fair working conditions for the workers employed in agricultural production. With our most conservative estimates, we find that consumers are willing to pay an average premium of 53 cents of a Euro per 500 g, 95 per cent CI [43.9, 62.3], for strawberries with fair labour certification. This result suggests that consumers do value the better treatment of workers in the agricultural sector. It also suggests that there is a current market failure, created by the asymmetry of information between consumers and producers, that can be the basis of discussion for alternative labelling schemes involving fair labour labels. We also tested a number of known biases associated with consumer behaviour or the contingent valuation method and found the positive willingness-topay result to be robust.

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Volatiles emitted by plants convey an array of information through different trophic levels. Animals such as host-seeking herbivores encounter plumes with filaments from both host and non-host plants. While studies showed a behavioral effect of non-host plants on herbivore host location, less information is available on how a searching insect herbivore perceives and flies upwind to a host-plant odor plume within a background of non-host volatiles. We hypothesized here that herbivorous insects in search of a host-plant can discriminate plumes of host and non-host plants and that the taxonomic relatedness of the non-host have an effect on finding the host. We also predicted that the ratio between certain plant volatiles is cognized as host-plant recognition cue by a receiver herbivorous insect. To verify these hypotheses we measured the wind tunnel response of the moth Argyresthia conjugella to the host plant rowan, to non-host plants taxonomically related (Rosaceae, apple and pear) or unrelated to the host (Pinaceae, spruce) and to binary combination of host and non-host plants. Volatiles were collected from all plant combinations and delivered to the test insect via an ultrasonic sprayer as an artificial plume. While the response to the rowan as a plant was not affected by the addition of any of the non-host plants, the attraction to the corresponding sprayed headspace decreased when pear or apple but not spruce were added to rowan. A similar result was measured toward the odor exiting a jar where freshly cut plant material of apple or pear or spruce was intermixed with rowan. Dose-response gas-chromatography coupled to electroantennography revealed the presence of seven field attractive and seven background non-attractive antennally active compounds. Although the abundance of field attractive and of some background volatiles decreased in all dual combinations in comparison with rowan alone, an increased amount of the background compounds (3E)-4,8-Dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene ((E)-DMNT) and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was found in the rowan-apple and rowan-pear but not in the rowan-spruce headspace. A higher ratio between the abundance of each field attractive component and that of (E)-DMNT and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was measured for rowan and rowan-spruce in contrast to rowan-pear and rowan-apple headspaces. Our result suggests that the ratio between field attractive and background antennaly active volatiles encodes host-plant recognition in our study system.

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We conducted a series of diagnostic fitness response experiments on the coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, isolated from the Subtropical Convergence east of New Zealand. Dose response curves (i.e., physiological rate vs. environmental driver) were constructed for growth, photosynthetic, and calcification rates of E. huxleyi relative to each of five environmental drivers (nitrate concentration, phosphate concentration, irradiance, temperature, and pCO2). The relative importance of each environmental driver on E. huxleyi rate processes was then ranked using a semi-quantitative approach by comparing the percentage change caused by each environmental driver on the measured physiological metrics under the projected conditions for the year 2100, relative to those for the present day, in the Subtropical Convergence. The results reveal that the projected future decrease in nitrate concentration (33%) played the most important role in controlling the growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates of E. huxleyi, whereas raising pCO2 to 75 Pa (750 ppm) decreased the calcification : photosynthesis ratios to the greatest degree. These findings reveal that other environmental drivers may be equally or more influential than CO2 in regulating the physiological responses of E. huxleyi, and provide new diagnostic information to better understand how this ecologically important species will respond to the projected future changes to multiple environmental drivers.

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Mountain tourism depends intensively on the quality of the landscape. In recent years, the Norwegian Trekking Association has focused on local food products at their staffed lodges and it uses the slogan “eat the view.” Such a strategy raises the focus on the agricultural use of the land and the quality of the products. Several Norwegian studies were carried out to investigate the quality of different mountain products and connections with vegetation types and grazing behavior. The results show that milk and meat products from animals grazing on alpine rangelands have improved quality compared to “normal” products. A healthier fatty acid composition and a higher content of secondary plant metabolites were characteristic of mountain products. Furthermore, grazing is of the utmost importance for the maintenance of open mountain landscapes and the biodiversity that is dependent on such landscapes. Maintaining traditional grazing systems also secures the preservation of traditional ecological knowledge about utilizing natural resources. Mountain tourism experiences could be improved and enhanced by documenting and telling the unique story of these complex connections between mountain landscapes, biodiversity, agricultural traditions, and local food products.

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In order to investigate the genetic structure and differentiation among north and south European apple germplasm, 141 apple accessions maintained in ex situ collections in Norway and 110 traditional and international apple accessions from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) were analyzed using 8 microsatellite markers. Bayesian analyses, based on the microsatellite data, grouped most of the accessions into two major clusters. The first cluster consisted mainly of traditional and international B&H accessions, as well as Norwegian accessions derived mostly from foreign or formal breeding programs (‘James Grieve’, ‘Katja’, ‘Summerred’, ‘Bramleys Seedling’, ‘Elstar’, ‘Katinka’, ‘Belle de Boskoop’, ‘Jacques Lebel’, etc.). The second cluster consisted almost exclusively of traditional Norwegian accessions. Further analyses divided each cluster into two sub-clusters. Cluster 1.1 included Norwegian accessions derived from foreign or commercial breeding programs, international cultivars and B&H accessions introduced from Europe and North America during the rule of Austria-Hungarian Empire. Cluster 1.2 included traditional B&H accessions introduced during the reign of Ottoman Empire. Cluster 2.1 and 2.2 consisted mainly of traditional apple accession from Norway. The results obtained indicate a clear genetic structure and differentiation among north and south European apple germplasm, presumably due to climate adaptation and selection.

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Tunnel production of sweet cherry results in higher yields of larger fruit than in the open. When cherry trees were grown under tunnels in Norway, fruit cracking was higher in a year when soils were saturated and when 20 ppm gibberellic acid was applied at straw color. In this study we evaluated the effect of soil moisture on fruit cracking under tunnels. In 2013, a trial on mature 'Sweetheart'/'Colt' trees growing under high tunnels was initiated. Each plot consisted of 8 trees, spaced 2×4 m apart with 'Lapins' as guard trees. Experimental design was a split-plot design with or without 20 ppm GA3 application at straw color; and three drip irrigation regimes (zero, deficit and full based on evapotranspiration). During the season, soil water content was monitored weekly. Due to unfavorable weather conditions during bloom time, crop loads were lower than normal. Average fruit sizes were large and GA3 application at yellow straw color resulted in small increases in average fruit diameter and fruit weight with all three irrigation treatments. Fruit cracking was very variable and occurred almost exclusively at the distal side of fruit and not on the stem side. GA3-treated fruit cracked slightly more than untreated fruit. There were no differences in fruit cracking due to irrigation scheme.

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Seed crops of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) are usually established with a cover crop. Provided sufficient light, white clover may compensate for low plant density by stoloniferous growth. Our objectives were (1) to compare spring barley or spring wheat used as cover crops for white clover and (2) to find the optimal seeding rate/row distance for white clover. Seven field trials were conducted in Southeast Norway from 2000 to 2003. Barley was seeded at 360 and 240 seeds m−2 and wheat at 525 and 350 seeds m−2. White clover was seeded perpendicularly to the cover crop at 400 seeds m−2/13 cm row distance or 200 seeds m−2/26 cm. Results showed that light penetration in spring and early summer was better in wheat than in barley. On average for seven trials, this resulted in 11% higher seed yield after establishment in wheat than in barley. The 33% reduction in cover crop seeding rate had no effect on white clover seed yield for any of the cover crops. Reducing the seeding rate/doubling the row distance of white clover had no effect on seed yield but resulted in slightly earlier maturation of the seed crop.

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The goal of this study was to assess the long-term effects of partial harvesting and supplementary soil scarification on the frequency of root and butt rot in managed uneven-sized Norway spruce stands. Frequency of rot and the population structure of the rot fungi were assessed on 1353 stumps after clear-cutting 21 years after a selection harvesting experiment. The initial experiment was comprised of three harvest strength (low, intermediate and high) of single-tree selection, removing approximately 25, 45 and 65% of the stand basal area. Uncut control plots were established at the same time. Supplementary soil scarification was applied in subplots within the single-tree selection plots, using a medium-sized excavator. After clear-cutting the stumps were analyzed with respect to rot caused by Heterobasidion parviporum, Armillaria spp., Stereum sanguinolentum as well as other rot fungi. Rot caused by Armillaria spp. was most common (8.6% of the stumps), while infection by H. parviporum (2.9%) or S. sanguinolentum (3.0%) was less frequent. The group “other rot” (5.4%) comprised 21 identified taxa, each occurring in 1–15 stumps. Significantly lower rot frequencies were found for the uncut control (16.3%) and intermediate harvest strength (15.7%), compared with low harvest strength (23.6%). A rot frequency of 21.0% was found in the high harvest strength. In two of three harvest strengths, the rot frequency was higher than for the uncut control. As the observed rot frequencies did not increase consistently with increasing harvest strength, the results do not completely support the initial expectations of increased rot after single-tree selection compared with the uncut control. However, since the probability of rot in individual stumps on plots treated with single-tree selection was significantly affected by the distance to the nearest strip road (H. parviporum) as well as dependent on the size of and distance to the nearest stump of trees cut during the experimental harvest (H. parviporum, S. sanguinolentum and total rot), it is evident that the single-tree selection harvesting was partially responsible for some of the observed rot. One of the selection criteria in the initial harvest was a sanitary removal of trees of poor vitality. Varying degrees of sanitation felling may therefore have offset the effects of new infections in wounds or spread of rot fungi through adjacent stumps. Supplementary soil scarification in small gaps of the residual stand had no significant effect on the frequency of rot, suggesting that such treatment may be used to facilitate regeneration in uneven-sized spruce stands on similar sites.

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The plant hormone auxin is a vital component for plant reproduction as it regulates the development of both male and female reproductive organs, including ovules and gynoecia. Furthermore, auxin plays important roles in the development and growth of seeds and fruits. Auxin responses can be detected in ovules shortly after fertilization, and it has been suggested that this accumulation is a prerequisite for the developmental reprogramming of the ovules to seeds, and of the gynoecium to a fruit. However, the roles of auxin at the final stages of ovule development, and the sources of auxin leading to the observed responses in ovules after fertilization have remained elusive. Here we have characterized the auxin readout in Arabidopsis ovules, at the pre-anthesis, anthesis and in the immediate post-fertilization stages, using the R2D2 auxin sensor. In addition we have mapped the expression of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation genes, as well as that of auxin transporting proteins, during the same developmental stages. These analyses reveal specific spatiotemporal patterns of the different auxin homeostasis regulators. Auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin transport proteins define a prepatterning of vascular cell identity in the pre-anthesis funiculus. Furthermore, our data suggests that auxin efflux from the ovule is restricted in an anther-dependent manner, presumably to synchronize reproductive organ development and thereby optimizing the chances of successful fertilization. Finally, de novo auxin biosynthesis together with reduced auxin conjugation and transport result in an enhanced auxin readout throughout the sporophytic tissues of the ovules soon after fertilization. Together, our results suggest a sophisticated set of regulatory cascades that allow successful fertilization and the subsequent transition of the female reproductive structures into seeds and fruits.

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Many parties to the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) base their reporting of change in Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector carbon pools on national forest inventories. A strong feature of sample-based inventories is that very detailed measurements can be made at the level of plots. Uncertainty regarding the results stems primarily from the fact that only a sample, and not the entire population, is measured. However, tree biomass on sample plots is not directly measured but rather estimated using regression models based on allometric features such as tree diameter and height. Estimators of model parameters are random variables that exhibit different values depending on which sample is used for estimating model parameters. Although sampling error is strongly influenced by the sample size when the model is applied, modeling error is strongly influenced by the sample size when the model is under development. Thus, there is a trade-off between which sample sizes to use when applying and developing models. This trade-off has not been studied before and is of specific interest for countries developing new national forest inventories and biomass models in the REDD+ context. This study considers a specific sample design and population. This fact should be considered when extrapolating results to other locations and populations.

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Estimates of stand averages are needed by forest management for planning purposes. In forest enterprise inventories supported by remotely sensed auxiliary data, these estimates are typically derived exclusively from a model that does not consider stand effects in the study variable. Variance estimators for these means may seriously underestimate uncertainty, and confidence intervals may be too narrow when a model used for computing a stand mean omits a nontrivial stand effect in one or more of the model parameters, a nontrivial spatial distance dependent autocorrelation in the model residuals, or both. In simulated sampling from 36 populations with stands of different sizes and differing with respect to (i) the correlation between a study variable (Y) and two auxiliary variables (X), (ii) the magnitude of stand effects in the intercept of a linear population model linking X to Y, and (iii) a first-order autoregression in Y and X, we learned that none of the tested designs provided reliable estimates of the within-stand autocorrelation among model residuals. More-reliable estimates were possible from stand-wide predictions of Y. The anticipated bias in an estimated autoregression parameter had a modest influence on estimates of variance and coverage of nominal 95% confidence intervals for a synthetic stand mean.

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Due to the limited resources of fossil fuels and the need to mitigate climate change, energy utilisation for all human activity has to be improved. The objective of this study was to analyse the correlation between energy intensity on dairy farms and production mode, to examine the influence of machinery and buildings on energy intensity, and to find production related solutions for conventional and organic dairy farms to reduce energy intensity. Data from ten conventional and ten organic commercial dairy farms in Norway from 2010 to 2012 were used to calculate the amount of embodied energy as the sum of primary energy used for production of inputs from cradle-to-farm gates using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Energy intensities of dairy farms were used to show the amount of embodied energy needed to produce the inputs per metabolizable energy in the output. Energy intensities allow to easily point out the contribution of different inputs. The results showed that organic farms produced milk and meat with lower energy intensities on average than the conventional ones. On conventional farms, the energy intensity on all inputs was 2.6 ± 0.4 (MJMJ?1) and on organic farms it was significantly lower at 2.1 ± 0.3 (MJ MJ?1). On conventional farms, machinery and buildings contributed 18% ± 4%, on organic farms 29% ± 4% to the overall energy use. The high relative contribution of machinery and buildings to the overall energy consumption underlines the importance of considering them when developing solutions to reduce energy consumption in dairy production. For conventional and organic dairy farms, different strategies are recommend to reduce the energy intensity on all inputs. Conventional farms can reduce energy intensity by reducing the tractor weight and on most of them, it should be possible to reduce the use of nitrogen fertilisers without reducing yields. On organic dairy farms, energy intensity can be reduced by reducing embodied energy in barns and increasing yields. The embodied energy in existing barns can be reduced by a higher milk production per cow and by a longer use of the barns than the estimated lifetime. In the long run, new barns should be built with a lower amount of embodied energy. The high variation of energy intensity on all inputs from 1.6 to 3.3 (MJ MJ?1) (corresponding to the energy use of 4.5e9.3 MJ kg-1 milk) found on the 20 farms shows a potential for producing milk and meat with lower energy intensity on many farms. Based on the results, separate recommendations were provided for conventional and organic farms for reducing energy intensity.

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Phosphorus (P) should be recycled from organic wastes as much as possible, and input is needed in stockless organic agriculture. Seven organic residues were assessed and compared them to mineral P fertilizer and rock phosphate as fertilizer for barley. P availability in the mixtures and residual P availability were also assessed by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). The best availability was found in digested liquid manure followed by wood ash, fish sludge, composted solid manure and composted food waste. Meat and bone meal, the commercially available product Ladybug plus and rock phosphate had low P availability at the same level as no P. Only wood ash had significant P available for the next crop. The pH level of the soil did not affect P availability for any of the P sources. DGT predicted P availability moderately well, as it measures P supply over a short period without any biological factors.

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We investigate consumers’ preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for local and organic foods using a nonhypothetical choice experiment. Past studies have observed that beliefs and attitudes affect consumers’ preferences for local and organic productions claims. However, in psychology, personality is an important factor in explaining individuals’ attitudes and behavior, since personality traits are stable features which capture how individuals think, feel, and behave. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between personality traits and consumers’ preferences for both local and organic food products. We used applesauce as the product in question, and we implemented the MIDI (Midlife Development Inventory) scale to capture respondents’ personalities. We focused on the “Big Five” personality traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. We find that personality traits can be sources of heterogeneity in consumers’ preferences for locally produced, but not for organic applesauce.

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Flowering is one of the most important factors in plant fertility. Fruit set in fruits is directly influenced by the beginning, sequence, flow, duration and abundance of flowering. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variability of flowering in 41 ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) clones, and to recommend earlyflowering genotypes for growing in warmer locations where late spring frosts are rare, and some late-flowering clones for sites more susceptible for spring frost. Results from the three years period (2004-06), showed that ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones flowered in a fixed sequence each year. Average for clone VII/2N, which flowered the earliest, was April 8 and petal fall took place by April 21, whereas clone III/1 bloomed last on April 14 and petal fall took place on April 25. Statistical analysis showed that almost all sub-phases of flowering were under the significant influence of both ecological and genetic factors. Besides, ecologic factors had the highest impact to the variability of beginning of flowering (79.8%), full bloom (76.8%), petal fall (80.2%) and duration of flowering (85.56%). Clones III/1, III/13, V/6 and V/2 were considered as late flowering, whereas clones VII/2N, VI/27, VI/28 and IX/P were early flowering, taking place five days earlier then previous group.

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Area-efficient constructed systems for stormwater management and bioretention may involve large fluc-tuations in subsurface water levels. Such fluctuations challenge vegetation by forcing roots to exploredeeper layers to access water during dry periods. In a controlled experiment, we studied growth pat-terns and the ability of Phragmites australis roots to track subsurface water level fluctuations of differingamplitude and frequency in substrates with contrasting water-holding capacity. We found that P. aus-tralis was able to adjust its rooting pattern to considerable subsurface water level fluctuations (to wellbelow 120 cm), but that substrate characteristics can restrict its ability to adjust to larger fluctuations.Fluctuation amplitude was the driving factor for plant growth and biomass allocation responses, whilesubstrate characteristics and fluctuation frequency were less important. When not exposed to large waterlevel fluctuations, P. australis grew larger shoots and only explored intermediate rooting depths. Therewas a negative relationship between root and rhizome biomass, showing a resource-based trade-off andshort-term costs of adjusting rooting patterns to large water level fluctuations. These results indicatethat P. australis is suited for systems with considerable subsurface water fluctuations, but constraints onits flexibility need to be investigated.

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Natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is a relatively common practice in Norway on medium to low site indices. However, seedling establishment is often hampered by rapid regrowth of competing vegetation in scarified patches. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of coordinating scarification towards an expected seed-fall, by studying germination and seedling establishment in scarified patches of different age (fresh, one- and two-year-old). The experiment was conducted in two stands in southeast Norway that were clear-cut in 2007. Scarification was applied to subplots in autumn 2008–2010. To simulate seed-fall, seeds were sown in fresh scarification patches in spring 2009–2011, in one-year-old patches in 2010 and 2011, and in twoyear- old patches in 2011. Both germination and seedling survival were negatively affected by the age of the scarified patches. Germination was higher, and mortality lower, at the small fern woodland site, compared with the bilberry woodland site. Sowing in fresh patches also resulted in increased height and root collar diameter of the seedlings compared with sowing in older patches. It is likely that the competing vegetation both on the site and in the scarification patches affected the growth of the seedlings. In conclusion, the age of the scarified patches affected both germination and mortality, as well as early growth of the seedlings.

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The main environmental stressor of the Baltic Sea is elevated riverine nutrient loads, mainly originating from diffuse agricultural sources. Agricultural practices, intensities, and nutrient losses vary across the Baltic Sea drainage basin (1.75 × 106 km2 , 14 countries and 85 million inhabitants). Six “Soil and Water Assessment Tool” (SWAT) models were set up for catchments representing the major agricultural systems, and covering the different climate gradients in the Baltic Sea drainage basin. Four fertilizer application scenarios were run for each catchment to evaluate the sensitivity of changed fertilizer applications. Increasing sensitivity was found for catchments with an increasing proportion of agricultural land use and increased amounts of applied fertilizers. A change in chemical fertilizer use of ±20% was found to affect watershed NO3-N loads between zero effect and ±13%, while a change in manure application of ±20% affected watershed NO3-N loads between zero effect and −6% to +7%.

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& Key message We generate flexible management rules for black pine stands, adaptable to alternative stand management situations and entailing thinnings, final-felling, and salvage cuts, based on the results on 270 stand level optimizations. & Context Forest management instructions often rely on the anticipated prediction of the stand development, which poses a challenge on variable economic and environmental conditions. Instead, an alternative approach to better adapt forest management decisions to changing conditions is defining flexible rules based on thresholds that trigger management operations. & Aims This article develops rules for the adaptive management of P. nigra stands in Catalonia (Spain) addressing the risk of fire and post-fire forest management. & Methods The stochastic version of the simulationoptimization system RODAL was used to optimize the management of forest stands in three sites under different fire probability levels. A total of 270 optimizations were done varying site fertility, fire probability, and economic factors. The results of the optimizations were used as the basis of flexible forest management rules for adaptive stand management. & Results The developed management rules defined the basal area limit for thinning, the thinning intensity, the mean tree diameter at which regeneration cuttings should start, and the basal area below which a salvage cutting should be done. Fire risk was not a significant predictor of the models for thinning and final cutting rules. & Conclusion The presented rules provide a flexible tool for forest management during the stand development and under changing conditions when the management objective is to maximize economic profitability of timber production.

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The risk of snow and wind damage should be considered when deciding forest management actions, as it can greatly change forest development and its accompanying services. In this study, we develop models that predict snow and wind damage using management related variables as predictors. The plot level models are based on the extensive data available for Norwegian forests from four consecutive measurements of the national forest inventory along the period 1995–2014. The snow and wind risk is assessed in pure stands (pine, spruce and birch) as well as for mixed stands. Separate models are constructed for predicting the probability of a tree to be damaged, broken or uprooted. The models’ descriptors include: mean diameter, mean tree slenderness, mean height, basal area and a portfolio of variables related to stand structure and composition. The models are based on generalized linear models assuming binomial or quasi-binomial distributions resulting in nine models. Mixed stands are the stands most commonly affected by snow and wind damage followed by spruce dominated stands. Spruce stands with more heterogeneous structures are less prone to suffer breakage of trees, and increasing stand height have a big impact on the risk of tree breakage. The models presented in this study can be used to create management prescriptions considering the risk of snow and wind damage. These models also help to better understand which variables make a forest more vulnerable to snow and wind damage.

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Different sowing methods and sowing rates were evaluated in organic seed production of timothy (two trials), meadow fescue (two trials) and red clover (one trial) in Southeast Norway, during 2010–2013. The plan included: (1) broadcast sowing of grass/clover, cover crop sown at 12 cm row distance; (2) sowing of cover and seed crop in crossed rows, both at 12 cm row distance; and (3) sowing of cover crop and seed crop in every other row. The three sowing rates were 5, 10 and 15 kg ha−1 in timothy and meadow fescue and 3, 6 and 9 kg ha−1 in red clover. On average for sowing rates and all trials with timothy, meadow fescue and red clover, first year’s seed yields were 5–6%, 20–25% and 19–25% higher on plots sown with cover crop and seed crop in every other row than on plots where seed crop had been broadcast or sown perpendicularly to the cover crop. The different sowing methods had no effect on weed coverage or weed contamination in the cleaned seed. Increasing sowing rate usually had a negative influence on seed yield, while weed coverage/contamination was not significantly affected. It is concluded that organic seed crops should be established with cover crop and seed crop in every other row at a low sowing rate. However, in an organic production system, even this favorable method will not always be sufficient to meet the requirement for seed crop purity.

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Two field trials with five strawberry cultivars planted on a woven black polyfibre ground cover sheet with or without translucent sheet plant coverage during winter and the growing season as combined treatments were started in 2004 and 2005. In total, nine different cultivars were included in the two fields. One early cv. ‘Polka’ and one late cv. ‘Korona’ acted as standard cultivars, while the other cultivars were new, named or labelled selections from Norwegian, Finnish and Swedish breeding programs. Winter survival, spring vigour, earliness, saleable and total berry yield, berry size and berry quality were registered for three years. The cultivars differed in earliness, berry size, yield (gram per plant) and total production (sum of all years). A combination of fibre sheet winter and spring coverage and more open net sheet harvest season coverage showed favourable results for overwintering, earliness and berry yield, and enhanced the ripening process in all cultivars.

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Ungulate browsing results in important damages on the forests, affecting their structure, composition and development. In the present paper, we examine the occurrence of browsing damage in Norwegian forests, using data provided by the National Forest Inventory along several consecutive measurements (entailing the period 1995–2014). A portfolio of variables describing the stand, site and silvicultural treatments are analyzed using classification trees to retrieve combinations related to browsing damage. Our results indicate that the most vulnerable forest stands are young with densities below 1400 trees ha–1 and dominated by birch, pine or mixed species. In addition, stand diversity and previous treatments (e.g. thinnings) increase the damage occurrence and other variables, like stand size, could play a role on forest susceptibility to browsing occurrence although the latter is based on weaker evidence. The methods and results of our study can be applied to implement management measures aiming at reducing the browsing damages of forests.

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Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, was detected for the first time in Norway in 1986. It was a limited outbreak on the south-western coast, only on ornamentals, and particularly on Cotoneaster spp. An action group handling the eradication and containment of the disease was quickly established. Comprehensive statutory powers and resources were given by the government to do surveys and eradicate diseased or symptomless but highly susceptible plant species from contaminated areas. These activities have likely restricted fire blight to the western and southern coastal areas. Eastern and northern parts of Norway are considered free from fire blight. The disease has not been observed in important fruit-growing areas. Uncontrolled movement of beehives from areas with fire blight to areas free from the disease has contributed to its introduction to new areas. From 1969 to 2016 import of most host plants of E. amylovora from countries with fire blight was prohibited. A yearly program for annual surveys in parts of the country with commercial fruit-growing and nurseries, using digital maps on internet connected tablets with GPS and software for in situ registrations, proved to be an efficient method for discovering new outbreaks at an early stage, and to start eradication and thus limit further spread.

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This work presents the outcomes from two independent studies evaluating the chemical quality of groundwater in agricultural areas irrigated with wastewater from sugar and yeast industries. The evaluation was determined using chemical parameters representing typical contaminants of sugar industry wastewater (SIWW) and yeast industry wastewater (YIWW), and characterising the content of organic matter (BOD5), nutrients (NH4-N, NO3-N, TN and TP) and salts (Cl, SO4, Na and K). The studies reveal that food industry wastewater constitutes a valuable water-nutrient-rich medium that can be reused in agricultural applications as an alternative water resource for irrigation and nutrients for fertilisation. Furthermore, the reuse facilitates the sustainable discharge of wastewater through a soil-aquifer zone to the natural environment. This does not affect chemical quality of groundwater, which was comparable in areas irrigated and non-irrigated with SIWW and YIWW. Although some parameters (NO3-N, NH4-N, SO4, Cl and Na) displayed higher concentrations in groundwater from the fields irrigated with wastewater, these contents were within recommended healthbased guideline limits defined in either the groundwater quality standards or the drinking water quality norms. Only the contents of K revealed an exclusive groundwater impact from wastewater irrigation. This was confirmed in statistical tests employing theWard’s hierarchical clustering method, which exposed excessive amounts of K introduced into groundwater through irrigation with both SIWW and YIWW. However, this parameter is not considered to pose any health risk to humans or the environment, and its content is not restricted by quality guideline values for either groundwater or drinking water.

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Organizational development, change and adaptation are complex and challenging tasks that have been widely studied and debated, spanning from general change models and theories on organizational change, to change management theory and strategy literature. Even though issues surrounding organizational change have been extensively studied, the estimated success rates remain particularly low, thus keeping this kind of studies high in the research agenda. This article examines organizational change and adaptation in the context of institutional change. More specifically, the article examines the case of Valio, the biggest Finnish dairy company, and its reorganization and restructuring during the period surrounding Finland’s assessment to the EU in 1995. Valio’s case is particularly interesting since it involves a well-established “national institution”, with rich history and significant economic contribution to the national economy. The purpose of this paper is to explore how Valio’s managers perceived the organizational change efforts surrounding the period of EU accession and what change practices were followed. In doing so, the analysis adopts the comprehensive qualitative case study methodology having a descriptive and explorative approach. This approach involves several in-depth interviews with key Valio executives, stakeholders, and industry insiders. The analysis maps and identifies key themes and processes that characterized the change strategy and allowed for the successful organizational change.

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Insulation is an essential component of nest structure that helps provide incubation requirements for birds. Many species of waterfowl breed in high latitudes where rapid heat loss can necessitate a high energetic input from parents and use down feathers to line their nests. Common eider Somateria mollissima nest down has exceptional insulating properties but the microstructural mechanisms behind the feather properties have not been thoroughly examined. Here, we hypothesized that insulating properties of nest down are correlated to down feather (plumule) microstructure. We tested the thermal efficiency (fill power) and cohesion of plumules from nests of two Icelandic colonies of wild common eiders and compared them to properties of plumules of wild greylag goose Anser anser. We then used electron microscopy to examine the morphological basis of feather insulating properties. We found that greylag goose down has higher fill power (i.e. traps more air) but much lower cohesion (i.e. less prone to stick together) compared to common eider down. ese differences were related to interspecific variation in feather microstructure. Down cohesion increased with the number of barbule microstructures (prongs) that create strong points of contact among feathers. Eider down feathers also had longer barbules than greylag goose down feathers, likely increasing their air-trapping capacity. Feather properties of these two species might reflect the demands of their contrasting evolutionary history. In greylag goose, a temperate, terrestrial species, plumule microstructure may optimize heat trapping. In common eiders, a diving duck that nests in arctic and subarctic waters, plumule structure may have evolved to maximize cohesion over thermal insulation, which would both reduce buoyancy during their foraging dives and enable nest down to withstand strong arctic winds.

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A new subspecies of the European cerambycid Saperda populnea (Linnaeus, 1758) is described: Saperda populnea lapponica ssp. n. based on specimens from Scandinavia. The male genitalia characters were examined and found to provide support for this separation, as well as differences in morphology, geographical distribution and bionomy. The preferred host tree for the nominate subspecies S. populnea populnea is Populus tremula L., whereas S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. is considered to be monophagous on Salix lapponum L. DNA sequence data of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was generated from Scandinavian specimens of S. populnea populnea and specimens representing S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. The two subspecies were not reciprocally monophyletic and genetic distances in COI were small. All synonyms of S. populnea populnea have been considered, and species similar to S. populnea populnea have been examined, and not found to be related to S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. A male lectotype has been designated for each of the two following synonyms: Cerambyx decempunctatus De Geer, 1775, and Saperda salicis Zetterstedt, 1818. The synonymised species from Asia, S. balsamifera (Motshulsky, 1860), is elevated to subspecies: S. populnea balsamifera stat. n. We end with a discussion on the definition of subspecies under the unified species concept.

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Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection leads to severe liver pathogenesis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As no curable medication is yet available, vaccination remains the most costeffective approach to limit HBV spreading and control the infection. Although safe and efficient, the standard vaccine based on production of the small (S) envelope protein in yeast fails to elicit an effective immune response in about 10% of vaccinated individuals, which are at risk of infection. One strategy to address this issue is the development of more immunogenic antigens. Here we describe a novel HBV antigen obtained by combining relevant immunogenic determinants of S and large (L) envelope proteins. Our approach was based on the insertion of residues 21-47 of the preS1 domain of the L protein (nomenclature according to genotype D), involved in virus attachment to hepatocytes, within the external antigenic loop of S. The resulting S/preS121-47 chimera was successfully produced in HEK293T and Nicotiana benthamiana plants, as a more economical recombinant protein production platform. Comparative biochemical, functional and electron microscopy analysis indicated assembly of the novel antigen into subviral particles in mammalian and plant cells. Importantly, these particles preserve both S- and preS1-specific epitopes and elicit significantly stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than the S protein, in both expression systems used. Our data promote this antigen as a promising vaccine candidate to overcome poor responsiveness to the conventional, S protein-based, HBV vaccine.

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Acetophenones are phenolic compounds involved in the resistance of white spruce (Picea glauca) against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferiana), a major forest pest in North America. The acetophenones pungenol and piceol commonly accumulate in spruce foliage in the form of the corresponding glycosides, pungenin and picein. These glycosides appear to be inactive against the insect but can be cleaved by a spruce b-glucosidase, PgbGLU-1, which releases the active aglycons. The reverse glycosylation reaction was hypothesized to involve a family 1 UDP-sugar dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) to facilitate acetophenone accumulation in the plant. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling over a developmental time course of white spruce bud burst and shoot growth revealed two UGTs, PgUGT5 and PgUGT5b, that glycosylate pungenol. Recombinant PgUGT5b enzyme produced mostly pungenin, while PgUGT5 produced mostly isopungenin. Both UGTs also were active in vitro on select flavonoids. However, the context of transcript and metabolite accumulation did not support a biological role in flavonoid metabolism but correlated with the formation of pungenin in growing shoots. Transcript levels of PgUGT5b were higher than those of PgUGT5 in needles across different genotypes of white spruce. These results support a role of PgUGT5b in the biosynthesis of the glycosylated acetophenone pungenin in white spruce.

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Herbivorous insects use olfactory cues to locate their host plant within a complex olfactory landscape. One such example is the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana, a key pest of the grape in the Palearctic region, which recently expanded both its geographical and host plant range. Previous studies have showed that a synthetic blend of the three terpenoids, (E)-β-caryophyllene, (E)-β-farnesene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), was as attractive for the moth as the complete grape odour profile in laboratory conditions. The same studies also showed that the specific ratio of these compounds in the grape bouquet was crucial because a percentage variation in any of the three volatiles resulted in almost complete inhibition of the blend's attractiveness. Here, we report on the creation of stable grapevine transgenic lines, with modified (E)-β-caryophyllene and (E)-β-farnesene emission and thus with an altered ratio compared to the original plants. When headspace collections from these plants were tested in wind tunnel behavioural assays, they were less attractive than control extracts. This result was confirmed by testing synthetic blends imitating the ratio found on natural and transformed plants, as well as by testing the plants themselves. With this evidence, we suggest that a strategy based on volatile ratio modification may also interfere with the host-finding behaviour of L. botrana in the field, creating avenues for new pest control methods.

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Charcoal seems one of the most promising bio-reducer because of its high coke replacement ratio in blast furnaces. Nevertheless, biochar materials are subject self-combustion during storage, handling and transport, and need to be studied in order to understand and limit these phenomena. Heat-based methods: were employed to compare and determine the self-ignition parameters of four types of fresh biochar (Quercus pubescens, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, and Trigonostemon huangmosun, Bambusa vulgar) that are used as bioreducers in the silica industry. This study assumed that spontaneous combustion arises from exothermic oxygen chemisorption to fresh biochar surface. Sample mass, heat flow and CO2 desorption were measured. The weight increased very rapidly as soon as the gas stream was changed from N2 to air accompanying the heat generation for each material. Desorption isotherms were found to depend on the nature of the feedstock confirming that bamboo biochar was the most reactive one under air exposure.

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In this study, we investigated the potential of airborne imaging spectroscopy for in-season grassland yield estimation. We utilized an unmanned aerial vehicle and a hyperspectral imager to measure radiation, ranging from 455 to 780 nm. Initially, we assessed the spectral signature of five typical grassland species by principal component analysis, and identified a distinct reflectance difference, especially between the erectophil grasses and the planophil clover leaves. Then, we analyzed the reflectance of a typical Norwegian sward composition at different harvest dates. In order to estimate yields (dry matter, DM), several powered partial least squares (PPLS) regression and linear regression (LR) models were fitted to the reflectance data and prediction performance of these models were compared with that of simple LR models, based on selected vegetation indices and plant height. We achieved the highest prediction accuracies by means of PPLS, with relative errors of prediction from 9.1 to 11.8% (329 to 487 kg DM ha−1) for the individual harvest dates and 14.3% (558 kg DM ha−1) for a generalized model.

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OBJECT: Improved precision fertilization by introducing sensors and remote control to secure fruit yield and reduce nutrient leaching in soil culture. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We broadcasted before bedding and mulching 50 g m–2 of a multi-mineral fertilizer. Beds had two plant rows 20 cm apart, with plant distance of 25 cm. Experimental design was split plot with three replications and three treatments. Treatments: fertigation in large plots, cultivar in small plots and year. RESULTS: Plant development in the establishing year had no benefit of fertigation in addition to fertilizer given before bedding. When the yield is 3 kg m–2 a nutrient solution of 6 g N m–2 gave highest yield, using 4 g m–2 from two weeks before harvest and during harvest. ‘Florence’ and ‘Sonata’ developed well; however, ‘Florence’ had mildew on fruits in the last cropping year. ‘Korona’ presented well the first cropping year, but grew small fruits heavily infested by mildew in the last cropping year. CONCLUSION: Fertilization had effect on fruit yield. It is discussed how a fertilization schedule for the establishment year and cropping years can be adapted to plant development stages. Mildew infestation on fruits was dependent of cultivar and fertilization. Introducing sensors for recording of growth factors and in situ ion-levels of soil water nutrients, proved valuable.

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Trees of genus Populus (in our context primarily poplars) are predominantly grown in Sweden in small plantations on arable land in southern and central parts of the country to produce biomass for energy and other purposes. This study evaluated the effects (i) of poplar plantations on groundwater quality, by determining differences in leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus to groundwater, and (ii) of poplar and hybrid aspen plantations on soil quality in terms of carbon in the top- and subsoil. The study was conducted comparing Populus plantations in Sweden with adjacent fields with cereals and grasslands. The experiment concerning the groundwater leaching was conducted in eight poplar plantations along three growing seasons (2012–2015). For the soil carbon experiments, 19 poplar and two hybrid aspen plantations and the respective reference fields were sampled. NO3-N leaching from poplar plantations was significantly lower than that from reference fields with cereals, but not when compared with grasslands. Spring NO3-N leaching was significantly lower in poplars than in the reference fields, whereas leaching of NO3-N in autumn did not differ. Concentrations of PO4-P in the groundwater of poplar plantations were lower compared to the respective ones of the reference fields. There were no clear trends observed when comparing carbon concentrations in the topsoil of the poplar and hybrid aspen plantations compared to the respective adjacent reference fields. For the subsoil, the average carbon concentrations in the poplar and hybrid aspen plantations were equal to the respective ones of cereals, but were higher when compared to grassland.

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Two types of nano-scale zero-valent iron (nZVI-B prepared by borohydride reduction and nZVI-T produced by thermal reduction of iron oxide nanoparticles in H2) and amicro-scale ZVI (mZVI) were compared for PCB degradation efficiency in water and soil. In addition, the ecotoxicity of nZVI-B and nZVI-T particles in treated water and soil was evaluated on bacteria, plants, earthworms, and ostracods. All types of nZVI and mZVI were highly efficient in degradation of PCBs in water, but had little degradation effect on PCBs in soil. Although nZVI-B had a significant negative impact on the organisms tested, treatment with nZVI-T showed no negative effect, probably due to surface passivation through controlled oxidation of the nanoparticles.

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We determine the production risk effects and welfare implications of single-trait Bt corn adoption in the Philippines. We use a stochastic production function estimation approach that allows for examining the skewness effects of Bt within a damage abatement specification. Our results indicate that Bt corn has a statistically significant yield increasing, risk-increasing (i.e., variance-increasing) and downside risk-reducing (i.e., skewness-increasing) effects. Based on risk premium, certainty equivalent, and loss probability welfare measures, Bt corn farmers in the Philippines are better-off (in absolute terms) relative to non-Bt farmers given Bt corn's dominant yield increasing effect and downside risk-reducing effect.

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Crop growth and yield are affected by water use during the season: the green water footprint (WF) accounts for rain water, the blue WF for irrigation and the grey WF for diluting agri-chemicals. We calibrated crop yield for FAO’s water balance model “Aquacrop” at field level. We collected weather, soil and crop inputs for 45 locations for the period 1992–2012. Calibrated model runs were conducted for wheat, barley, grain maize, oilseed rape, potato and sugar beet. The WF of cereals could be up to 20 times larger than the WF of tuber and root crops; the largest share was attributed to the green WF. The green and blue WF compared favourably with global benchmark values (R2 = 0.64–0.80; d = 0.91–0.95). The variability in the WF of arable crops across different regions in Europe is mainly due to variability in crop yield (cv = 45%) and to a lesser extent to variability in crop water use (cv = 21%). The WF variability between countries (cv = 14%) is lower than the variability between seasons (cv = 22%) and between crops (cv = 46%). Though modelled yields increased up to 50% under sprinkler irrigation, the water footprint still increased between 1% and 25%. Confronted with drainage and runoff, the grey WF tended to overestimate the contribution of nitrogen to the surface and groundwater. The results showed that the water footprint provides a measurable indicator that may support European water governance.

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In this paper, we apply grounded innovation platforms (GRIPs) as a tool for inclusive innovation in relation to forest-based bioenergy in Norway. We use cases studied in the Triple Bottom Line Outcomes for Bioenergy Development and Innovation in Rural Norway research project. We review the notion of GRIPs and classify them. We analyse forms of GRIPs and the hypothesis that forms of GRIP affect ‘triple bottom line’ outcomes of sustainable development. We relate our findings to the debates on inclusive innovation, which we argue is not simply an issue for ‘developing countries’. Development, being understood to be different from economic growth, is concerned with inclusion and exclusion, and, in a world of growing inequalities, is a universal issue everywhere.

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Epigenetic memory in Norway spruce affects the timing of bud burst and bud set, vitally important adaptive traits for this long-lived forest species. Epigenetic memory is established in response to the temperature conditions during embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis at different epitype inducing (EpI) temperatures closely mimics the natural processes of epigenetic memory formation in seeds, giving rise to epigenetically different clonal plants in a reproducible and predictable manner, with respect to altered bud phenology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play an essential role in the regulation of plant gene expression and may affect this epigenetic mechanism. We used NGS sequencing and computational in silico methods to identify and profile conserved and novel miRNAs among small RNAs in embryogenic tissues of Norway spruce at three EpI temperatures (18, 23 and 28◦C). We detected three predominant classes of sRNAs related to a length of 24 nt, followed by a 21–22 nt class and a third 31 nt class of sRNAs. More than 2100 different miRNAs within the prevailing length 21–22 nt were identified. Profiling these putative miRNAs allowed identification of 1053 highly expressed miRNAs, including 523 conserved and 530 novels. 654 of these miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed (DEM) depending on EpI temperature. For most DEMs, we defined their putative mRNA targets. The targets represented mostly by transcripts of multiple-repeats proteins, like TIR, NBS-LRR, PPR and TPR repeat, Clathrin/VPS proteins, Myb-like, AP2, etc. Notably, 124 DE miRNAs targeted 203 differentially expressed epigenetic regulators. Developing Norway spruce embryos possess a more complex sRNA structure than that reported for somatic tissues. A variety of the predicted miRNAs showed distinct EpI temperature dependent expression patterns. These putative EpI miRNAs target spruce genes with a wide range of functions, including genes known to be involved in epigenetic regulation, which in turn could provide a feedback process leading to the formation of epigenetic marks. We suggest that TIR, NBS and LRR domain containing proteins could fulfill more general functions for signal transduction from external environmental stimuli and conversion them into molecular response. Fine-tuning of the miRNA production likely participates in both developmental regulation and epigenetic memory formation in Norway spruce.

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Nitrogen-limited ecosystems are threatened by extensive spread of broom (Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link), a European leguminous shrub that is invasive in several countries. The establishment of invading species may, however, be suppressed by competition from native vegetation. The neighbor impact of the grass Festuca rubra subsp. commutata Gaudin on the performance of C. scoparius was studied in a greenhouse experiment with different arrival order, under low and high nitrogen supply, and with or without inoculation of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Aboveground biomass of both species was measured after a six-months establishment period, and after a five-months regrowth period. In both periods, presence of F. rubra reduced the performance of C. scoparius as indicated by negative neighbor-effect intensity indices (NIntA). During the establishment period the competitive impact of F. rubra was highest, when planted before C. scoparius, followed by synchronous and late planting. Inoculation with rhizobia and low fertilization decreased the competitive impact of F. rubra. After cutting and regrowth priority effects of F. rubra were still visible. Interaction between the two study species was not affected anymore by inoculation, but strongly by fertilization, with highest competitive impact of F. rubra on C. scoparius under high nitrogen fertilization. In both study periods biomass of C. scoparius was negatively correlated with biomass of F. rubra. Our study provides knowledge about competition processes, which help to improve conservation and restoration measures regarding the spread of C. scoparius. Early sowing of a native grass can help to suppress the invasive species at an early stage. Competitive impact of the grass might be strengthened by high nitrogen availability.

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This paper deals with processes and outcomes of sustainable bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna. It draws on an on-going research project concerning inclusive innovation in forest-based bioenergy and biogas in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Italy. The goal is to explore how local governance impacts on inclusive innovation processes and triple bottom sustainability of bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna and, ultimately, to contribute to the debate on the bioeconomy. It thus compares the case of biogas and forest-based bioenergy production. The study adopts an analytical framework called Grounded Innovation (GRIP) and the local governance approach. The study uses qualitative methods and particularly semi-structured interviews and governance analysis. The key results show different outcomes on both inclusive innovation and triple bottom-line dimensions. Biogas has not fostered inclusiveness and triple bottom line sustainability benefits, contrary to forest-based bioenergy. The findings indicate that the minor role of local actors, particularly municipalities, in favour of industrial and national interests may jeopardise the sustainability of biobased industries. Besides, policies limited to financial incentives may lead to a land-acquisition rush, unforeseen local environmental effects and exacerbate conflicts.

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Creosote is commonly used as a wood preservative for highway timber bridges in Norway. However, excessive creosote bleeding at various highway timber bridge sites lead to complaints, and a potentially bad reputation for wooden timber bridges. Macro-and microanatomical factors such as the amount of heartwood, annual ring width, annual ring orientation, ray-height and composition and resin canal area were investigated in order to classify seven timber bridges in Norway into bleeding- and non-bleeding bridges. A classification into bleeding and non-bleeding was possible for discriminant categories based on three anatomical factors analysed on wood core samples. The amount of heartwood content dominated the influencing factors, even obscuring the significance of other factors. Classification with a low amount of variables was done preferably on sample level instead of bridge level, due to the restricted number of 17 core samples per bridge.

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Habitat descriptors are cost effective biodiversity indicators demanded by stakeholders and required for regional and global biodiversity monitoring. We mapped 195 farms of different types in twelve case study regions across Europe and tested 18 habitat descriptors for scientific validity, information content and ease of interpretation. We propose a core set consisting of (i) four descriptors to measure structural composition and configuration of farms (Habitat Richness, Habitat Diversity, Patch Size, and Linear Habitats), (ii) three descriptors addressing specific habitat types (Crop Richness, Shrub Habitats, and Tree Habitats) and (iii) one interpreted descriptor (Semi-Natural Habitats). As a set, the descriptors make it possible to evaluate the habitat status of a farm and to track changes occurring due to modified land use and/or management, including agri-environmental measures. The farm habitat maps can provide ground truth information for regional and global biodiversity monitoring.

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Agriculture and land use change has significantly increased atmospheric emissions of the non-CO2 green-house gases (GHG) nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Since human nutritional and bioenergy needs continue to increase, at a shrinking global land area for production, novel land management strategies are required that reduce the GHG footprint per unit of yield. Here we review the potential of biochar to reduce N2O and CH4 emissions from agricultural practices including potential mechanisms behind observed effects. Furthermore, we investigate alternative uses of biochar in agricultural land management that may significantly reduce the GHG-emissions-per-unit-of-product footprint, such as (i) pyrolysis of manures as hygienic alternative to direct soil application, (ii) using biochar as fertilizer carrier matrix for underfoot fertilization, biochar use (iii) as composting additive or (iv) as feed additive in animal husbandry or for manure treatment. We conclude that the largest future research needs lay in conducting life-cycle GHG assessments when using biochar as an on-farm management tool for nutrient-rich biomass waste streams.

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Comprehensive approaches to predict performance of wood products are requested by international standards, and the first attempts have been made in the frame of European research projects. However, there is still an imminent need for a methodology to implement the durability and moisture performance of wood in an engineering design method and performance classification system. The aim of this study was therefore to establish an approach to predict service life of wood above ground taking into account the combined effect of wetting ability and durability data. A comprehensive data set was obtained from laboratory durability tests and still ongoing field trials in Norway, Germany and Sweden. In addition, four different wetting ability tests were performed with the same material. Based on a dose– response concept, decay rates for specimens exposed above ground were predicted implementing various indicating factors. A model was developed and optimised taking into account the resistance of wood against soft, white and brown rot as well as relevant types of water uptake and release. Decay rates from above-ground field tests at different test sites in Norway were predicted with the model. In a second step, the model was validated using data from laboratory and field tests performed in Germany and Sweden. The model was found to be fairly reliable, and it has the advantage to get implemented into existing engineering design guidelines. The approach at hand might furthermore be used for implementing wetting ability data into performance classification as requested by European standardisation bodies.

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Scope: Ileostomy studies provide a unique insight into digestion of food, allowing identifica- tion of physiologically relevant dietary phytochemicals and their metabolites important to gut health. We previously reported the consistent increase of components in ileal fluids of ileosto- mates after consumption of raspberries with use of nontargeted LC–MS n techniques and data deconvolution software highlighting two major unknown components (m/z 355 and 679). Methods and results: In-depth LC–MS n analyses suggested that the ileal m/z 355 components were p-coumaroyl glucarates. These compounds have not been identified previously and were confirmed in raspberry extracts after partial purification. The major ileal component with m/z 679 was a glycoside with an aglycone of m/z 517 and was present as two peaks in extracts of whole puree, unseeded puree, and isolated seeds. These components were purified using Sephadex LH20 and C18 SPE units and identified as major, novel raspberry triterpenoid glycosides. This triterpenoid-enriched fraction (100 nM) protected against H 2 O 2 -induced DNA damage in both colon cancer and normal cell lines and altered expression of cytoprotective genes. Conclusion: The presence of these novel raspberry triterpenoid components in ileal fluids indi- cates that they would be colon-available in vivo, so confirmation of their anticancer bioactivities is of key physiological relevance.

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Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain biotic resistance of a recipient plant community based on reduced niche opportunities for invasive alien plant species. The limiting similarity hypothesis predicts that invasive species are less likely to establish in communities of species holding similar functional traits. Likewise, Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis states that invasive species closely related to the native community would be less successful. We tested both using the invasive alien Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and Solidago gigantea Aiton, and grassland species used for ecological restoration in central Europe. We classified all plant species into groups based on functional traits obtained from trait databases and calculated the phylogenetic distance among them. In a greenhouse experiment, we submitted the two invasive species at two propagule pressures to competition with communities of ten native species from the same functional group. In another experiment, they were submitted to pairwise competition with native species selected from each functional group. At the community level, highest suppression for both invasive species was observed at low propagule pressure and not explained by similarity in functional traits. Moreover, suppression decreased asymptotically with increasing phylogenetic distance to species of the native community. When submitted to pairwise competition, suppression for both invasive species was also better explained by phylogenetic distance. Overall, our results support Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis but not the limiting similarity hypothesis based on the selected traits. Biotic resistance of native communities against invasive species at an early stage of establishment is enhanced by competitive traits and phylogenetic relatedness.

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The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and indi- vidual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °Cand20°C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteur- ized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides.

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Purpose Inclusion of biodiversity as an indicator in the land use impact pathway of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is essential to assess the effects of human activities on the environment. Numerous models have been applied, but validations that use actual data, collected in the field, are scarce. Methods The expert system SALCA-BD (Swiss Agricultural LCA—Biodiversity), assigns coefficients for land use class suitability and impact of agricultural practices on species diversity at field and farm scale. We used data on land use classes and agricultural practices from 132 farms located in eight European regions to complete the life cycle inventory. SALCA-BD species diversity scores were calculated for individual fields, aggregated to the farm scale, and compared to field records of arable crop flora, grassland flora, spiders, and wild bees. Results and discussion Overall, species diversity scores from SALCA-BD were positively related to the observed species richness from field survey data. The extent of the relationship diminished from arable crop flora and grassland flora to spiders and to wild bees, and from field to farm scale. Conclusions Validation of a LCA biodiversity assessment tool with data from field surveys revealed the benefit of considering multiple aspects of biodiversity. The appropriate scale for species diversity assessment (as a proxy for biodiversity) is the respective species habitat. Extension of scale increases uncertainty, which should be addressed by developing characterization factors for as detailed a land use classification as possible.

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A new method for pest risk assessment and the identification and evaluation of risk-reducing options is currently under development by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Plant Health Panel. The draft method has been tested on pests of concern to the European Union (EU). The method is adaptable and can focus either on all the steps and sub-steps of the assessment process or on specific parts if necessary. It is based on assessing changes in pest population abundance as the major driver of the impact on cultivated plants and on the environment. Like other pest risk assessment systems the method asks questions about the likelihood and magnitude of factors that contribute to risk. Responses can be based on data or expert judgment. Crucially, the approach is quantitative, and it captures uncertainty through the provision by risk assessors of quantile estimates of the probability distributions for the assessed variables and parameters. The assessment is based on comparisons between different scenarios, and the method integrates risk-reducing options where they apply to a scenario, for example current regulation against a scenario where risk-reducing options are not applied. A strategy has been developed to communicate the results of the risk assessment in a clear, comparable and transparent way, with the aim of providing the requestor of the risk assessment with a useful answer to the question(s) posed to the EFSA Plant Health Panel. The method has been applied to four case studies, two fungi, Ceratocystis platani and Cryphonectria parasitica, the nematode Ditylenchus destructor and the Grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma. Selected results from these case studies illustrate the types of output that the method can deliver.

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We present data on the species composition of helminths in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from the Murmansk Region, Russia. The absence of any information about helminths of brown bear in the region necessitated the conduct of these studies. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula from the White Sea coastal habitats. Annually, in the study area, 1–3 bears are legally hunted and biological samples for examination are very difficult to obtain. Therefore, we used fecal samples. We studied 93 feces and identified parasite eggs identified in 43 of them by morphometric criteria. The surveys revealed eggs of the following helminths: Dicrocoelium sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Anoplocephalidae, Capillariidae, Baylisascaris sp., Strongylida 1, and Strongylida 2. These results represent the first reconnaissance stage, which allowed characterizing the taxonomic diversity and prevalence of parasites of brown bears of the Kola Peninsula.

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Fields experiments were conducted during two growing seasons (2010–2011 and 2012–2013) at three seeding dates to identify stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) species and to determine their seasonal population density fluctuation and damage caused to three common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars “Ica Pijao,” “Cubacueto 25–9,” and “Chévere.” Stink bug species observed were Nezara viridula (L.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Chinavia rolstoni (Rolston), Chinavia marginatum (Palisot de Beauvois), and Euschistus sp. The most prevalent species was N. viridula in both seasons. The largest number of stink bugs was found in beans seeded at the first (mid September) and third (beginning of January) seeding dates. Population peaked at BBCH 75 with 1.75, 0.43, and 1.25 stink bugs/10 plants in 2010–2011 and with 2.67, 0.45, and 1.3 stink bugs/10 plants in 2012–2013 in the fields seeded the first, second, and third seeding dates, respectively. The lowest numbers of stink bugs were found in beans seeded at the second (mid November) seeding date. A significant negative correlation between relative humidity and number of stink bugs was found in 2010–2011, and a similar tendency was observed in 2012–2013. The highest seed and pod damage levels occurred in cv. “Chévere” and the lowest in cv. “ICA Pijao” during both seasons. Results suggest that cv. “ICA Pijao” and the second (mid November) seeding date is the best choice to reduce stink bug damage.

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Questions What are the effects of abandonment on plant diversity in semi-natural grasslands? Do the effects of abandonment on taxonomic and functional diversity vary along environmental gradients of climate and soil? Location West and mid-Norway. Methods Plant composition was surveyed in 110 subplots of 4 m2 in 14 sites across grazed and abandoned semi-natural grasslands. Climate data were extracted and soil composition analysed. To reduce the number of explanatory variables and deal with collinearity, we performed PCA. Data on the plant species vegetative height (H), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), specific leaf area (SLA), seed mass (SM) and number of seeds per plant (SNP) for 175 species were extracted from the LEDA database. Measures of plant diversity (species richness, CWM of functional traits and functional diversity (evenness and range)) were calculated for each subplot. To estimate the effects of abandonment on plant diversity and examine how these effects are moderated by gradients in soil and climate, we fitted mixed models to the data including site as a random effect. Results Species richness in the subplots was lower in abandoned semi-natural grasslands, especially on more calcareous soils. CWM H, LDMC and SM were higher in abandoned semi-natural grasslands. CWM LDMC was only higher in the driest subplots. The ranges in H, SLA and SM, as well as evenness in LDMC were also higher in abandoned semi-natural grasslands,but the range in LDMC was lower. Conclusions It is important to assess both taxonomic and functional diversity to understand ecosystem processes. The species pool in ecosystems influenced by a long history of intermediate grazing includes a high proportion of low stature, grazing-tolerant plant species. Abandonment of extensive land-use practices will cause a decline in taxonomic diversity (plant species richness) in such systems due to increased abundance of plants with high stature that outcompete the lower, grazing-tolerant plants. This process is predominant especially if moisture, soil fertility and pH are at intermediate levels. Changes in species communities due to abandonment will also influence ecosystem functioning, such as nutrient turnover and fodder production resilience.

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Background and aims Decomposition of the finest harvest residues is important for the carbon and nutrient cycle in forest ecosystems both before and after tree felling. We assumed that decomposition is dependent on harvest residue fraction and chemistry, soil temperature and moisture, and aimed at determining decomposition rates and nutrient dynamics of needles, twigs and fine roots from newly felled Picea abies trees in two sites with different climate and topography. Methods Decomposition of needles, twigs and fine roots in mesh bags was followed for up to six years and four years in harvesting sites in eastern and western Norway, respectively. The western site had a more humid climate and a steeper terrain than the eastern site. Results The mass loss after two years was significantly higher for needles (49–59%) than for twigs and fine roots (29–38%). Between sites, there was no significant difference between mass loss for neither needles nor twigs. Nitrogen accumulated in needles during the first year, but 35% of initial needle N had been released after three years. The initial needle and twig decomposition rate was dependent on soil moisture and topographic aspect. During the first three years, needle lignin concentrations retarded whereas P concentrations stimulated needle mass loss. For twigs, P concentrations stimulated mass loss, whereas higher soil temperatures reduced it. Conclusions Lignin and P concentrations of plant parts and soil temperature were the most important factors for the first three-year mass loss. The slow release of nutrients shows the importance of remaining needles, twigs and fine roots as a long-time nutrient source in the ecosystems under study.

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This work focuses on modelling soil water reserves using an Artificial Neural Net-work (ANN). Four model variants were established based on 843 records (verifiedthrough 268 measurements) of soil water content (SWC) measured at full-scale fieldsites located in Southwest Poland. It is revealed that commonly recorded climaticdata (precipitation and temperature) linked with SWC and field water capacity(FWC) are applicable in the ANN modelling. The basic model (utilising the meteoro-logical data) was the most suitable for soil profiles with thicknesses of 0–25 cm,while in profiles with thicknesses of 0–50 cm and 0–100 cm the comprehensiveANN model (linking climatic data, FWC and SWC) was the most appropriate. Fur-thermore, comparative studies of the measured and modelled data indicated theirstatistical convergence, thus providing support for the practical implementation ofthe proposed ANN modelling.

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The aim of the study was to investigate changes of physical, microbiological, and sensory properties of muesli with germinated fakes during storage. Germinated fakes were made from conventionally grown grains: hullless barley, hull-less oat, rye, wheat, and triticale in various proportions. Breakfast cereals samples were packaged in Doypack (stand up pouches) made from Pap50g/Alu7/ Pe60 (Pap/Alu/PE) and stand up pouches Fibrecote® HB MG 40/60 (PE/EvOH/Pap) and stored for 6 months at temperature t=35±2°C and relative air humidity φ=55±3%, to provide accelerated shelf-life testing. The main quality parameters such as total plate count, yeasts and mould, water activity, moisture content, water absorption and sensory properties—taste, aroma, consistency, and appearance were analysed using the standard methods. The results of the present experiments demonstrate that the best quality of dried breakfast cereals after storage in terms of sensory quality, microbiological stability, moisture migration, and water absorption were achieved in the Fibrecote® HB MG 40/60 pouches. This study revealed that breakfast cereals made from rye, triticale germinated triticale, germinated hull-less oat, germinated hull-less barley fakes; as well breakfast cereals made from triticale, oat, germinated wheat, germinated triticale, and germinated hull-less barley fakes packaged in Fibrecote® HB MG 40/60 can be stored for 12 months at temperature 23±2°C; but breakfast cereals made from wheat, rye, triticale, germinated hull-less oat, germinated hull-less barley, germinated rye fakes and package in same packaging material can be stored for 10 months at temperature 23±2°C.

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To degrade lignocellulose efficiently, lower termites rely on their digestive tract’s specific features (i.e., hysiological properties and enzymes) and on the network of symbiotic fauna harboured in their hindgut. This complex ecosystem, has different levels of symbiosis, and is a result of diverse co-evolutionary events and the singular social behaviour of termites. The partnership between termites and flagellate protists, together with prokaryotes, has been very successful because of their co-adaptative ability and efficacy in resolving the needs of the involved organisms: this tripartite symbiosis may have reached a physiologically stable, though dynamic, evolutionary equilibrium. The diversity of flagellate protists fauna associated with lower termites could be explained by a division of labour to accomplish the intricate process of lignocellulose digestion, and the ability to disrupt this function has potential use for termite control. Multi-level symbiosis strategy processes, or the cellulolytic capacity of flagellate protists, may lead to innovative pathways for other research areas with potential spin-offs for industrial and commercial use.

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Bark beetles are among the most devastating biotic agents affecting forests globally and several species are expected to be favored by climate change. Given the potential interactions of insect outbreaks with other biotic and abiotic disturbances, and the potentially strong impact of changing disturbance regimes on forest resources, investigating climatic drivers of destructive bark beetle outbreaks is of paramount importance. We analyzed 17 time-series of the amount of wood damaged by Ips typographus, the most destructive pest of Norway spruce forests, collected across 8 European countries in the last three decades. We aimed to quantify the relative importance of key climate drivers in explaining timber loss dynamics, also testing for possible synergistic effects. Local outbreaks shared the same drivers, including increasing summer rainfall deficit and warm temperatures. Large availability of storm-felled trees in the previous year was also strongly related to an increase in timber loss, likely by providing an alternative source of breeding material. We did not find any positive synergy among outbreak drivers. On the contrary, the occurrence of large storms reduced the positive effect of warming temperatures and rainfall deficit. The large surplus of breeding material likely boosted I. typographus population size above the density threshold required to colonize and kill healthy trees irrespective of other climate triggers. Importantly, we found strong negative density dependence in I. typographus that may provide a mechanism for population decline after population eruptions. Generality in the effects of complex climatic events across different geographical areas suggests that the large-scale drivers can be used as early warning indicators of increasing local outbreak probability.

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National parks are established to reduce human influence on nature and contribute to species conservation, biodiversity and ecological services. Other states of protection like the UNESCO world heritage sites, for example, are created for maintaining culturally important places or lifestyles. In the Matobo Hills (Zimbabwe) both states of protection are present, a national park and a world heritage site. In addition, the land outside the National Park belongs to two different systems of ownership, namely “common” (i.e. community-owned) and “not-common” (privately or governmentally owned) land. In this paper, we investigated how the state of protection and the ownership affected the land use and land cover. We derived maps using Landsat images from 1989, 1998 and 2014 by supervised classification with Random Forests. To compensate for the lack of ground data we inferred past land use and land cover from recent observations combining photographs, Google Earth images and change detection. We could identify four classes, namely shrub land, forest, patchy vegetation and agricultural area. The Matobo National Park showed a stable composition of land cover during the study period and the main changes were observable in the surroundings. Outside the national park, forest increased by about 7%. The common lands have changed substantially and their agricultural area decreased. We attribute this development to the Fast Track Land Reform, which took place in the early 2000s. Our approach shows that combining information on recent land cover with change detection allows to study the temporal development of protected areas.

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New technologies, such as Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), may be useful in order to create models to predict the spatio-temporal behaviour of weeds. The aim of this study was to generate a geometric model able to predict the patch expansion of S. halepense, a problematic perennial weed in maize crops in Central Spain. From previous infestation maps, the model describes new possible spreading areas for the upcoming growing season, and therefore, herbicide treatments can be planned on time. Two different experiments were implemented, in which initial patch density and size were examined. Patches of different size (1, 10 and 100 m2) and density (4, 20 and 100 shoots m−2), were established. These patches were visually identified, their perimeter defined and their density characterized, during three growing seasons (from 2008 to 2010 campaigns). According to this information different descriptors were built: (1) area and density of each patch; (2) the relative growth in width and length, according to space and time and compared with previous years; and (3) the increased density ratio, calculated in relation of patch size and distance to previous patch in the new infestation areas of expansion. All these descriptors were added to the model in order to predict the patch expansion in the last studied season (i. e., 2010) using previous maps (i. e., season 2008 and 2009). The model uses geometrical assimilation to predict, and two expansion assumptions were considered: (a) a conservative approach based on triangular geometry; and (b) a rectangular geometry which maximizes the simulated infested area. The results were compared with the ground truth map created in 2010. Each method showed weaknesses and strengths. The triangular approach minimized the infested area, mainly in the small patches, and therefore it could predict the expansion of previously established patches, but not the emergence of new ones. In contrast, the rectangular approach simulated the position of new foci, maximizing the infested area. Therefore, although a substantial reduction of herbicides is possible using both models, a final decision must be taken individually for each field.

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Avrenning fra jordbruket er en viktig kilde til fosfor i vassdrag i Norge. Ulike former for fosfor har ulik effekt på vekst av alger og blågrønnbakterier i vassdragene. I tiltaksanalyser er det derfor viktig å ha pålitelige estimater for både totalfosfor og andelen løst fosfat som tapes fra jordbruket. Vi har brukt data fra ni overvåkingsfelt i Program for jord- og vannovervåking i landbruket (JOVA) som har blitt overvåket i 17-25 år til å kvantifisere konsentrasjonen og andelen løst fosfat av totalfosfor i jordbruksavrenning fra ulike driftssystemer (eng og beite, åpen åker og blandete driftssystemer). Både konsentrasjonen av løst fosfat og andelen løst fosfat av totalfosfor i jordbruksavrenningen varierer sterkt mellom år. Likevel tyder resultatene på at andelen løst fosfat av totalfosfor er høyere i avrenningsvann fra driftssystemer med eng- og beiteareal (43 ± 14 %) enn i avrenningsvann fra blandete driftssystemer (30 ± 15 %) og fra driftssystemer med åpen åker (17 ± 9 %). Driftssystemene med eng- og beiteareal hadde i gjennomsnitt dobbelt så høy husdyrtetthet og høyere nedbør sammenlignet med driftssystemer med åpen åker. Disse resultatene kan bl.a. brukes som grunnlag for vurdering av faktorer for biotilgjengelig fosfor i avrenning fra ulike driftssystemer i jordbruket.

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Despite global deforestation some regions, such as Europe, are currently experiencing rapid reforestation. Some of this is unintended woodland encroachment onto farmland as a result of reduced livestock pasture management. Our aim was to determine the likely impacts of this on exposure to ticks and tickborne disease risk for sheep in Norway, a country experiencing ecosystem changes through rapid woodland encroachment as well as increases in abundance and distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks and tick-borne disease incidence. We conducted surveys of I. ricinus ticks on ground vegetation using cloth lure transects and counts of ticks biting lambs on spring pastures, where lambs are exposed to infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever in livestock. Pastures had higher densities of I. ricinus ticks on the ground vegetation and more ticks biting lambs if there was more tree cover in or adjacent to pastures. Importantly, there was a close correlation between questing tick density on pastures and counts of ticks biting lambs on the same pasture, indicating that cloth lure transects are a good proxy of risk to livestock of tick exposure and tick-borne disease. These findings can inform policy on environmental tick control measures such as habitat management, choice of livestock grazing area and off-host application of tick control agents.

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Farmers are exposed to climate change and uncertainty about how that change will develop. As farm incomes, in Norway and elsewhere, greatly depend on government subsidies, the risk of a policy change constitutes an additional uncertainty source. Hence, climate and policy uncertainty could substantially impact agricultural production and farm income. However, these sources of uncertainty have, so far, rarely been combined in food production analyses. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a combination of policy and climate uncertainty on agricultural production, land use, and social welfare in Norway. Output yield distributions of spring wheat and timothy, a major forage grass, from simulations with the weatherdriven crop models, CSM-CERES-Wheat and, LINGRA, were processed in the a stochastic version Jordmod, a price-endogenous spatial economic sector model of the Norwegian agriculture. To account for potential effects of climate uncertainty within a given future greenhouse gas emission scenario on farm profitability, effects on conditions that represented the projected climate for 2050 under the emission scenario A1B from the 4th assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and four Global Climate Models (GCM) was investigated. The uncertainty about the level of payment rates at the time farmers make their management decisions was handled by varying the distribution of payment rates applied in the Jordmod model. These changes were based on the change in the overall level of agricultural support in the past. Three uncertainty scenarios were developed and tested: one with climate change uncertainty, another with payment rate uncertainty, and a third where both types of uncertainty were combined. The three scenarios were compared with results from a deterministic scenario where crop yields and payment rates were constant. Climate change resulted in on average 9% lower cereal production, unchanged grass production and more volatile crop yield as well as 4% higher farm incomes on average compared to the deterministic scenario. The scenario with a combination of climate change and policy uncertainty increased the mean farm income more than a scenario with only one source of uncertainty. On the other hand, land use and farm labour were negatively affected under these conditions compared to the deterministic case. Highlighting the potential influence of climate change and policy uncertainty on the performance of the farm sector our results underline the potential error in neglecting either of these two uncertainties in studies of agricultural production, land use and welfare.

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Purpose Outside farming, pluriactivity is generally considered as undesirable, whereas agricultural economists tend to recommend part-time farming. This contradiction is to be solved. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach Linking tax-payer and statistical farm-level data from Norway, the authors tested how profitable part-time farming is for Norwegian farm households. Findings The analysis showed that concentrating on either working on-farm or off-farm generates a higher household income than combining the two. Practical implications Part-time farming may be a lifestyle decision, but apparently is not economically optimal for most farms. Originality/value The contribution solves an apparent contradiction between the discourses inside and outside agriculture.

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Microbiological degradation of wood by decay fungi can cause a rapid change in the structural properties of timber which can result in both strength and mass loss. Traditional techniques for the evaluation of decay (e.g. mass loss) lack the sensitivity to evaluate the effects of the very first stages of the decay process. This paper describes the effects of initial brown rot decay, defined by the amount of Poria placenta genomic DNA (gDNA) present in the samples, on the dynamic mechanical properties of the timber. It was found that there is a correlation between the mean storage modulus of the timber and the amount of P. placenta gDNA present, and therefore the level of decay. This shows that using dynamic mechanical analysis is a viable technique that can be used to study initial decay processes.

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In the city of Tromsø in northern Norway, invasive Tromsø palm (Norwegian: Tromsøpalme; English: Persian hogweed) is widespread. Although Tromsø palm has negative impacts on biodiversity and contains a phototoxic sap that burns human skin, it is also considered to be a local symbol of Tromsø city and is appreciated by many inhabitants. This study examined private landowners’ characteristics, perceptions, and landowners’ regulation of invasive Tromsø palm on their parcels on Tromsø Island in 2012 (vegetation season: May–September) to provide information concerning which landowner groups could be assisted by official regulation. Eleven key informants and 17 landowners were interviewed. Afterward, Tromsø palm on Tromsø Island was mapped using aerial photos and street-level photos from Google Maps®/Google Street View® and fieldwork verification. This distribution map was superimposed on a property map in a geographic information system to produce a map showing private parcels that contained Tromsø palm and associated neighboring parcels that did not contain Tromsø palm. Questionnaires were mailed to the 441 owners of the selected parcels, and 199 of the returned questionnaires were analyzed. Tromsø palm was more likely to be fully regulated/absent on a parcel that was inhabited (particularly if the owner lived on-site) and less likely to be fully regulated/absent if the parcel was jointly managed by several households. These findings indicate that authorities could focus their management efforts on supporting regulation efforts of those private landowners who own currently uninhabited or rented-out parcels and landowners of parcels jointly managed by several households. Furthermore, those landowners who found regulation measures against the plant on Tromsø Island important tended to have partly or fully regulated Tromsø palm on their plots. This might imply that information campaigns from authorities might encourage more landowners to regulate Tromsø palm.

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Western livestock sectors have shifted towards fewer, larger farms, causing concerns about the appearance of the countryside, ecosystem services, and rural depopulation. This study empirically estimates factors likely to affect exit intentions in sheep farms. Data were collected from specialised sheep farms included in the Norwegian Farm Business Survey. Of the 59 responses, 44 operators believed the farm would be producing sheep in 10 years. A logistic regression model was used to determine the most decisive variables associated with an exit intention, where the interdependence of factors affecting profitability and, subsequently, exit intention were taken into account. This study found that farmers reporting the most positive views of the local farming community were less likely to plan an exit. Exit intentions were not significantly influenced by farming goals, location, off-farm income, or profitability. The primacy of non-economic, community-based factors as an engine to sustain farms, suggests that more attention need to be paid to social processes and relations in local communities. Farmer groups and policy-makers should consider how to encourage supportive local communities when designing policies to retain sheep farms.

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Putative proton coupled di-peptide transporters, PTR2s, are found in filamentous fungi in different numbers and their function during fungal development and plant infection is unresolved. In Fusarium graminearum, the cause of head blight in cereals, we identified four putative PTR2 transporters (FgPTR2A-D). The genes did not cluster together in phylogenetic analyses and only FgPTR2A and FgPTR2C were able to complement a PTR2 deficient yeast mutant in uptake of di-peptides. All FgPTR2s are continuously expressed throughout the fungal lifecycle, although at different levels. In silico analyses of existing expression-data show that FgPTR2B is found at higher levels than the others in planta and during sexual development. Deletion mutants of FgPTR2A, FgPTR2C, and FgPTR2D had a higher production of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone and lower production of fusarielin H than the wild type. Perithecium development was reduced in these mutants but unaffected by deletion of FgPTR2B. Conidia production was reduced in the FgPTR2B mutant and unaffected by deletion of the other PTR2 transporters. Sexual development and secondary metabolite production are known to be linked at the regulatory level and the results suggest that PTR2s are active in nitrogen turnover and thereby influence signal processes.

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Wood biomass for energy can be largely produced in northern Europe from forest land resulting from silvicultural practices and from agricultural land in the form of fast-growing plantations. The present paper estimates and compares the current regional potentials for wood biomass production attending to these sources. The data are based on spatialized estimates from previous models, largely based on empirical records concerning forest and plantation's productivity. The results show that 8.5 Mm3 of wood biomass can be produced annually from plantations when using 5% of the total available agricultural land, and 58.5 Mm3 from forest lands using current estimates of forest production. However, the results also show that a strategy for wood biomass resource management should be local rather than general: wood biomass potential from fast-growing plantations was larger in 19 regions than from forest resources (10 in Denmark, 6 in Norway and 3 in Lithuania) out of the 91 regions in the area included to this study. When considered together, northern Europe presents significant potential for wood biomass production for energy uses, and each country - and even region - should develop independent policy strategies of biomass generation in order to most efficiently realize their own potential for wood-based bioenergy.

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On December 20, 2015 at 11:40 am a landslide in one of China’s most advanced cities, Shenzhen, killed 73 people and damaged 33 buildings. In the absence of heavy rainfall or earthquakes, the landslide was an unexpected and profound shock to many people. According to China’s Ministry of Land and Resources, the landslide was triggered by the collapse of an enormous pile of construction and demolition waste (CDW). With China’s rapid urbanization, an increasing amount of CDW is being generated, especially in major cities. In total, China produces some 30% of the world’s municipal solid waste and of this about 40% is CDW. To prevent landslides associated with CDW, the volume of waste dumped in landfills should be regulated. More specifically 4-Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle and recover) policies should be implemented more widely and efficiently. Although landfill will continue to be an important disposal option, proper management and careful monitoring of CDW are urgently needed to satisfy pressing safety issues. International collaboration, sharing of knowledge, and use of the latest technologies are needed so that the similar landslides can be prevented in China and elsewhere.

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In-depth metabolic profiling, also termed metabolomics, provides detailed information about the biochemical phenotype of an organism. Besides improving our understanding of biochemical processes, metabolomics is used for environmental monitoring, natural product discovery, or even chemotaxonomy, among others. However, for marine macroalgae, comparative large-scale metabolomics studies are lacking, even though seaweeds belong to the most important aquatic primary producers. In this study, we present via a broad scale systematic metabolomics survey 391 metabolites from 21 seaweeds species, representing brown, red and green algae. We demonstrate clear differences in metabolite composition of these seaweeds, reflecting their taxonomic classification. We highlight these differences for amino acid, amino acid derivative and peptide metabolites, energy and carbohydrate metabolites, for lipid, fatty acid and sterol metabolites and for secondary metabolites, including selected metabolic pathways such as the urea cycle, the citrate cycle and the glyconeogenesis/glycolysis, besides others. Additionally, we link selected seaweed biochemical properties to potential pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.

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Species occurrence observations are increasingly available for scientific analyses through citizen science projects and digitization of museum records, representing a largely untapped ecological resource. When combined with open-source data, there is unparalleled potential for understanding many aspects of the ecology and biogeography of organisms. Here we describe the process of assembling a pan-European mycological meta-database (ClimFun) and integrating it with open-source data to advance the fields of macroecology and biogeography against a backdrop of global change. Initially 7.3 million unique fungal species fruit body records, spanning nine countries, were processed and assembled into 6 million records of more than 10,000 species. This is an extraordinary amount of fungal data to address macro-ecological questions. We provide two examples of fungal species with different life histories, one ectomycorrhizal and one wood decaying, to demonstrate how such continental-scale meta-databases can offer unique insights into climate change effects on fungal phenology and fruiting patterns in recent decades. Keywords Biogeography; Citizen science; Fungi; Global change; Meta-database; Open-source

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Plums contain high levels of hydroxycinnamates (neo-chlorogenic acid, Neo-CGA), anthocyanins (ATH) and ascorbic acid. The drying process influences their phytochemical content and plum cultivars are known to have different phytochemical retention after drying, but little data exists regarding to possible differences between conventional (CONV) and organic (ORG) plums. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical content in three different CONV and ORG plum cultivars (Jubileum, Reeves and Victoria) after freeze drying (FD), conventional oven drying (OD) and solar drying (SD). The three cultivars responded differently to the methods of drying. Notably, Jubileum decreased its ATH mostly when subjected to OD while its Neo-CGA content was mostly reduced after SD. Additionally, ORG Victoria and Reeves stood out for the low decrease of Neo-CGA after drying compared to the same cultivars cultivated with conventional system. The Folin-Ciocalteu index, which was significantly different in OD (6942 mg GAE/kg dw) and SD (5420 mg GAE/kg dw) samples, was positively related with both Neo-CGA and hydroxymethylfurfural. The present findings suggest that for some cultivars, the organic system influences the nutraceutical quality of dried product, thus representing an important factor that regulates the phytochemical content of dried plums.

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Daily precipitation extremes and annual totals have increased in large parts of the global land area over the past decades. These observations are consistent with theoretical considerations of a warming climate. However, until recently these trends have not been shown to consistently affect dry regions over land. A recent study, published by Donat et al. (2016), now identified significant increases in annual-maximum daily extreme precipitation (Rx1d) and annual precipitation totals (PRCPTOT) in dry regions. Here, we revisit the applied methods and explore the sensitivity of changes in precipitation extremes and annual totals to alternative choices of defining a dry region (i.e. in terms of aridity as opposed to precipitation characteristics alone). We find that (a) statistical artifacts introduced by data pre-processing based on a time-invariant reference period lead to an overestimation of the reported trends by up to 40 %, and that (b) the reported trends of globally aggregated extremes and annual totals are highly sensitive to the definition of a "dry region of the globe". For example, using the same observational dataset, accounting for the statistical artifacts, and based on different aridity-based dryness definitions, we find a reduction in the positive trend of Rx1d from the originally reported +1.6 % decade−1 to +0.2 to +0.9 % decade−1 (period changes for 1981–2010 averages relative to 1951–1980 are reduced to −1.32 to +0.97 % as opposed to +4.85 % in the original study). If we include additional but less homogenized data to cover larger regions, the global trend increases slightly (Rx1d: +0.4 to +1.1 % decade−1), and in this case we can indeed confirm (partly) significant increases in Rx1d. However, these globally aggregated estimates remain uncertain as considerable gaps in long-term observations in the Earth's arid and semi-arid regions remain. In summary, adequate data pre-processing and accounting for uncertainties regarding the definition of dryness are crucial to the quantification of spatially aggregated trends in precipitation extremes in the world's dry regions. In view of the high relevance of the question to many potentially affected stakeholders, we call for a well-reflected choice of specific data processing methods and the inclusion of alternative dryness definitions to guarantee that communicated results related to climate change be robust.

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Nine species of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) were pitfall-trapped during two years in an alpine glacier foreland of southern Norway. A two-year (biennial) life cycle was documented for Nebria nivalis (Paykull, 1790), N. rufescens (Ström, 1768), and Patrobus septentrionis Dejean, 1828. This was based on the simultaneous hibernation of larvae and adults. In P. septentrionis, both larvae and adults showed a considerable activity beneath snow. A limited larval material of Amara alpina (Paykull, 1790) and A. quenseli (Schönherr, 1806) from the snow-free period indicated larval hibernation. A. quenseli was, however, not synchronized with respect to developmental stages, and its life cycle was difficult to interpret. Measurements of claw lengths in eight species showed a considerable wearing during adult life. The data indicated that some individuals might hibernate a second time and thus experience two egg-laying seasons. Wearing of mandible tooth was not suited as age indictor in Nebria nivalis and N. rufescens, since some individuals hatched with a small tooth. Supplied with literature data, a “niche profile” is presented for each species. The most important ecological factors that contributed to niche segregation were: preference for vegetation-free ground, occurrence along the successional and time gradient, humidity or temperature preference, nocturnal versus diurnal activity, flight ability, food habits, phenology, and the ability to be active under snow.

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Anthocyanins are the main pigments in the Vaccinium berries. Besides contributing to the characteristic bluish to reddish colors of the berries, anthocyanins are also recognized as potential health beneficial compounds. The biosynthesis of anthocyanins is well understood and the key regulators have been characterized in many plant species. The final anthocyanin composition in ripe berries is regulated by developmental and environmental factors, determined by the genetic background. We have studied the role of different light and temperature conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.), in controlled and in field experiments. These experiments include specific growth conditions with clones from northern and southern latitudes as well as from different altitudes. The results show speciesspecific interactions in quantitative and qualitative composition of anthocyanins as a response to light and temperature conditions. For instance, lower temperature and specific light wavelengths induced accumulation of delphinidin glycosides in bilberry.