Vedlegg

CV

Biografi

Forskningsområder:

  • Gress til grøntanlegg
  • Integrert plantevern med fokus på myntflekk og mikrodochium flekk
  • Vinterstyrke
  • Abiotiske stressfaktorer (is, vann, temperatur)
  • Etablering, reetablering og skjøtsel av gress til grøntanlegg

Tjenester:

  • Diagnose av sykdommer på gress

Utdanning:

PhD in Agricultural Sciences at National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (2004) and in Plant Pathology at Norwegian University of Life Sciences, UMB (2011).

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Sammendrag

The aim of the project is to evaluate and assess measures in lawn care management and at the same time to combine new techniques and alternative products to control diseases such as snow mold (Microdochium nivale) and dollar spots (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa) without or with a greatly reduced use of pesticides. Therefore, the lawn research group of the NIBIO (Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research) started a project on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) with a focus on the most important fungal diseases and insect pests on golf turf. The project is supported by STERF (Scandinavian Turf and Environmental Research Foundation) and the R&A (The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews) as main sponsors, as well as by the German Golf Association, the Netherlands Golf Federation sponsor, the Botaniska Analysgruppen Sweden and the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The current project aims is to develop new findings with regard to the increasing challenges in dealing with the above-mentioned pests. The two questions to check are: (1) the effectiveness of the “rolling” of greens (dollar spot treatment) and the effectivity of UV-C exposure (snow mold prevention). For this reason, two different attempts were made on a putting green at the golf course Osnabrueck (Bissendorf-Jeggen).

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Sammendrag

To reduce the dependency of fungicides in treating turf grass diseases we investigated the use of biostimulants and colour pigments and their capacity to prevent the proliferation of microdochium and anthracnose on annual meadow grass (Poa annua). The study was conducted in two sites (Landvik, Norway and Bingley, United Kingdom) for two years (May 2020 – May 2022). The biostimulant Hicure could reduce the fungicidal use from three to two without loss of efficiency in treating the fungal diseases. The biostimulant also preserved the visual quality of the turf grasses when reducing the fungicidal treatment from three to two. The colour pigment Ryder in all treatments was effective at increasing the colour intensity of the turf grasses compared to the control. Additionally, the biostimulant treatments could treat anthracnose better than the fungicidal only treatment. The biostimulant Hicure and the colour pigment Ryder have potential for further research and development to reduce the use of fungicides while simultaneously preserving the pristine quality of turf grasses in golf greens.

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Sammendrag

The objective of SCANGREEN 2019-22 was to find species, varieties and seed blends/mixtures of Agrostis, Festuca, Poa and Lolium that are suited for pesticide-free management of putting greens in the two major climatic zones of the Nordic countries and in the northern USA. The four test sites in the Nordic countries were Reykjavik GC, Iceland and NIBIO Apelsvoll in the the northern zone, and NIBIO Landvik, Norway and Smørum GC, Denmark in the southern zone. The two US test sites were located at Troll Turfgrass Research Facility in Massachusetts and at University of Minnesota. The trials included 30 candidate varieties representing eight different species and subspecies from 13 different seed companies/representatives, and three seed mixtures of red fescue and colonial and creeping bentgrass, a seed mixture of creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass and a seed blend of red fescue. Monthly evaluations of overall impression, tiller density, winter hardiness, disease and weed coverage etc., were done from three weeks after sowing in June-September 2019 until October 2022. The trial at Smørum GC was established in May 2021. The trials were established according to a split-plot design with three blocks (replicates), species on main plots and varieties on subplots. The experimental greens were mown three times per week – Monday, Wednesday, and Friday and deficit-irrigated to 80% of field capacity three to four times per week in periods without sufficient natural rainfall. Fertilizer (mean N–P–K ratio, 100–22–74) was given as completely balanced compound fertilizers every second week. Each experimental green was divided in different management levels: High and low fertilizer rate and high and low mowing. The two fertilizer rates were 10 and 17 g N m−2 yr−1 and the two mowing heights were 3 and 5 mm. Mixtures were managed at both regimes. There was no use of pesticides or plant growth regulators in any of the trials.

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Sammendrag

I feltforsøk med lett rulling av en rødsvingeldominert golfgreen ved Københavns golfklubb i 2020 og 2021 ble effekten på Microdochiumflekk studert. Greenen ble rullet to eller fire ganger i uka i tre eller fem måneder fram til november hvert år. Det var ikke noe soppangrep i 2021, men resultatene fra 2020 viste at rulling hadde statistisk sikker effekt og reduserte mikrodochiumflekk fra 5% på ubehandlet til 2,0 og 2,3 % der det var rullet henholdsvis to eller fire ganger i uka. Grønnfarge og visuelt helhetsinntrykk ble også påvirket av rulling. Helhetsinntrykket ble forbedret av rulling. Grønnfargen om høsten var best for ubehandlede ruter i 2020, men det var ingen forskjeller i 2021. Forsøket antyder at lett rulling to ganger i uka fra august til november kan redusere angrep av mikrodochiumflekk på rødsvingeldominerte greener i Skandinavia.

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Sammendrag

Clarireedia spp., Fusarium culmorum, and Microdochium nivale are destructive and widespread fungal pathogens causing turfgrass disease. Chemical control is a key tool for managing these diseases on golf greens but are most effective when used in a manner that reduces overall inputs, maximizes fungicide efficacy, and minimizes the risk of fungicide resistance. In this study, sensitivity to eight commonly used fungicides was tested in 13 isolates of Clarireedia spp., F. culmorum, and M. nivale via in vitro toxicity assays. Fungicide sensitivity varied significantly among the three species, with isolates of F. culmorum showing the least sensitivity. The sensitivity of M. nivale to all tested fungicides was high (with the exception of tebuconazole), but only four fungicides (Banner Maxx®, Instrata® Elite, Medallion TL, and Switch® 62,5 WG) suppressed the growth of M. nivale completely at a concentration of 1% of the recommended dose. All three fludioxonil-containing fungicides either alone (Medallion TL) or in combination with difeconazole (Instrata® Elite) or cyprodinil (Switch® 62,5 WG) had the same high efficacy against isolates of both M. nivale and Clarireedia spp. On average, the Clarireedia isolates tested in this study showed high sensitivity to the tested fungicides, except for Heritage (azoxystrobin). The observed variation in sensitivity among isolates within the same fungal species to different fungicides needs further investigation, as an analysis of the differences in fungal growth within each fungal group revealed a significant isolate × fungicide interaction (p < .001).

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Sammendrag

Denne rapporten oppsummerer foreløpige resultater fra 2020 i IPM-Golf-prosjektet "Ingergrated Management of Important Turfgrass Diseases and Insect Pests on European Golf-Courses" Feltforsøk på Microdochium flekk ble utført i Landvik, Norge og Bingley, Storbritannia. På Landvik viste resultatene at rulling ved lav N og sitronsyre, tilført fra aug.-okt. kan redusere Microdochium flekk til en viss grad blant de ikke-kjemiske behandlingene. Høy N resulterte i mer Mikrodochium flekk, men mindre antraknose. På Bingley viste resultatene at behandlingene som inneholder jernsulfat spesielt høyt jern, lyktes med å kontrollere sykdommen, men effekten varte ikke gjennom vinteren. Feltforsøkene ved Kjøpenhavns Golf Club viste at rulling to ganger i uken forbedret kvaliteten på greens gjennom vekstsesongen og at reduksjon av Microdochium flekk ble oppnådd ved å rulle fra august til desember. Feltforsøkene med UV-C-stråling ved Osnabrück Golf Club viste at denne metoden kunne kontrollere, men ikke bekjempe fullstendig dollar spot. Litteraturgjennomgangen om myrstankelbein og hageoldenborre viste at problemene varierer sterkt mellom år og de ulike landene.

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Sammendrag

Dollar spot, caused by at least five Clarireedia species (formerly Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F. T. Benn.), is one of the economically most important turfgrass diseases worldwide. The disease was detected for the first time in Scandinavia in 2013. There is no available information from Scandinavian variety trials on resistance to dollar spot in turfgrass species and cultivars (http://www.scanturf.org/). Our in vitro screening (in glass vials) of nine turfgrass species comprising a total of 20 cultivars showed that on average for ten Clarireedia isolates of different origin, the ranking for dollar spot resistance in turfgrass species commonly found on Scandinavian golf courses was as follows: perennial ryegrass = slender creeping red fescue > strong creeping red fescue > Kentucky bluegrass = velvet bentgrass > colonial bentgrass = Chewings fescue ≥ creeping bentgrass = annual bluegrass. Significant differences in aggressiveness among Clarireedia isolates of different origin were found in all turfgrass species except annual bluegrass (cv. Two Putt). The U.S. C. jacksonii isolate MB-01 and Canadian isolate SH44 were more aggressive than C. jacksonii isolates from Denmark and Sweden (14.10.DK, 14.15.SE, and 14.16.SE) in velvet bentgrass and creeping bentgrass. The Swedish isolate 14.112.SE was generally more aggressive than 14.12.NO despite the fact that they most likely belong to the same Clarireedia sp. The U.S. C. monteithiana isolate RB-19 had similar aggressiveness as the Scandinavian C. jacksonii isolates, but was less aggressive than two U.S. C. jacksonii isolates MB-01 and SH44. Thus, aggressiveness of Clarireedia isolates was more impacted by their geographic origin and less by species of the isolate and/or the host turfgrass species.

Sammendrag

In 2018–2019, establishment problems were encountered, after reseeding creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) on a sand-based putting green after ice encasement at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center, Norway. Seeds germinated, but the seedlings attained a purple color and died in large patches. Replacement of the top 3 cm layer with new sand amended with Sphagnum peat or garden compost did not solve the problem. To explain this phenomenon, we (1) analyzed the original substrate for nematodes in patches with and without reestablishment failure; and (2) conducted a factorial pot trial with creeping bentgrass and Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. commutata) seeded on different substrates, some of them in layers, and with and without phosphorus (P) fertilization. The nematode counts showed six times more stubby-root nematodes and two times more spiral nematodes and needle nematodes in the patches with dead seedlings than in the patches with healthy seedings. In the pot trial, the fastest and slowest reestablishment was observed with new sand amended with garden compost and in the two treatments that included the original substrate, respectively. Replacement of the top 3 cm of the old substrate with new garden compost resulted in stagnation of bentgrass seedlings from four weeks after seeding, while fescue seedlings were unaffected. We conclude that the failure to reestablish creeping bentgrass was primarily due to nematodes, which are likely to be more critical for seedlings than for established turf. The green was later reestablished successfully with a 100 % red fescue seed blend.

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Sammendrag

Seed mixtures with a nurse grass that germinates quickly at low soil temperatures can be an option for faster establishment of Agrostis stolonifera (AS) putting greens after winter damage. From 2015 to 2018 Poa trivialis (PT) ‘Dark Horse’ and Lolium perenne (LP) ‘Chardin’ were evaluated as nurse grasses in comparison with pure AS ‘Independence’ at two experimental sites in each of the two major climatic zones of the Nordic countries. Poa annua (PA) ‘Two‐Putt’ was also included as a nurse grass in the northern zone. As an overall trend, establishment was faster with AS+LP than with AS+PT and AS+PA, which in turn had faster establishment than pure AS. In the northern zone, AS+PT produced better turf quality than pure AS in the seeding year and year after and tended to be superior even on average for the entire trial period (mean value 6.0 vs. 5.8 for pure AS, 5.3 for AS+LP, and 4.6 for AS+PA; scale 1–9 where 9 is the highest quality). In the same zone, AS+PT also suffered less overall winter damage than the other combinations and was less infected with microdochium patch than pure AS. In the southern zone, PT and especially LP were far more persistent than in the northern zone and compromised turfgrass quality compared with pure AS. In conclusion, we recommend PT as a nurse grass for faster establishment of AS putting in the northern zone, but not in the southern zone where AS should rather be seeded in a pure stand.

Sammendrag

This research aimed to determine if creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) can be used as an alternative to colonial bentgrass (Agrostis capillaris L.) in a mixture with red fescue [equal rates of Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. commutata Gaud.) and slender creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. littoralis [G. Mey.] Auquier)] on Nordic golf greens managed without pesticides. The two mixtures were compared in two experiments: Experiment 1 under the creeping bentgrass management regime (mowing height, 3 mm; fertilization, 15 g N m−2 yr−1) and Experiment 2 under the red fescue management regime (5 mm and 10 g N m−2 yr−1) at three sites during 2015–2018. A seed mixture of red fescue and velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.) was included in Experiment 2 only. The results showed that red fescue plus creeping bentgrass produced greens of equal turfgrass quality and with less Microdochium patch than red fescue plus colonial bentgrass under both regimes. In Experiment 2, red fescue plus velvet bentgrass resulted in higher turfgrass quality than the other mixtures but was more susceptible to Microdochium patch than red fescue plus creeping bentgrass. Tiller counts in the mixed plots at Landvik showed that red fescue was not outcompeted by bentgrass in any of the mixtures and that it was easier to manipulate the balance between red fescue and bentgrass in the mixture with creeping bentgrass than that with colonial bentgrass. More research should be put into optimal management, especially irrigation and thatch control, of mixed red fescue–bentgrass greens.

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Sammendrag

Dollar spot was officially documented in Scandinavia in 2013 and the spread and damage from this disease has increased during last years. In summer 2017, on the golf greens with red fescue (Vallda GC, Sweden) and with the mixture of red fescue, colonial bentgrass and annual bluegrass (Roskilde GC, Denmark) rolling 2 times per week reduced dollar spot 61% and 37% and rolling 4 times per week reduced dollar spot 95% and 54%, respectively. Thus, rolling 3-4 times per week can be recommended on golf greens with dollar spot pressure. In the experiment 2018 dollar spot was reduced 24% with increase in nitrogen from 150 to 240 kg ha-1 yr-1 on creeping bentgrass/annual bluegrass golf green (Kävlinge GK, Sweden). However, the increased N-rate lead to a higher degree Microdochium patch from 14% to 30%.

Sammendrag

This is a report on the potential of NanoPro™ to reduce the rate of two commonly used fungicides for control of Microdochium patch (Microdochium nivale), the economically most important turfgrass disease in Scandinavia. The experiment was conducted from 14 Sept. 2018 to 1 May 2019 on an annual bluegrass golf green at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center Landvik. Use of NanoPro™ at a rate of 292 ml/ha in tank mixture with the systemic fungicide Delaro® SC 325 or/and the contact fungicide Medallion® TL produced the same level of disease control with a 30-60% reduction in fungicide dosage as with full fungicide dosage without additive. NanoPro™ was more effective with Medallion® TL than with Delaro® SC 325. We conclude that NanoPro™ may have a big potential in Scandinavia and other countries where authorities require reduced fungicide use. The experiment should be repeated one more year before giving final recommendations.

Sammendrag

Dette er den første rapporten om potensialet for additivet NanoPro til å redusere doseringen av de to mest brukte fungicider for bekjemping av mikrodochium flekk (Microdochium nivale), den økonomisk viktigste sykdommen på golfbaner i Skandinavia. Forsøket ble gjennomført fra 14.sept. 2018 til 1.mai 2019 på en tunrappgreen ved NIBIO Turfgrass Research Centre Landvik. Bruk av NanoPro 292 ml/ha i tankblanding, først med det systemiske fungicidet Delaro® SC 325 den 19.sept.18 og deretter med kontakt fungicidet Medallion® TL den 15.nov.18 gjorde det mulig å oppnå samme sykdomskontoll med 30-60 % mindre dose av fungicid. Virkningen av NanoPro var bedre med Medallion® TL enn med Delaro® SC 325. Våre foreløpige data tyder på at NanoPro kan være et viktig hjelpemiddel for å redusere forbruket av soppmidler på golfbaner. Forsøket bør gjentas ett år for å dokumentere effekten av NanoPro igjennom en artikkel i et vitenskapelig tidsskrift.

Sammendrag

This a first report from testing of NanoGro on established fairway. The aim of the trial was to investigate the potential of NanoGro to improve turfgrass quality and reduce fertilizer cost on established turf at fairway mowing height in a Scandinavian environment.The experiment was conducted in May-October 2019 at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center Landvik. NanoGro improved turf quality when no fertilizer was applied. However, NanoGro had no effect when combined with turfgrass fertilizers.

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Sammendrag

Dollar spot is a destructive and widespread disease affecting most turfgrass species, but until recently it has been absent from the Scandinavian countries of northern Europe. In the fall of 2014, disease symptoms consistent with dollar spot were observed on a golf course fairway in Sweden. A fungus was isolated from symptomatic turf and identified as Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on the basis of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, morphology, and culture characteristics. The ITS sequence was identical to isolates of S. homoeocarpa from the eastern and midwestern United States. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled, confirming the S. homoeocarpa isolate as the causal agent. This is the first report of turfgrass dollar spot in Sweden and only the second report of the disease from Scandinavia. Because pesticides are rarely used in the cultivation of Scandinavian turfgrass, dollar spot disease may prove difficult to control through conventional means and potentially represents a major threat to the industry.

Sammendrag

Ice encasement (IE) is the most economically important winter stress in Scandinavia; however, little is known about the IE tolerance of different turfgrass species and subspecies except that creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is more tolerant than annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of IE and two protective covers (plastic and plastic over a 10-mm woven mat) on the winter survival of six cool-season turfgrasses commonly used on golf greens. The experiment was conducted on a sand-based green at Apelsvoll, Norway (60°42′ N, 10°51′ E) during the winters of 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Turfgrass samples (8 cm in diameter, 10 cm deep) were removed from the plots at the time of cover installation and throughout the winter. The samples were potted and percent live turfgrass cover assessed after 21 d of regrowth in a growth chamber. Percent turfgrass cover, percent disease, and turfgrass quality were also registered in the field plots in spring. Results indicated that velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.) had superior tolerance to IE, surviving for 98 and 119 d of IE during the winters of 2011–2012 and 2012–2013, respectively. The order of IE tolerance in 2012–2013 was: velvet bentgrass > creeping bentgrass > Chewing’s fescue (Festuca. rubra L. ssp. commutata), slender creeping red fescue (F. rubra L. ssp. litoralis) ≥ colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris) > annual bluegrass. Colonial bentgrass responded negatively to both protective covers in 2012 due to the development of Microdocium nivale. None of the species benefited from the plastic cover alone, compared with natural snow conditions. Annual bluegrass was the only species that benefited from plastic over a woven mat.

Sammendrag

Ice encasement (IE) is the most economically important winter stress in Scandinavia; however, little is known about the IE tolerance of different turfgrass species and subspecies except that creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is more tolerant than annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of IE and two protective covers (plastic and plastic over a 10-mm woven mat) on the winter survival of six cool-season turfgrasses commonly used on golf greens. The experiment was conducted on a sand-based green at Apelsvoll, Norway (60°42′ N, 10°51′ E) during the winters of 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Turfgrass samples (8 cm in diameter, 10 cm deep) were removed from the plots at the time of cover installation and throughout the winter. The samples were potted and percent live turfgrass cover assessed after 21 d of regrowth in a growth chamber. Percent turfgrass cover, percent disease, and turfgrass quality were also registered in the field plots in spring. Results indicated that velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.) had superior tolerance to IE, surviving for 98 and 119 d of IE during the winters of 2011–2012 and 2012–2013, respectively. The order of IE tolerance in 2012–2013 was: velvet bentgrass > creeping bentgrass > Chewing’s fescue (Festuca. rubra L. ssp. commutata), slender creeping red fescue (F. rubra L. ssp. litoralis) ≥ colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris) > annual bluegrass. Colonial bentgrass responded negatively to both protective covers in 2012 due to the development of Microdocium nivale. None of the species benefited from the plastic cover alone, compared with natural snow conditions. Annual bluegrass was the only species that benefited from plastic over a woven mat.

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Sammendrag

There has long been a claim that winter injuries of grass are a significant economic burden for golf courses in the Nordic countries. To confirm this claim, in 2015 the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research and the Norwegian Golf Federation, with support of the Scandinavian Turfgrass and Environment Research Foundation, conducted a net-based survey about winter injury in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). This comprehensive survey showed that total costs of repair of winter-injured greens and fairways together with lost revenue on golf courses in the Nordic countries can be at least €14 million. In a year with significant winter injuries, the average cost to repair the turf was between €3000 and €12,000 on 88% of the courses. The revenue loss after a winter with considerable injuries was less than €6000 at 50% of the courses, and 25% of the courses reported a loss between €6000 and €12,000 for these years. The causes of winter injuries varied depending on geography and grass species used on the greens. Biotic factors played a major role in the southern part of Scandinavia, and ice and water injuries were most devastating north of 60°N. This paper summarizes some of the answers from the respondents, including information about the dominating grass species on Nordic golf greens.

Sammendrag

Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett is an important turfgrass pathogen on golf courses. Our objective was to evaluate Gliocladium catenulatum Gilman & Abbott and/or Streptomyces species for biological control of M. nivale on golf greens. The microbial agents were tested relative to fungicides and an untreated control in vitro and in five field trials from 2011 to 2014. G. catenulatum (Turf G+/WPG, Verdera OY, Finland) was applied from October to December and in March–April, while Streptomyces species (Turf S+/WPS, same manufacturer) was applied from May to October, both at four week intervals. In vitro, Streptomyces species suppressed the growth of M. nivale at 6 and 16°C, while G. catenulatum suppressed growth of M. nivale at 16°C only. In contrast, neither product, nor their combination, had any consistent effect in the field trials. A statistically significant reduction in Microdochium patch (from 3 to 2% of plot area) was seen in a trial on a green dominated by Festuca rubra L., but this reduction was deemed to be of little practical interest to the greenkeeper. Despite multiple applications over 3 yr to build up an antagonistic microflora, only fungicides reduced M. nivale significantly on greens dominated by Poa annua L. or Agrostis capillaris L., which generally had more disease. In conclusion, this research showed no potential of G. catenulatum or Streptomyces species to replace fungicides for control of M. nivale on northern-latitude golf greens.

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Sammendrag

Red fescue (RF, Festuca rubra L.) is used on golf putting greens in the Nordic region due to its high disease resistance and low requirements for nitrogen (N) and water, but low density and growth rate makes RF susceptible to annual bluegrass (AB, Poa annua L.) invasion. Putting greens seeded with RF + bentgrass (Agrostis sp.) may be more competitive with AB but also have different playing characteristics. Our objective was to compare RF, RF + colonial bentgrass (CB, Agrostis capillaris L.), and RF + velvet bentgrass (VB, Agrostis canina L.) putting greens at two mowing heights (4.0 or 5.5 mm), three N rates (5, 10, or 15 g N m−2 yr−1), and three phosphorus (P)–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi treatments (0 and 1.8 g P m−2yr−1 without inoculation and 0 g P m−2yr−1 with inoculation). The four-factorial experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at Landvik, Norway. Red fescue provided lower visual quality and density and less competition against AB than RF + bentgrass combinations. Increasing the N rate from 5 to 15 g N m−2yr−1 increased the proportion of bentgrass tillers from 53 to 64% in RF + CB and from 86 to 92% in RF + VB. Surface hardness increased in the order RF + VB < RF + CB < RF turfs. Ballroll distance decreased with increasing N rate and was longer with RF and RF + VB than with RF + CB. The main effects of N and mowing height on AB invasion were not significant, but lower mowing increased AB competition in RF. Mycorrhiza colonization of roots was not significantly affected by any practice, and neither P nor arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influenced the competition against AB.

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Sammendrag

This report presents results from a project testing Turf G+/WPG (fungal products containing Gliocladium catenulatum) and Turf S+/WPS (bacterial products containing Streptomyces spp.), both from Interagro BIOS AB, and Vacciplant (seaweed product containing laminarine) from Nordisk Alkali AB, for the control of Microdochium nivale and other diseases on golf greens. Five field trials were carried out in Denmark, Sweden and Norway from October 2011 to September 2014, and Turf G+/WPG and Turf S+ were tested also in vitro. None of the test-products gave any consistent disease control in the field trials. A significant reduction in Microdochium nivale from 3 % of plot area on untreated plots to 2 % on treated plots was seen in one trial, but this was considered to be of little practical relevance. In all other trials with more severe attacks of Microdochium nivale, only the fungicide control treatment showed a significant reduction in disease compared with the untreated control. On average for all field trials over three years, the higher rate of Vacciplant, the combination of Turf G+/WPG and Turf S+/WPS, and the fungicide treatment gave, in turn, 22, 24 and 87 % less microdochium patch in the fall, but among these, only the effect of fungicide was significant. The effects of the biological products on pink or gray (Typhula incarnata) snow mold after snow melt were even smaller. In the in vitro trials, Turf S+ provided good control of Microdochium nivale at 6 and 16 ̊C, but Turf G+/WPG was effective only at the higher temperature. However, since these results could not be repeated under field conditions, we have to conclude that none of the test products represent any real alternative to fungicides for control of M. nivale or other diseases on Scandinavian golf courses.

Sammendrag

Syngenta’s GREENCAST model was used to predict timing of fungicide application against microdochium patch and pink snow mold caused by Microdochium nivale on an experimental golf green with annual bluegrass (Poa annua) at Bioforsk Landvik, Southern Norway from 5 Oct. 2012 until 1 June 2013. From 5 Oct. until snow covered the green on 2 Dec. 2012, application of the fungicides Headway (azoxystrobin + propiconazole) or Medallion (fludioxonil) only at GREENCAST high risk warnings resulted in equal control of microdohium patch with one less fungicide application than prophylactic application every third week, application at first sign of disease or application at GREENCAST medium risk warnings. The consequences for pinks snow mold in spring could not be evaluated as the turf was killed by the combination of ice encasement and low freezing temperatures during winter.