Sammendrag

” Aksjon pærebrann” ble etter den første påvisning av pærebrann i Norge i 1986 opprettet som et samarbeidsprosjekt mellom Mattilsynet og NIBIO (Norsk Institutt for Bioøkonomi, Divisjon for Bioteknologi og Plantehelse). Formålet med prosjektet er å overvåke, kartlegge og bekjempe pærebrann. For å oppnå et best mulig resultat i dette arbeidet er landet blitt delt opp i tre soner..... Kommune- og fylkesinndeling er som i 2019. Fra 01.01 2020 trer det i kraft en en ny inndeling av kommuner og fylker med nye navn..

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1. Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. 2. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate assessment areas. Assessments followed the Generic Ecological Impact Assessment of Alien Species (GEIAA) protocol, which uses a fully quantitative set of criteria. 3. A total of 1519 species were risk-assessed, of which 1183 were species reproducing in mainland Norway. Among these, 9% were assessed to have a severe impact, 7% high impact, 7% potentially high impact, and 49% low impact, whereas 29% had no known impact. In Svalbard, 16 alien species were reproducing, one of which with a severe impact. 4. The impact assessments also covered 319 so-called door-knockers, i.e. species that are likely to establish in Norway within 50 years, and 12 regionally alien species. Of the door-knockers, 8% and 10% were assessed to have a severe and high impact, respectively. 5. The impact category of most species was driven by negative interactions with native species, transformation of threatened ecosystems, or genetic contamination. The proportion of alien species with high or severe impact varied significantly across the different pathways of introduction, taxonomic groups, time of introduction, and the environments colonised, but not across continents of origin. 6. Given the large number of alien species reproducing in Norway and the preponderance of species with low impact, it is neither realistic nor necessary to eradicate all of them. Our results can guide management authorities in two ways. First, the use of quantitative assessment criteria facilitates the prioritisation of management resources across species. Second, the background information collected for each species, such as introduction pathways, area of occupancy and ecosystems affected, helps designing appropriate management measures.

Sammendrag

I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra biologisk veiledningsprøving av soppmidler i bygg, hvete, setteløk, gulrot og solbær. Det er også presentert et forsøk med skadedyrmidler mot kålmøll i kinakål. I tillegg er det rapportert et forsøk mot bringebærbarkgallmygg og ferskenbladlus, et forsøk med kairomonfeller mot skadedyr i eple, og et forsøk med vekstregulering av juletrær.

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Sammendrag

Soppen Diplodia sapinea er en nylig oppdaget skadegjører på furu i Norge og andre nordiske land. Soppen kan skade både frø, småplanter og større trær. Soppen er relativt varmekjær og har tidligere stort sett gjort skade på furu lenger sør i Europa, samt på andre kontinenter. Her i nord ser oppblomstringen av soppen ut til å sammenfalle med de pågående klimaendringene.

Sammendrag

Formålet med forprosjektet VitalEPLEJORD var å studere potensielle årsaker til jordtrøtthet i epleproduksjonen, et fenomen som kan oppstå dersom det ikke praktiseres vekstskifte. Jordprøver fra 10 bruk (fem med økologisk og fem med konvensjonell drift) på Øst- og Vestlandet ble undersøkt med tanke på jordkvalitet, nematoder og Phytophthora. Innen hver av de tre kategoriene ble det gjort interessante funn. Både lite fruktbar jord og skadegjørere kan føre til dårlig etablering, svak tilvekst, avlingsreduksjon og at trær i verste fall dør. I de jordkjemiske analysene ble det vist høyere innhold av organisk materiale, totalt nitrogen og plantetilgjengelig fosfor i økologisk enn konvensjonell drift, samt mer stabilt innhold av plantetilgjengelig magnesium, mer stabil pH og mer stabil basemetningsgrad. Det ble identifisert en rekke nematodearter, inkludert flere planteparasittære. Økologisk drift så ut til å kunne øke bakteriekonsumerende nematoder, minske rotkonsumerende nematoder og øke altetere. Innen Phytophthora ble det funnet fire arter der alle er rapportert som alvorlige skadegjørere på treaktige vekster både i Norge og andre land. Phytophthora forekom ved begge driftsformer. Antallet jordprøver var totalt 50 (5 samleprøver/bruk, hver samleprøve kom fra separate rader). Testomfanget var for lite til å dra konklusjoner om årsak til jordtrøtthet, men det har gitt verdifull kunnskap til å bygge videre på.

Sammendrag

I Bymiljøetatens planteskole i Oslo ble det i 2019 påvist fem Phytophthora-arter; P. cryptogea, P. gonapodyides, P. lacustris, P. rosaecearum and P. uniformis. På svartor (Alnus glutinosa) med typiske Phytophthora-symptomer (blødende sår ved basis) ble det påvist både P. lacustris og P. uniformis. Vi anbefaler omfattende omlegging av driften da det er stor fare for videre spredning av Phytophthora dersom planter fra denne planteskolen blir brukt i grøntanlegg.

Sammendrag

In a survey in the vally of Sørkedalen in Oslo in 2019, four Phytophthora species were detected from water/mud/leaves in the main waterways; P. gonapodyides, P. lacustris, P. plurivora and Phytophthora taxon raspberry. The three former species were also detected in the same valley in 2018 and they have all been found earlier in Norway. However, Phytophthora taxon raspberry was new to Norway. No Phytophthora species were isolated from diseased trees, but typical Phytophthora symptoms were observed on several locations of grey alder (Alnus incana). Phytophthora lacustris was also confirmed from water reservoirs in a fish hatchery.

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Seedling blight caused by Sirococcus conigenus was recently reported on Norway spruce (Picea abies) from Norwegian forest nurseries. The inoculum source was found to be infected seeds. In a Petri dish assay, the fungicide fludioxonil + difenoconazole was, among other fungicides, found to inhibit mycelial growth of S. conigenus. This fungicide is formulated as a seed treatment and registered for cereals in Norway, and was chosen for an experiment to control S. conigenus on Norway spruce seeds. Samples from two naturally infected seed lots were treated with half, normal and double dose of the recommended rate for cereals. Together with untreated control samples, treated seeds were tested in the laboratory for efficacy against S. conigenus on potato dextrose agar (PDA) in Petri dishes and for germination potential on filter paper. We also recorded seed emergence in soil of one of the seed lots in a growth chamber and in a forest nursery. On agar, the fungus was not detected after seed treatment with fludioxonil + difenoconazole at any of the three dosages, but it was present in the control. Germination on filter paper and emergence in soil was high in both treated and untreated control seeds with no signs of detrimental effects from any of the three fungicide doses.

Sammendrag

I et oppdrag fra Mattilsynet, ble det i 2019 analysert totalt 101 prøver av jord fra importerte grøntanleggsplanter for nematoder og Phytophthora spp. Det ble gjennomført i OK-programmet «Nematoder og Phytophthora spp. i jord på importerte planter». Prøvene ble tatt ut av inspektører ved regionkontorene til Mattilsynet. Større trær til utplanting hadde førsteprioritet. Her rapporterer vi Phytophthora-delen av OK-programmet. Phytophthora ble funnet i 37.6 % av prøvene, totalt 13 arter. Plantematerialet kom fra Nederland, Italia, Tyskland, Danmark, Belgia, Sverige og Polen. To av disse artene er aldri rapportert fra Norge før (P. parvispora og P. occultans) og vi mangler kunnskap om hvor alvorlig risiko de utgjør for norsk natur. Ingen av de 13 Phytophthora-artene er karanteneorganismer, men flere av de gjør i dag skade både i grøntanlegg og norsk natur, spesielt P. cambivora på bøk (Fagus sylvatica) og gråor (Alnus incana). Kartleggingsprogrammet har nå pågått i to år og gitt verdifull informasjon om import som spredningsvei for Phytophthora. Neste skritt må være tiltak for å demme opp for videre innførsel av destruktive Phytophthora-arter for å beskytte norsk planteproduksjon og natur.

Sammendrag

Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a widely used Christmas tree species in the Nordic countries. Postharvest needle retention is an important characteristic for Christmas trees and compared to many fir (Abies) species, Norway spruce has poor postharvest needle retention. This trait is one of the most important qualities in choice of natural versus plastic trees. In this study, current year shoots were cut from 30 Norway spruce seedlot sources, including the most widely used Norwegian Christmas tree provenances, and tested to identify genetic variation in postharvest needle retention. Current year shoots were collected from one field in November and December 2018, and from three fields in October, November and December 2019. The current year shoots were displayed indoors under controlled conditions and allowed to dry. Differences in postharvest needle retention were seen between seedlots, harvesting dates and locations. Our study indicates possibilities of selecting for improved postharvest needle retention in Norway spruce seed sources. Furthermore, postharvest needle retention should be considered as one characteristic to add in the ongoing Norway spruce Christmas tree breeding program.

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Plantesjukdommen pærebrann har blitt funnet i epletrær i en nyetablert frukthage i Strand kom-mune, Rogaland. Frukttrærne ble importert fra Nederland og plantet i 2019 og 2020. Importen kan ikke helt utelukkes som spredningsvei, men mye tyder på at smitten har kommet fra infisert mispel i nærområdet.

Sammendrag

Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge i nær framtid. I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2019 og trender over tid.....

Sammendrag

I Bøkeskogen i Larvik har Phytophthora blitt påvist i flere undersøkelser. I 2020 ble derfor en Phytophthora-inspeksjon gjennomført i skogkanten langs Øvre Bøkeligate i forkant av et utgravningsarbeid langs veien. Undersøkelsen ble gjort for å finne ut om jorda inneholdt smitte og dermed måtte håndteres med spesiell forsiktighet for å unngå mittespredning. Jord- og vevsprøver fra trær langs veien ble tatt ut og analysert for Phytophthora. Ingen Phytophthora-art ble påvist fra prøvene, men typiske Phytophthora-symptomer ble observert på ett bøketre.

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We present the results of an inventory and status assessment of alien species in Norway. The inventory covered all known multicellular neobiota, 2496 in total, 1039 of which were classified as naturalised. The latter constitute c. 3% of all species known to be stably reproducing in Norway. These figures are higher than expected from Norway’s latitude, which may be due a combination of climatic and historical factors, as well as sampling effort. Most of the naturalised neobiota were plants (71%),followed by animals (21%) and fungi (8%). The main habitat types colonised were open lowlands (79%), urban environments (52%) and woodlands (42%). The main areas of origin were Europe (67%), North America (15%) and Asia (13%). For most taxa, the rate of novel introductions seems to have been increasing during recent decades. Within Norway, the number of alien species recorded per county was negatively correlated with latitude and positively correlated with human population density. In the high-Arctic territories under Norwegian sovereignty, i.e. Svalbard and Jan Mayen, 104 alien species were recorded, of which 5 were naturalised.

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Standardized tools are needed to identify and prioritize the most harmful non-native species (NNS). A plethora of assessment protocols have been developed to evaluate the current and potential impacts of non-native species, but consistency among them has received limited attention. To estimate the consistency across impact assessment protocols, 89 specialists in biological invasions used 11 protocols to screen 57 NNS (2614 assessments). We tested if the consistency in the impact scoring across assessors, quantified as the coefficient of variation (CV), was dependent on the characteristics of the protocol, the taxonomic group and the expertise of the assessor. Mean CV across assessors was 40%, with a maximum of 223%. CV was lower for protocols with a low number of score levels, which demanded high levels of expertise, and when the assessors had greater expertise on the assessed species. The similarity among protocols with respect to the final scores was higher when the protocols considered the same impact types. We conclude that all protocols led to considerable inconsistency among assessors. In order to improve consistency, we highlight the importance of selecting assessors with high expertise, providing clear guidelines and adequate training but also deriving final decisions collaboratively by consensus.

Sammendrag

I 2018 vart totalt 130 prøvar av jord frå importerte grøntanleggsplanter analyserte for nematodar og Phytophthora spp. i OK-programmet «Nematoder og Phytophthora spp. i jord på importerte planter”. Prøvane vart tatt ut av inspektørar ved regionkontora til Mattilsyner. Større tre til utplanting hadde førsteprioritet. Her rapporterar vi Phytophthora-delen av OK-programmet. I 35 % av prøvane vart det totalt funne 14 Phytophthora-artar fordelt på fleire opphavsland; Polen, Tyskland, Nederland, Belgia, Italia og våre to naboland Sverige og Danmark. Ingen av Phytophthora-artane var karanteneorganismar, men fleire av dei gjer i dag skade i både grøntanlegg og norsk natur, til dømes Phytophthora cambivora og P. plurivora på bøk (Fagus sylvatica). Kartleggingsprogrammet skal fylgjast opp i 2019.

Sammendrag

Invasive alien species and new plant pests are introduced into new regions at an accelerating rate, due to increasing international trade with soil, plants and plant products. Exotic, plant pathogenic oomycetes in soil from the root zone of imported plants pose a great threat to endemic ecosystems and horticultural production. Detecting them via baiting and isolation, with subsequent identification of the isolated cultures by Sanger sequencing, is labour intensive and may introduce bias due to the selective baiting process. We used metabarcoding to detect and identify oomycetes present in soil samples from imported plants from six different countries. We compared metabarcoding directly from soil both before and after baiting to a traditional approach using Sanger-based barcoding of cultures after baiting. For this, we developed a standardized analysis workflow for Illumina paired-end oomycete ITS metabarcodes that is applicable to future surveillance efforts. In total, 73 soil samples from the rhizosphere of woody plants from 33 genera, in addition to three samples from transport debris, were analysed by metabarcoding the ITS1 region with primers optimized for oomycetes. We detected various Phytophthora and Pythium species, with Pythium spp. being highly abundant in all samples. We also found that the baiting procedure, which included submerging the soil samples in water, resulted in the enrichment of organisms other than oomycetes, compared to non-baited soil samples.

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The number of invasive alien pest and pathogen species affecting ecosystem functioning, human health and economies has increased dramatically over the last decades. Discoveries of invasive pests and pathogens previously unknown to science or with unknown host associations yet damaging on novel hosts highlights the necessity of developing novel tools to predict their appearance in hitherto naïve environments. The use of sentinel plant systems is a promising tool to improve the detection of pests and pathogens before introduction and to provide valuable information for the development of preventative measures to minimize economic or environmental impacts. Though sentinel plantings have been established and studied during the last decade, there still remains a great need for guidance on which tools and protocols to put into practice in order to make assessments accurate and reliable. The sampling and diagnostic protocols chosen should enable as much information as possible about potential damaging agents and species identification. Consistency and comparison of results are based on the adoption of common procedures for sampling design and sample processing. In this paper, we suggest harmonized procedures that should be used in sentinel planting surveys for effective sampling and identification of potential pests and pathogens. We also review the benefits and limitations of various diagnostic methods for early detection in sentinel systems, and the feasibility of the results obtained supporting National Plant Protection Organizations in pest and commodity risk analysis.

Sammendrag

I 2011 vart symptom på angrep av Phytophthora på bøk (Fagus sylvatica) i bøkeskogen i Larvik oppdaga for fyrste gong. Skadegjeraren vart identifisert til Phytophthora cambivora. I tillegg vart det funne andre Phytophthora-artar i jord/vatn i og nær bøkeskogen. Dette førte til ei grundig kartlegging av situasjonen og Phytophthora vart tatt omsyn til i ein forvaltningsplan for bøkeskogen frå Fylkesmannen i Vestfold i 2013. I denne planen vart det stadfesta at Phytophthora-situasjonen skulle fylgjast opp med ny kartlegging om 5 år, noko som vart gjennomført i 2018 og presentert i denne rapporten. Vi fann fleire tre som hadde vorte sjuke sidan førre kartlegging, men utviklinga har ikkje gått så raskt som vi frykta. Også andre skadegjerarar det bør tast omsyn til ved skjøtsel av bøkeskogen vert omtala.

Sammendrag

Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge i nær framtid. I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2018 og trender over tid for følgende temaer: (i) Landsrepresentativ skogovervåking; (ii) Skogøkologiske analyser og målinger av luftkjemi på de intensive overvåkingsflatene; (iii) Overvåking av bjørkemålere i Troms og Finnmark; (iv) Granbarkbilleovervåking – utvikling av barkbillepopulasjonene i 2018; (v) Ny barkbille på vei – vil den like klimaet?; (vi) Phytophthora i importert jord på prydplanter og faren det utgjør for skog; (vii) Overvåking av askeskuddsyke; (viii) Skog- og utmarksbranner i 2018; (ix) Andre spesielle skogskader i 2018...….

Sammendrag

Både dagens og forventet klimautvikling gir utfordringer i forvaltning av bytrær og byskoger, og spesielt nye planteskadegjører og nye nedbørsmønster forventes gi økende skadeomfang og redusert kvalitet og funksjon på trær og skog. I denne rapporten skisserer vi prinsipper for forvaltning av bytrær og byskoger, dvs. skoger der den primære funksjon ikke er skogsdrift, og gir mer konkrete forslag for videre utvikling av Vålandskogen som en av Stavangers viktigste bynære rekreasjonsområder.

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The spatial distribution and niche differentiation of three closely related species (Erysiphe alphitoides, Erysiphe quercicola and Erysiphe hypophylla) causing oak powdery mildew was studied at scales ranging from the European continent, where they are invasive, to a single leaf. While E. alphitoides was dominant at all scales, E. quercicola and E. hypophylla had restricted geographic, stand and leaf distributions. The large-scale distributions were likely explained by climatic factors and species environmental tolerances, with E. quercicola being more frequent in warmer climates and E. hypophylla in colder climates. The extensive sampling and molecular analyses revealed the cryptic invasion of E. quercicola in nine countries from which it had not previously been recorded. The presence of the three species was also strongly affected by host factors, such as oak species and developmental stage. Segregation patterns between Erysiphe species were observed at the leaf scale, between and within leaf surfaces, suggesting competitive effects.

Sammendrag

Total forfattarliste: Franić, I., Prospero, S., Adamson, K., Allan, A., Auger-Rozenberg, A-M, Augustin, S., Avtzis, D., Barta, M., Boroń, P., Bragança, H., Brestovanská, T., Brurberg, M. B., Burgess, B., Burokienė, D., Černý, K., Cleary, M., Corley, J., Coyle, D. R., Csóka, G., Davydenko, K., Elsafy, M. A. O., Eötvös, C., de Groot, M., Diez, J. J., Lehtijärvi, H. T. D., Drenkhan, R., Fan, J., Grabowski, M., Grad, B., Havrdova, L., Hrabetova, M., Iede, E. T., Kacprzyk, M., Kenis, M., Kirichenko25,45, N., Lacković26,N., Lazarević, J., Leskiv, M., Li, H., Madsen, C.L., Matošević, D., Matsiakh, I., Meffert, J., Migliorini, D., Mikó, Á., Nikolov, C., O'Hanlon, R., Oskay, F., Paap, T., Parpan, T., Petrakis, P.V., Piškur, B., Ravn, H.P., Ronse, A., Roques, A., Schühli, G.S., Sivickis, K., Talgø, V., Tomoshevich, M., Uimari, A., Ulyshen, M., Vettraino, A.M., Villari, C., Wang, Y., Witzell, J., Zlatković, M., Eschen, R.

Sammendrag

Total forfattarliste: Franić, I., Prospero, S., Adamson, K., Allan, A., Auger-Rozenberg, A-M, Augustin, S., Avtzis, D., Barta, M., Boroń, P., Bragança, H., Brestovanská, T., Brurberg, M. B., Burgess, B., Burokienė, D., Černý, K., Cleary, M., Corley, J., Coyle, D. R., Csóka, G., Davydenko, K., Elsafy, M. A. O., Eötvös, C., de Groot, M., Diez, J. J., Lehtijärvi, H. T. D., Drenkhan, R., Fan, J., Grabowski, M., Grad, B., Havrdova, L., Hrabetova, M., Iede, E. T., Kacprzyk, M., Kenis, M., Kirichenko25,45, N., Lacković26,N., Lazarević, J., Leskiv, M., Li, H., Madsen, C.L., Matošević, D., Matsiakh, I., Meffert, J., Migliorini, D., Mikó, Á., Nikolov, C., O'Hanlon, R., Oskay, F., Paap, T., Parpan, T., Petrakis, P.V., Piškur, B., Ravn, H.P., Ronse, A., Roques, A., Schühli, G.S., Sivickis, K., Talgø, V., Tomoshevich, M., Uimari, A., Ulyshen, M., Vettraino, A.M., Villari, C., Wang, Y., Witzell, J., Zlatković, M., Eschen, R.

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The fungus Neonectria fuckeliana has become an increasing problem on Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the Nordic countries during recent years. Canker wounds caused by the pathogen reduce timber quality and top-dieback is a problem for the Christmas tree industry. In this study, four inoculation trials were conducted to examine the ability of N. fuckeliana to cause disease on young Norway spruce plants and determine how different wound types would affect the occurrence and severity of the disease. Symptom development after 8–11 months was mainly mild and lesion lengths under bark were generally minor. However, N. fuckeliana could still be reisolated and/or molecularly detected. Slow disease development is in line with older studies describing N. fuckeliana as a weak pathogen. However, the results do not explain the serious increased damage by N. fuckeliana registered in Nordic forests and Christmas tree plantations. Potential management implications, such as shearing Christmas trees during periods of low inoculum pressure, cleaning secateurs between trees, and removal and burning of diseased branches and trees to avoid inoculum transfer and to keep disease pressure low, are based on experiments presented here and experiences with related pathogens.

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Phytophthora cryptogea, P. gonapodyides, P. lacustris, P. megasperma, P. plurivora, P. taxon paludosa and an unknown Phytophthora species were isolated from waterways and soil samples in Christmas tree fields in southern Sweden. In addition, P. megasperma was isolated from a diseased Norway spruce (Picea abies) plant from one of the fields in Svalöv. Inoculation tests were sequentially carried out with one isolate from each of the three species P. cryptogea, P. megasperma, and P. plurivora, all known pathogens on conifers. The same three isolates were used to study a few morphological features to confirm the identification, and temperature-growth relationships were carried out to see how well the organisms fit into Swedish climatic conditions. Seedlings of Norway spruce and Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana) were inoculated in the roots and the stems. None of the isolates caused extensive root rot under the experimental conditions, but all three species could be re-isolated from both Norway spruce and Nordmann fir. Phytophthora root rot is currently of minor concern for Christmas tree growers in Sweden. However, the Phytophthora isolations from soil and water indicate the presence of this damaging agent, which may lead to future problems.

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Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge i nær framtid. Denne rapporten presenterer resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2017 og trender over tid for følgende temaer...

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Introduction and purpose: The ability of apple rootstocks to become infected by Neonectria ditissima, the cause of European canker, was studied over two years. Materials and methods: Rootstocks B9 and M9 with a size suitable for grafting (6-10 mm stem diameter, termed rootstocks), and smaller sized rootstocks (<5 mm stem diameter, termed transplants) of B9, M9, M26, MM106 and Antonovka were inoculated with N. ditissima at different times, either with contaminated map pins or with spore suspensions. In addition, the rootstocks were either defeathered (side shoots removed), topped (top shoot headed) or both, to create wounds that would normally occur during propagation, while wounds on transplants were made by removing leaves. Results and discussion: One month after inoculation, slightly sunken canker lesions had developed around the inoculation points of the map pins or wounds. No lesions developed on the non-inoculated controls. Map pin inoculation resulted in 30% to 89% infection and spore suspension sprayed on wounds from 5% to 45% infection. When the cankered areas were split open, brown lesions with necrotic tissue due to infection by N. ditissima appeared. The transplants of M9, M26 and MM106 inoculated with contaminated map pins in 2014 developed necrosis on 40% to 67% of the plants, but there were no differences in the incidence or severity among the different types. On the transplants of B9, Antonovka and M9 inoculated in 2015, there was more necrosis on B9 (42%) than on Antonovka (11%) and more sporulating lesions on B9 (29%) than on M9 (9%) or on Antonovka (4%). Conclusion: It can be concluded that rootstocks used for apple trees may become infected by N. ditissima, and wounds should thus be protected during propagation.

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Field trials of Abies lasiocarpa were undertaken with the aim of assessing the potential for Christmas tree production in Denmark. Twenty-six provenances originating from Alaska to New Mexico were tested. Damage by the insect Adelges piceae and the fungus Neonectria neomacrospora was recorded for the first time 8 and 12 years after the initial planting. Damage from N. neomacrospora increased rapidly in the period 12–15 years after planting. Trees from the northern provenances and humid climates exhibited less damage than those from southern ones. Previous attack by A. piceae had a minor effect on N. neomacrospora infection. Greenhouse tests showed that detached shoots from healthy Abies lasiocarpa can be used to rank provenances for resistance to N. neomacrospora, but results varied according to host subspecies.

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The impact of Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis) and Grovesiella canker (Grovesiella abieticola) on subalpine (Abies lasiocarpa) and corkbark fir (A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica) in a provenance trial in Idaho (ID) was evaluated in 2013. Both pathogens were previously reported from North America on fir species. D. abietis had been found on subalpine fir in USA, but not in ID, and G. abieticola on grand fir (Abies grandis) in ID, but not on subalpine or corkbark fir. D. abietis kills current-year needles and in severe cases buds and shoots, and G. abieticola results in dead shoots and branches and can eventually kill whole trees. Significant differences between provenances in susceptibility to D. abietis and G. abieticola were observed in the provenance trial in ID. In general, subalpine fir was more susceptible to both diseases than corkbark fir. In 2013, D. abietis was also found on subalpine fir in the Puget Sound area of Washington State and G. abieticola was seen on white fir (Abies concolor), but neither disease was detected in native stands of subalpine fir in Washington State. Morphological features of both fungi were described from samples collected in the provenance trial in ID in May 2016.

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Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, was detected for the first time in Norway in 1986. It was a limited outbreak on the south-western coast, only on ornamentals, and particularly on Cotoneaster spp. An action group handling the eradication and containment of the disease was quickly established. Comprehensive statutory powers and resources were given by the government to do surveys and eradicate diseased or symptomless but highly susceptible plant species from contaminated areas. These activities have likely restricted fire blight to the western and southern coastal areas. Eastern and northern parts of Norway are considered free from fire blight. The disease has not been observed in important fruit-growing areas. Uncontrolled movement of beehives from areas with fire blight to areas free from the disease has contributed to its introduction to new areas. From 1969 to 2016 import of most host plants of E. amylovora from countries with fire blight was prohibited. A yearly program for annual surveys in parts of the country with commercial fruit-growing and nurseries, using digital maps on internet connected tablets with GPS and software for in situ registrations, proved to be an efficient method for discovering new outbreaks at an early stage, and to start eradication and thus limit further spread.

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Fleire soppar kan angripa kongler av gran (Picea spp.) og føra til dårleg spiring av frø. Frøsmitte kan også overførast til planter og gjera skade seinare i omløpet, både i planteskular og i produksjonsfelt til skog og juletre.

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Production of inoculum of Colletotrichum acutatum from both previously infected and overwintered tissue, as well as newly developed plant tissue of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), was studied in southern Norway. Plant parts were sampled from commercial, private, or research orchards, and incubated for 2 to 14 days (time depended on tissue type) in saturated air at 20°C. In early spring, abundant sporulation was found on scales of overwintered buds and shoots. A mean of 35% infected buds in four cultivars was observed, with a maximum of 72% of the buds infected in one of the samples. Over 3 years, the seasonal production of overwintered fruit and peduncles of cv. Fanal infected the previous year was investigated. In all three years, the infected plant material was placed in the trees throughout the winter and the following growing season; in two of the years, fruit and peduncles were also placed on the ground in the autumn or the following spring. Old fruit and peduncles formed conidia throughout the season, with a peak in May and June. Spore numbers declined over the season, but the decline was more rapid for plant material on the ground than in the trees. On average over 2 years, 68.7, 24.0, or 7.3% of the inoculum came from fruit placed in the trees, placed on the ground in spring, or placed on the ground the preceding autumn, respectively. The number of fruit and peduncles attached to the trees in a planting of cv. Hardangerkirsebær was followed from February to July one year, and although there was a decline over time, fruit and/or their peduncles were still attached in substantial numbers in July, thus illustrating their potential as sources of inoculum. In observations over 2 years in a heavily infected orchard of cv. Stevnsbær, 75 and 47% of flowers and newly emerged fruit, respectively, were infected. Artificially inoculated flowers and fruit produced conidia until harvest, with a peak in mid-July. It may be concluded that previously infected and overwintered, as well as newly emerged tissue of sour cherry, may serve as sources of inoculum of C. acutatum throughout the growing season.

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On September 6th – 11th in 2015, the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO) organized The 12th International Christmas Tree Research and Extension Conference (CTREC) at Honne, Norway. Around 40 participants from Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, UK, and USA gathered to share skills and recent research related to Christmas tree production and marketing. Nearly 50 presentations (oral and poster) were given during the conference covering the following topics; Breeding & genetic, Insects, Tree health, Physiology, Growth conditions & integrated pest management, Postharvest, and Market & economy. Abstracts, extended abstracts or papers from all presentations are available in this proceedings.

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The fungus Neonectria neomacrospora has recently caused an epidemic outbreak in conifer species within the genus Abies in Denmark and Norway. Christmas tree producers in Europe and North America rely, to a large extent, on Abies species. The damage caused by N. neomacrospora, including dead shoot tips, red flagging of branches and potentially dead trees, have therefore caused concern about reduced quality and loss of trees, and thereby of revenue. Field observations of natural infection of 39 taxa, from 32 species, within the genus Abies in the Hørsholm Arboretum, Denmark, were evaluated; significant differences were seen between taxa, that is, species, and between some species and their subspecies. The Greek fir, Abies cephalonica, was the only species without damage. An inoculation experiment on detached twigs with mycelium plugs from a N. neomacrospora culture showed that all species could be infected. The damage observed in the inoculation experiment could explain 30% of the variation in the field observations based on species mean values. The epidemic outbreak and the high number of species susceptible to this fungus indicate that N. neomacrospora requires attention in the cultivation and conservation of Abies species.

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Fire blight was detected for the first time in Norway in 1986. It was a limited outbreak on the West Coast, only on ornamentals, particularly on Cotoneaster. An organization for the eradication and containment of fire blight was quickly established, and given comprehensive statutory powers and government resources to do surveys and eradicate diseased plants and highly susceptible plants from contaminated areas. The work has managed to restrict fire blight to the West Coast. Eastern and Northern parts of the country are considered pest free areas. The disease has not moved into important fruit-growing areas. Spread of fire blight to new areas has mainly been due to uncontrolled movement of beehives. From 1969 to 2016 import of all host plants from countries with fire blight has been prohibited. Systematic yearly surveys by foot and car in all parts of the country, using digital maps, internet connected tablets with GPS, and software for registrations made in the field have proved to be an efficient tool to spot new outbreaks at an early stage and start eradication, thus limiting further spread.

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Pseudomonas syringae was isolated from symptomatous goat willow trees (and some other tree species) from different locations in Norway. The isolates were characterized by different methods and their pathogenicity proven by bioassays. We conclude that the pathogen represents a threat to the health of goat willow and other host plants in Norwegian natural environment.

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De siste ti årene er det i Norge, som i mange andre land, observert store skader på trær og andre planter både i grøntanlegg og naturområder etter angrep av planteskadegjørere innen slekten Phytophthora. Spredningen og sjukdomsomfanget viser med all tydelighet at arter av Phytophthora har et stort skadepotensiale og må tas på største alvor.

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Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis) attacks true firs (Abies spp.) in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa), one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

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