Til dokument

Sammendrag

In recent years, slatted floors made of materials like fiber composite and plastic have been introduced in animal housing systems. These modern floor types are claimed to have low heat conductivity and hence be “better” for the sheep than expanded metal, but the actual preference in sheep has not yet been tested. The aim of this study was to investigate the preference of ewes for different floor materials at low ambient temperatures. The experiment was performed in a non-insulated building and the indoor air temperature varied from -11.8 to + 3 °C. Each experimental pen measured 3.0 x 2.0 m (total 6.0 m2) and were divided into two equal sections (A and B). A total of 30 non-pregnant ewes were sheared and allocated to one of ten stable groups with three animals per group. Five different floor types – expanded metal, slatted floor made of fiber composite, slatted floor made of plastic, solid floor made of wood and solid floor consisting of a rubber mat, were installed in section A and B in the experimental pens. Groups were habituated to all floor material combinations and systematically rotated through the ten pens. Behaviors were scored from 20 hour video recordings using instantaneous sampling at 10 minute intervals. In addition, heat conductivity properties of the five different floor materials were tested. On days with low temperatures, the ewes were standing or walking more, resting less, eating or drinking more and resting more in physical contact than on days with higher temperatures. When given the choice, ewes showed clear preferences for standing/walking and resting on solid floor materials than on slatted floors. This is consistent with earlier preference tests on sheared sheep. Ewes did not seem to show a clear preference for one slatted floor material over another for resting. The proportion of time spent standing/walking in the pen was steadily reduced as air temperature in the barn increased. The present experiment suggests that none of the floor combinations had thermal properties that adversely affect resting and other general behaviors of the animals. The heat conductivity properties were similar among the slatted floors. In conclusion, the claimed favorable thermal properties of plastic slatted floors and fiber composite were not confirmed. There must be other properties of the floor than heat conductivity that influences the preference in ewes.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

In recent years, slatted floors made of materials like fiber composite and plastic have been introduced in animal housing systems. These modern floor types are claimed to have low heat conductivity and hence be “better” for the sheep than expanded metal, but the actual preference in sheep has not yet been tested. The aim of this study was to investigate the preference of ewes for different floor materials at low ambient temperatures. The experiment was performed in a non-insulated building and the indoor air temperature varied from -11.8 to + 3 °C. Each experimental pen measured 3.0 x 2.0 m (total 6.0 m2) and were divided into two equal sections (A and B). A total of 30 non-pregnant ewes were sheared and allocated to one of ten stable groups with three animals per group. Five different floor types – expanded metal, slatted floor made of fiber composite, slatted floor made of plastic, solid floor made of wood and solid floor consisting of a rubber mat, were installed in section A and B in the experimental pens. Groups were habituated to all floor material combinations and systematically rotated through the ten pens. Behaviors were scored from 20 hour video recordings using instantaneous sampling at 10 minute intervals. In addition, heat conductivity properties of the five different floor materials were tested. On days with low temperatures, the ewes were standing or walking more, resting less, eating or drinking more and resting more in physical contact than on days with higher temperatures. When given the choice, ewes showed clear preferences for standing/walking and resting on solid floor materials than on slatted floors. This is consistent with earlier preference tests on sheared sheep. Ewes did not seem to show a clear preference for one slatted floor material over another for resting. The proportion of time spent standing/walking in the pen was steadily reduced as air temperature in the barn increased. The present experiment suggests that none of the floor combinations had thermal properties that adversely affect resting and other general behaviors of the animals. The heat conductivity properties were similar among the slatted floors. In conclusion, the claimed favorable thermal properties of plastic slatted floors and fiber composite were not confirmed. There must be other properties of the floor than heat conductivity that influences the preference in ewes.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Many horse stables have mechanical-fan ventilation systems but still try to regulate ventilation manually by closing doors and windows on a cold winter night. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in air quality in Norwegian horse stables with different ventilation systems on days with low outdoor air temperatures. A total of 19 insulated, mechanically ventilated stables with horses kept inside during the night were included in the study. Almost all fans were operated during the night (n=18), but inlets for fresh air were highly variable in design and management leading to potential for ineffectiveness of ventilation functions. In four of the stables, there were no specific air inlet systems, and in five stables, the exit door was used as the only air inlet. The air exchange rate was sufficient in all the stables with an automated temperature thermostat for ventilation control. Mean level of carbon dioxide (CO2) was 1,800 ppm and in one stable CO2 exceeded 3,000 ppm. Mean inside ammonia (NH3) was 1.3 ppm, and only in one stable the level of NH3 exceeded 5 ppm. The total dust concentration was 0.69 ± 0.19 mg/m3, and in two stables, the dust concentration exceeded 1.0 mg/m3. Total and respirable dust levels were higher in stables with ventilation rate below recommended level. Half of the stables visited had a lower calculated air exchanges rate than recommended, and the majority of the stables regulated the ventilation manually by closing doors and inlets during night. This indicates a general lack of knowledge among the stable managers of climatic demand in horses and how to operate mechanical ventilation. Still, the majority of the stables maintained acceptable air quality, with NH3 and dust levels within recommended levels, although most stables had elevated humidity.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Limited information is available on the extent to which blankets are used on horses and the owners’ reasoning behind clipping the horse’s coat. Research on the effects of those practices on horse welfare is scarce but results indicate that blanketing and clipping may not be necessary from the horse’s perspective and can interfere with the horse’s thermoregulatory capacities. Therefore, this survey collected robust, quantitative data on the housing routines and management of horses with focus on blanketing and clipping practices as reported by members of the Swedish and Norwegian equestrian community. Horse owners were approached via an online survey, which was distributed to equestrian organizations and social media. Data from 4,122 Swedish and 2,075 Norwegian respondents were collected, of which 91 and 84% of respondents, respectively, reported using blankets on horses during turnout. Almost all respondents owning warmblood riding horses used blankets outdoors (97% in Sweden and 96% in Norway) whereas owners with Icelandic horses and coldblood riding horses used blankets significantly less (P < 0.05). Blankets were mainly used during rainy, cold, or windy weather conditions and in ambient temperatures of 10°C and below. The horse’s coat was clipped by 67% of respondents in Sweden and 35% of Norwegian respondents whereby owners with warmblood horses and horses primarily used for dressage and competition reported clipping the coat most frequently. In contrast to scientific results indicating that recovery time after exercise increases with blankets and that clipped horses have a greater heat loss capacity, only around 50% of respondents agreed to these statements. This indicates that evidence-based information on all aspects of blanketing and clipping has not yet been widely distributed in practice. More research is encouraged, specifically looking at the effect of blankets on sweaty horses being turned out after intense physical exercise and the effect of blankets on social interactions such as mutual grooming. Future efforts should be tailored to disseminate knowledge more efficiently, which can ultimately stimulate thoughtful decision-making by horse owners concerning the use of blankets and clipping the horse’s coat.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Formålet med prosjektet var å identifisere ulike faktorer som kunne påvirke velferd hos tamrein, og som kunne implementeres i produksjonssystemene, på beite, i gjerdet, på slakteriet, gjennom produktmerking og fremtidige kvalitetssikringssystemer. I den senere tid har det vært et økt fokus på dyrehelse og -velferd i reindrifta. Det har for eksempel vært et fokus på lave slaktevekter, spesielt i Finnmark, der redusert kjøttkvalitet og dårlig omdømme for næringen som helhet har vært trukket frem som mulige konsekvenser. I tillegg har håndteringsstress vist seg å ha negativer effekter på kjøttkvalitet og holdbarhet. Ved bruk av enkle og målbare velferdsindikatorer har en lykkes å vurdere velferd hos produksjonsdyr i landbruket. Hvis lignende systemer for vurdering av velferd hos tamrein kan utvikles, vil det kunne bidra til en, økonomisk økologisk og kulturelt bærekraftig næring. Varekjeder, foredlere og forbrukerne etterspør store slakt av god kvalitet. Med dokumentasjon av god dyrevelferd i hele verdikjeden, kan en markedsføre reinprodukter ut til butikkene og trolig skape et større marked......

Sammendrag

Reindrifta i Norge er basert på helårsbeite i utmarka. Denne drifta er best i klassen på å ta hensyn til dyras instinkter og atferdsmessige behov. Men høye dødstall og lave slaktevekter har tidvis gitt næringa dårlig omdømme. Nå har reindriftsutøverne samarbeidet med forskere i NIBIO om å finne noen målbare velferdskriterier som skal gjøre dyrevelferden enda bedre.

Sammendrag

Formål: Prosjektets hovedmål var å utvikle vitenskapelig baserte anbefalinger for funksjonelle og enkle driftssystemer for nordnorsk storfékjøttproduksjon, med spesielt fokus på rimelige fjøsløsninger, beiteutnytting og dyrevelferd i et arktisk klima. Materiale og metoder: Rådgivingstjenesten i storfékjøttkontrollen (Nortura) og Mattilsynet gav oss en oversikt over aktuelle eksempelbruk i Nordland, Troms og Finnmark. Brukene skulle være av de beste i landsdelen på produksjon, helse, dyrevelferd og driftsøkonomi. Totalt 12 eksempelbruk ble plukket ut og kontaktet via e-post og telefon. Brukene var fordelt på driftsformene a) oppfôring av innkjøpt kalv (1), b) kombiner melk- og kjøttproduksjon (2), c) ammekuproduksjon med salg av kalv (6) og d) ammekuproduksjon med egen oppfôring av kalvene (3). To eksempelbruk i Finnmark, fire bruk i Troms og seks bruk i Nordland ble besøkt fra april til juni 2015. Dyras adferd, helse og miljøet i fjøset ble registrert. I tillegg ble det gjennomført grundige semistrukturerte intervjuer med gårdbrukerne. Hvert besøk varte fra to til tre timer. Opplysninger om driftsøkonomi ble ettersendt og behandlet konfidensielt som datagrunnlag til bacheloroppgave ved Nord Universitet (leveres november 2016). Rimelige og anbefalte fjøsløsninger: Ni av 12 brukere som vi besøkte, startet storfekjøttproduksjon for å utnytte gårdens ressurser og for å holde jord og bygninger i hevd. De fleste brukerne utnytter gamle driftsbygninger, gjerne i tillegg til nye. God plass (større enn arealkravet per dyr), godt reinhold og godt grovfôr synes å være viktigere enn bygningens beskaffenhet i seg selv. Kaldfjøs (løsdrift) med liggebåser og mulighet til å gå inn og ut året rundt er en ønsket løsning for mange av ammekuprodusentene...

Sammendrag

Nye forskriftskrav har resultert i strukturendringer i landbruket, med overgang fra bås- til løsdriftsfjøs for norske melkekyr. Enkelte bønder har investert i større driftsbygninger, de har økt sine besetninger og flere har valgt automatiske melkesystemer (AMS). Voksne melkekyr skal i følge forskrift om hold av storfe gis tilgang til beite og mosjon i minimum åtte uker i sommerhalvåret. Storfe oppstallet i båsfjøs skal sikres tilgang til mosjon og bevegelse i minimum 16 uker. I et forsøk på å dokumentere omfanget av beitebruk i løsdriftsfjøs i Nordland, Troms og Finnmark, ble det utarbeidet en spørreundersøkelse som i 2015 ble sendt ut til alle med registrert epostadresse i produsentregisteret. I tillegg ble rådgivere, inspektører fra Mattilsynet og representanter fra faglag invitert til å svare på 11 spørsmål om samme tema.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

This paper describes a method in which horses learn to communicate by touching different neutral visual symbols, in order to tell the handler whether they want to have a blanket on or not. Horses were trained for 10–15 min per day, following a training program comprising ten steps in a strategic order. Reward based operant conditioning was used to teach horses to approach and touch a board, and to understand the meaning of three different symbols. Heat and cold challenges were performed to help learning and to check level of understanding. At certain stages, a learning criterion of correct responses for 8–14 successive trials had to be achieved before proceeding. After introducing the free choice situation, on average at training day 11, the horse could choose between a “no change” symbol and the symbol for either “blanket on” or “blanket off” depending on whether the horse already wore a blanket or not. A cut off point for performance or non-performance was set to day 14, and 23/23 horses successfully learned the task within this limit. Horses of warm-blood type needed fewer training days to reach criterion than cold-bloods (P < 0.05). Horses were then tested under differing weather conditions. Results show that choices made, i.e. the symbol touched, was not random but dependent on weather. Horses chose to stay without a blanket in nice weather, and they chose to have a blanket on when the weather was wet, windy and cold (χ2 = 36.67, P < 0.005). This indicates that horses both had an understanding of the consequence of their choice on own thermal comfort, and that they successfully had learned to communicate their preference by using the symbols. The method represents a novel tool for studying preferences in horses.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

There is increasing interest in keeping horses in groups, but progress is hampered by a lack of knowledge about which horses can and should be kept together. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the effect of group composition on the occurrence of injuries among horses, the ease of removing horses from groups and horses’ reactivity to a fearful stimulus. Using a matched case control design, 61 groups of horses were studied in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden. They were allocated into groups of similar or different age and sex or where membership changed regularly or remained stable. Injuries were recorded before mixing the horses into treatment groups, the day after mixing and four weeks later. Reactivity of horses to a moving novel object and the behaviour of a horse being removed from its group and the reactions of other group members towards this horse and the handler were evaluated. It was hypothesized that a more socially variable group composition has beneficial effects on behaviour, ease of handling and reducing reactivity whereas frequent changes in group composition has negative consequences, resulting in more injuries. We found that differences in treatment effects were mainly related to breed, rather than group composition. Icelandic horses reacted less to the movement of the novel object (P = 0.007) and approached it more afterwards (P = 0.04). They also had fewer new injuries than warmbloods following mixing (P < 0.001) and fewer than all other groups four weeks later (P < 0.01). Most new injuries after mixing were minor and recorded on the horse’s head, chest, hind legs and rump. In conclusion, variations in sex and age composition of the group had little effect on injury level, reactivity and ease of handling compared to the general effect of breed. Concerns about the risk of severe injuries associated with keeping horses in groups are probably overestimated. Thus, we propose that horses can be successfully kept in groups of different sex and age composition.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is available about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners’ attitudes toward keeping horses in groups. Horse owners in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were approached using a web-based questionnaire, which was translated into 4 languages and distributed online via equestrian forums, organizations, and social media. The number of respondents was 3,229, taking care of 17,248 horses. Only 8% of horses were never kept in groups, 47% were permanently grouped for 24 h/d, and 45% were stabled singly but grouped during turnout. Yearlings were most often permanently kept in groups (75%), mares and geldings more commonly during parts of the day (50 and 51%, respectively), and stallions were often kept alone (38%). Icelandic horses were more likely to be permanently kept in groups (36%) than warmbloods (16%) and ponies (15%). Twice as many competition horses (51%) were never grouped compared with horses used for breeding (20%) or leisure purposes (15%). The majority of respondents (86%) strongly agreed that group housing benefits horse welfare and that it is important for horses to have the company of conspecifics (92%). Nevertheless, not all horses were kept in groups, showing that attitudes toward group housing may not necessarily reflect current management. The risk of injury was a concern of many respondents (45%), as was introducing unfamiliar horses into already established groups (40%) and challenges in relation to feeding in groups (44%). Safety of people (23%) and difficulties handling groupkept horses (19%) were regarded as less problematic. Results suggest that the majority of horses have the possibility to freely interact with other horses, either as fulltime members of a group during 24 h/d or during turnout. Future research should address the extent to which being a part-time member of a group affects horse welfare. For permanent group housing to become more widespread, such as it is the case for most farm animals, future research could focus on solving some of the reoccurring problems perceived with keeping horses in groups. The dissemination of evidence-based information on all aspects around keeping horses in groups can ultimately stimulate further positive changes in the management of group-kept horses.

Sammendrag

Miljøet som dyret lever i er sentralt i dyrevelferdsbegrepet. Hvis sauen ikke takler miljøet vi tilbyr den, vil dette over tid få store konsekvenser for produksjon og dyrehelse. Derfor er det god økonomi å tilby sauen et godt husdyrmiljø. Formålet med denne utredningen var å fokusere på liggeunderlag til sau. Vi skulle oppsummere eksisterende forskningsresultater og ut fra dette vurdere ulike praktiske løsninger som kan være aktuelle for en bedre tilpasning til de internasjonale krav til økologisk saueproduksjon. Økologiforordningen sier at halvparten av totalarealet skal være tett liggeunderlag, ikke spaltegulv. Norge har per i dag et unntak fra dette kravet. I fremtiden kan det hende at dette unntaket faller bort. Litteraturgjennomgangen viste at fullspaltegulv på hele arealet er vanlig i norske sauefjøs og disse er gjerne av strekkmetall, tre, plast eller komposittmaterialer. Sau med full ull og fri tilgang til grovfôr takler temperaturer ned mot -40 °C i innendørs oppstalling. Ved klipping blir det gjerne bare 3-5 mm ull igjen og varmetapet til kalde omgivelser blir stort. Det er i hovedsak perioden rett etter klipping at sauen kan ha behov for tett liggeunderlag som stjeler mindre varme fra kroppen enn spaltegulvet. Nyfødte lam og syke dyr trenger også tett liggeunderlag som hindrer trekk og store varmetap. Praktiske tilpasninger finnes. Tette gulv anbefales ikke. Men forsøk har vist at en kan legge inn smale liggepaller av tre langs veggene, oppå et fullspaltegulv og hengsle disse opp i perioder der det ikke er behov for dem. Om liggepallene ikke er bredere enn 50 cm, har minst 5 % helning og strøs med sagflis vil de fungere greit uten et altfor stort merarbeid for bonden. Andre løsninger kan være gummimatter som legges inn ved behov, oppå spaltegulvet og som gjenbrukes år etter år. Ulike saueraser fordeler seg ulikt i landskapet. Den samme forskjellen i individualdistanse er også funnet hos ulike raser innendørs og en kan tilrettelegge for maksimal liggetid ved å tilby rikelig med liggeplasser langs veggene i bingen. Hver sau trenger antagelig minst 0,9 meter lengde og 50 cm bred liggepall. I tillegg ser en at større og tyngre raser velger å ligge lengre fra hverandre enn mindre foredlede raser med en sterk naturlig flokkingsadferd. Hvor vidt spaltegulv av materialer med lav varmeledningsevne fortsatt kan anbefales som eneste gulv i sauefjøs er ikke avklart. Det er heller ikke enkelt å definere hvor lang tid etter klipping sauen eventuelt kan ha behov for et tett liggeunderlag, da det ikke finnes forsøk som viser ullvekst på norske raser i et arktisk klima.

Sammendrag

Våren 2014 ble det utarbeidet en spørreundersøkelse til norske hesteeiere som tok for seg spørsmål om oppstalling, luftegårder og beite. Undersøkelsen ble spredt via internett og ble besvart av totalt 2075 personer som drev med hest. Hele 27,5 % oppga at hestene ble holdt i løsdrift/utegang, mens 53,6 % oppga at hestene ble holdt i isolert stall og 16,5 % oppga uisolert stall. Majoriteten av hestene (53,1 %) som ble holdt i tradisjonelle staller var i luftegård 5 – 10 timer pr. dag og 35,0 % var i luftegård > 10 timer pr. dag. På vinterstid ble 35,3 % hestene som stod i tradisjonell stall eller utebokser holdt i luftegårder som var < 300 m2. Blant hestene som stod i tradisjonell stall eller utebokser var det 23,0 % som ble holdt enkeltvis i luftegårdene, mens de resterende ble holdt to eller flere sammen. 84,0 % av respondentene svarte at hesten gikk på beite hele døgnet en periode på sommeren. Undersøkelsen tyder på at hester av kaldblodstype tilbringer mye tid ute og oftest i gruppe, mens spranghester opplever størst restriksjoner på atferdsmessige behov, med minst beitebruk, kortest tid i luftegård og minst gruppehold.

Sammendrag

http://www.smp.se/baksidan/petronella-a-lindgren-hade-min-hast-valt-bort-mig/?share=eyJkYXRhIjp7InVybCI6Imh0dHA6XC9cL3d3dy5zbXAuc2VcL2Jha3NpZGFuXC9wZXRyb25lbGxhLWEtbGluZGdyZW4taGFkZS1taW4taGFzdC12YWx0LWJvcnQtbWlnXC8iLCJ0dGwiOiIxNDQzMDExODMwIiwidXNlcl9pZCI6IjU0ZGI1ZDAzOTk2ZTU5NzYyOTAwMDJjYiJ9LCJzaWduYXR1cmUiOiJyWGQ3XC9xQkU2cmduM3BEMk56SGM3RWpEbDBlZ3dreGFpcEtEYkZxT2ozUT0ifQ==

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Reasons for performing study: Horses may adapt to a wide range of temperatures and weather conditions. Owners often interfere with this natural thermoregulation ability by clipping and use of blankets. Objectives: To investigate the effects of different winter weather conditions on shelter seeking behaviour of horses and their preference for additional heat. Study design: Observational study in various environments. Methods: Mature horses (n=22) were given a free choice test between staying outdoors, going into a heated shelter compartment or into a nonheated shelter compartment. Horse location and behaviour was scored using instantaneous sampling every minute for one hour. Each horse was tested once per day and weather factors were continuously recorded by a local weather station. Results: The weather conditions influenced time spent outdoors, ranging from 52 % (of all observations) on days with mild temperatures, wind and rain to 88 % on days with less than 0°C and dry weather. Shivering was only observed during mild temperatures and rain/sleet. Small Warmblood horses were observed to select outdoors less (34 % of all observations) than small Coldblood horses (80 %). We found significant correlations between hair coat sample weight and number of observations outdoors (ρ = 0.23; P = 0.004). Conclusions: Horses selected shelters the most on days with precipitation and horses changed from a nonheated compartment to a heated compartment as weather changed from calm and dry to wet and windy. Horse breed category affected the use of shelter and body condition score and hair coat weight were associated with voluntary shelter selection.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Mange hesteeiere bruker dekken på sine hester under ulike forhold, både når de er ute, når de står inne, når de ris og under transport, men det finnes ingen oversikt over hvor stort omfanget av dekkenbruk er og hvilke oppfatninger hesteeierne har om bruk av dekken. Innlegg på nettsider, i blogger og i ulike hestetidsskrifter tyder på at hesteeiere har veldig klare, men likevel svært forskjellige oppfatninger om dekkenbruk. Hensikten med denne spørreundersøkelsen var å kartlegge bruk av dekken til hest i Norgeunder ulike vær- og oppstallingsforhold og for ulike hesteraser. Våren 2014 ble det utarbeidet en spørreundersøkelse med til sammen 41 spørsmål til hesteeiere og andre med ansvar for stell av hest om bruk av dekken. Spørsmål og aktuelle svaralternativer ble lagt inn i programmet Quest-back. Spørreundersøkelsen ble publisert på nettstedet til Norsk hestesenter, Norsk Rytterforbund, Norsk Travselskap og nettsiden www.hest.no, samt på nettsidene til NMBU, Veterinærinstituttet (VI) og Bioforsk og også spredt via Facebook. Undersøkelsen ble besvart av totalt 2075 personer som drev med hest. Majoriteten av hesteeierne (55,1 %) var i aldersgruppen 20 – 39 år og 95,6 % av hesteeierne var kvinner. Varmblods ridehest utgjorde den største gruppen (25,1 %) og deretter kom kaldblods ridehest (19,1 %) og Islandshest (14,6 %), men både varmblods og kaldblods travere, engelsk fullblods, arabisk fullblods, frieser og ulike ponnier var representert i materialet. 53,6 % av de 2075 hesteeierne oppga at hestene ble holdt i en isolert stall (med/uten varme) om vinteren, mens 16,5 % oppga at hestene var i en uisolert stall og 25,3 % at hestene gikk i et løsdriftssystem med tilgang til leskur. 83,7 % av de 2075 hesteeierne oppga at de brukte dekken på hestene under gitte forhold når de var ute, mens 16,3 % oppga at de aldri brukte dekken. De viktigste årsakene til at hesteeierne brukte dekken var lave temperaturer, nedbør og vind samt når hesten var svett etter bruk. Det var spesielt ved utetemperaturer under + 10 °C at det ble benyttet dekken på hester som gikk ute. 35,2 % oppga at hesten ble klippet. Nesten 95 % av hesteeierne som hadde varmblods ponnier eller varmblods ride- og kjørehester, oppga at de brukte dekken når hesten var ute. Bare 65,8 % av hesteeiere med kaldblods ponnier oppga at de brukte dekken når hesten var ute, mens tilsvarende tall for hesteeiere med kaldblods ride- og kjørehester var 78,8 %. 59,1 % av eierne bruker dekken på hesten når den står inne. For hester som var oppstallet i isolert stall om vinteren, svarte 92,5 % av hesteeierne at de benyttet dekken på hesten når den var ute, mens tilsvarende tall for hester oppstallet i uisolert stall eller uteboks var 86,9 % og 64,0 % i løsdriftssystemer med utegang. Blant de hesteeierne som klippet hesten sin var det 97,8 % som brukte dekken under noen forhold når hesten var ute, mens tilsvarende tall for de hesteeierne som ikke klippet hesten var 76,0 %.

Sammendrag

Bioforsk ønsket mer kunnskap om den sosiale og kulturelle effekten av å introdusere elektroniske hjelpemidler i reindrifta. Vi presenterte derfor en spørreundersøkelse med mål om å kartlegge reindriftas holdninger til slike hjelpemidler. 62 % av respondentene var positive til elektronisk overvåking av dyrene, 35 % var positive til elektronisk øremerking, 15 % var positive til elektronisk veiing, mens bare 4 % var positive til elektronisk sorteringssystem. Halvparten av respondentene mener ikke elektroniske hjelpemidler vil true den tradisjonelle reindriftsnæringa.

Sammendrag

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different winter weather conditions on shelter seeking behaviour of horses and their preference for additional heat. A total of 17 horses from different breeds were habituated to an experimental paddock with a double-room shelter. In one of the rooms a 1500 W infrared heater provided radiation heat, the other room was not heated. The horses were turned out in their regular paddocks for two hours and then moved to the experimental paddock, where they could stay either in the heated room, in the non-heated room or outside in the 10x6 m paddock. Using instantaneous sampling at one-minute intervals for one hour, a present observer recorded horse’s behaviour and location. A weather station recorded data on wind (directions and speed), precipitation, temperature and sunshine. We registered the horses’ breed, exercise level, body weight, height and body condition, and samples of the horses’ coats were taken for length and quality registration. A Kruskal Wallis test was performed on the preliminary data. We observed great individual differences in the horses’ preferred location under different weather conditions. Horses increased their activity during low temperatures, combined with wind and/or rain (P<0.05). Ponies and warmblood horse breeds used the heated room to a greater extent than cold blood horse breeds (P<0.05). Horses with a low coat sample weight used the shelter more than horses with a large coat sample weight (P<0.05), and individuals with a large body condition score moved around more than individuals with a low body condition score (P<0.05). Muscle shivering was only observed during mild weather and rain. In conclusion, not only the horses breed but its body condition and coat characteristics also affect thermoregulation during winter weather. General activity also seemed to increase with wind, low temperatures and rain.

Sammendrag

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different winter weather conditions on shelter seeking behaviour of horses and their preference for additional heat. A total of 17 horses from different breeds were habituated to an experimental paddock with a double-room shelter. In one of the rooms a 1500 W infrared heater provided radiation heat, the other room was not heated. The horses were turned out in their regular paddocks for two hours and then moved to the experimental paddock, where they could stay either in the heated room, in the non-heated room or outside in the 10x6 m paddock. Using instantaneous sampling at one-minute intervals for one hour, a present observer recorded horse’s behaviour and location. A weather station recorded data on wind (directions and speed), precipitation, temperature and sunshine. We registered the horses’ breed, exercise level, body weight, height and body condition, and samples of the horses’ coats were taken for length and quality registration. A Kruskal Wallis test was performed on the preliminary data. We observed great individual differences in the horses’ preferred location under different weather conditions. Horses increased their activity during low temperatures, combined with wind and/or rain (P<0.05). Ponies and warmblood horse breeds used the heated room to a greater extent than cold blood horse breeds (P<0.05). Horses with a low coat sample weight used the shelter more than horses with a large coat sample weight (P<0.05), and individuals with a large body condition score moved around more than individuals with a low body condition score (P<0.05). Muscle shivering was only observed during mild weather and rain. In conclusion, not only the horses breed but its body condition and coat characteristics also affect thermoregulation during winter weather. General activity also seemed to increase with wind, low temperatures and rain.

Sammendrag

Group housing of horses is not very widespread, despite obvious advantages for their development and mental well-being. One often expressed rationale for this is that horse owners are worried about the risk of injuries due to kicks, bites or being chased into obstacles. To address this concern, we developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used to categorize 1124 injuries in 478 horses. Most of these horses were allocated to groups to study the effect of group composition (i.e. same age or mixed, same gender or mixed, socially stable or unstable groups) on behaviour and injuries. The material included mainly riding and leisure purpose horses of different breeds, age and gender. Most injuries occurred the day after mixing. Injuries of the more severe categories 4 and 5, which normally would necessitate veterinary care and/or loss of function for some time, were not observed at all. The vast majority of the recorded injuries were category 1 lesions (hair loss only). A few such injuries were found on most horses, some horses had none, and a few had many. The second most common injury type was category two (abration/scrape into, but not through the skin, and/or a moderate bruise/contusion). Category 3 injuries (a minor laceration and/or contusion with obvious swelling) were only recorded in a baseline subset of 100 riding horses, there comprising 4% of the injuries. Whereas most of the injuries were found on the body, the category 3 injuries were mainly found on the limbs and head. The reason for this is probably that the skin there is tight and thus is more easily lacerated. Icelandic horses tended to have fewer and less severe injuries compared to other breeds. There was also a breed effect on location of the injuries. We conclude that the risk for serious injuries when horses are kept in groups is generally low and fear of injuries should not be a reason to prevent horses from social interaction with other horses. However, we emphasize that most of the recordings were performed during the summer period, and many horses were unshod. The situation might have been different in winter, and special caution should be taken if mixing horses shod with ice studs.

Sammendrag

Blanketing of horses is a very common management routine. Sometimes, this practice may seem unjustified. Therefore, we wanted to investigate the preferences of the horses themselves. First we developed a method by which the horse learned to communicate its wishes. Thirteen horses were trained to associate three different neutral visual symbols presented to them on a board with the actions 1) blanket is taken off, 2) blanket is put on, and 3) stay as is, and subsequently to communicate their wish by pointing at the relevant symbol. These horses had experience of wearing a blanket, but daily routines varied. All individuals which started the training programme succeeded in learning the task. Second, we tested the horse’ opinion under differing weather conditions. Horses normally wearing a blanket were tested with the blanket on, and those which normally did not, without. At the test days, the horse was taken out of its group and placed in a round pen. To be allowed to leave the round pen and join its pals again, the horse first had to make a choice among two symbols presented to them; to stay as is or to have the blanket removed/put on. The test was repeated under different climatic conditions (from -15 to + 20°C, sunny days and days with precipitation and wind) for each horse during winter, spring and autumn 2013. Preliminary results show that all horses made “sensible” choices. Nine out of the 13 horses wanted to remove the blanket for at least one test day. Naturally, cold blooded horses more often preferred to stay without, and shaved warm blooded horses more often preferred to stay blanketed. However, there were individual differences in both groups, showing that owner perception and the horse own opinion not always matched.

Sammendrag

Blanketing of horses is a very common management routine. Sometimes, this practice may seem unjustified. Therefore, we wanted to investigate the preferences of the horses themselves. First we developed a method by which the horse learned to communicate its wishes. Thirteen horses were trained to associate three different neutral visual symbols presented to them on a board with the actions 1) blanket is taken off, 2) blanket is put on, and 3) stay as is, and subsequently to communicate their wish by pointing at the relevant symbol. These horses had experience of wearing a blanket, but daily routines varied. All individuals which started the training programme succeeded in learning the task. Second, we tested the horse’ opinion under differing weather conditions. Horses normally wearing a blanket were tested with the blanket on, and those which normally did not, without. At the test days, the horse was taken out of its group and placed in a round pen. To be allowed to leave the round pen and join its pals again, the horse first had to make a choice among two symbols presented to them; to stay as is or to have the blanket removed/put on. The test was repeated under different climatic conditions (from -15 to + 20°C, sunny days and days with precipitation and wind) for each horse during winter, spring and autumn 2013. Preliminary results show that all horses made “sensible” choices. Nine out of the 13 horses wanted to remove the blanket for at least one test day. Naturally, cold blooded horses more often preferred to stay without, and shaved warm blooded horses more often preferred to stay blanketed. However, there were individual differences in both groups, showing that owner perception and the horse own opinion not always matched.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Sammendrag: Formålet med dette forsøket var å prøve ut prototype 2 av NoFence virtuelle gjerder på reinsdyr og registrere effekten av systemet på atferd hos forsøksdyra. Åtte voksne dyr ble merket og satt inn i et gjerdeanlegg der de ble tildelt fôr en gang per dag. Forsøket gikk over to dager. Første dag ble dyrenes atferd registrert i gjerdet med aktive NoFence klaver og siste dag ble dyrene observert da det fysiske skillegjerdet ble åpnet. Prototype 2 var i denne utprøvingen forbedret med vibrasjon i tillegg til lydsignaler og strømstøt hvis dyret krysset den virtuelle gjerdegrensen. Klavene kunne i tillegg fjernstyres og ble slått av da dyrene ikke var under observasjon. Da skillegjerdet ble åpnet passerte hele flokken gjennom åpningen uten store tegn til nøling eller ubehag. Reinen ristet på hodet og kvapp til da strømstøt ble utløst, men respekterte ikke strømsignalet nevneverdig. Det kan tenkes at reinen trenger lenger tid for å lære seg assosiasjonen mellom varselsignaler og gitte områder i omgivelsene. Resultatene fra denne utprøvingen har imidlertid synliggjort behovet for ytterligere praktiske justeringer som må til for å tilpasse NoFence systemet til reindriftens behov og reinens atferd og levevis.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing the number of ewes per nipple drinker on water intake, feed intake and drinking behaviour of ewes. A group of 30 1¾ year old, pregnant ewes of the Norwegian Dala breed were exposed to three treatments, each treatment lasting one week: 7.5 ewes per nipple drinker (N7.5: four nipple drinkers), 15 ewes per nipple drinker (N15: two nipple drinkers) and 30 ewes peer nipple drinker (N30: one nipple drinker). The experiment was performed both in January (week 4–6, replicate 1) and replicated in April (week 13–15, replicate 2). The ewes were kept in insulated building and had free access to good quality hay. Water metres were connected to the pipeline for water supply and water wastage was collected and weighed. In addition, the daily intake of hay was recorded and the ewes were video recorded the three last days of each experimental period. Total drinking time per individual was calculated from observations of drinking behaviour from the video, as were also incidents of queuing and displacements. Both water and feed intake was higher in replicate 2 than in replicate 1. Increasing the number of individuals per nipple drinker had no effect on water intake in replicate 1, whereas in replicate 2 the water intake was (mean±SE) 3.5±0.3; 4.2±0.1 and 4.9±0.1 l/ewe and day in the treatments N7.5, N15 and N30, respectively (P<0.05). Regardless of replicate, the time spent drinking increased significantly when number of ewes per nipple drinker increased. Queuing was not affected by increasing the number of ewes per nipple drinker. In replicate 1 the number of displacements increased significantly when the number of individuals per nipple drinker increased (N7.5=7.6±1.7; N15=15.0±4.2 and N30=36.7±5.2; P<0.05) and the same trend could be seen in replicate 2, although not significant. In conclusion, one nipple drinker with an acceptable flow rate can serve up to 30 ewes without negatively affecting water and feed intake

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Formålet med dette forsøket var å prøve ut NoFence virtuelle gjerder på reinsdyr og registrere effekten av systemet på atferd og hjertefrekvensvariabilitet hos forsøksdyra. Seks voksne simler ble merket og satt inn i et gjerdeanlegg der de ble tildelt fôr en gang per dag. Forsøket gikk over fire dager med en tilvenningsfase, en dag med observasjon av normalatferd (fase 1) en dag med observasjon av atferd med aktive NoFence klaver (fase 2) og en dag med observasjon av atferd med aktive NoFence klaver og åpent skillegjerde (fase 3). Det virket ikke som reinen i vårt forsøk lærte å unngå sonen for lyd- og strømsignal i løpet av de to dagene med aktive NoFence klaver. Vi fant heller ingen klar effekt av NoFence på hjertefrekvens og stress hos forsøksdyra. Systemet fungerte ikke optimalt under de gjeldene forhold og både varselog strømsignaler bør tilpasses reinsdyr på en bedre måte før videre utprøvinger finner sted.

Sammendrag

Talleløsninger gjør det mulig å bygge enklere og billigere driftsbygninger til husdyr. Halm er det vanligste tallematerialet i dag, men kan være vanskelig tilgjengelig og kostbart i Nord-Norge. Målet med dette prosjektet var å utvikle et alternativt tallemateriale basert på lokalprodusert, grov flis til sau som har tilfredsstillende kvalitet og som kan dokumentere god dyrevelferd. Forsøkene viste at flisstørrelse og innblanding av torv i flistallen ikke hadde signifikant effekt på liggeatferd, men søyer oppstallet på flistalle var signifikant mer møkkete enn søyer på halmtalle. Det ble ikke oppnådd særlig varmgang i tallen, og tallen ble derfor forholdsvis kald og våt. Flere av problemene som oppstod hadde med forsøksbetingelsene å gjøre. Med høyere tørrstoffinnhold i råflis og fôr, separat eteareal og god drenering, mener vi at vi kunne oppnådd en tørrere talle og mer varmgang. Dyrevelferden hos sau på flisbasert talle ble vurdert som tilfredsstillende, mens dyrevelferden hos sau på halmtalle var god. Anbefalinger for etablering og drifting av flistalle til sau er gitt. Summary:

Sammendrag

Talleløsninger gjør det mulig å bygge enklere og billigere driftsbygninger til husdyr. Halm er det vanligste tallematerialet i dag, men kan være vanskelig tilgjengelig og kostbart i Nord-Norge. Målet med dette prosjektet var å utvikle et alternativt tallemateriale basert på lokalprodusert, grov flis til storfé å utvikle et alternativt tallemateriale basert på lokalprodusert grov flis til storfé og sau som har tilfredsstillende kvalitet og som kan dokumentere god dyrevelferd. Forsøkene viste at det er utfordrende og arbeidskrevende å få til en velfungerende flisbasert talle til storfé. Flisstørrelse og innblanding av torv i flistallen hadde ikke signifikant effekt på verken liggeatferd eller reinhetsgrad hos kjøttfé. Det ble imidlertid ikke oppnådd varmgang i tallen, og tallen ble derfor forholdsvis kald og våt. På tråkkbelastede arealer, som ved fôrhekken, ble tallekvaliteten etter hvert så dårlig at den gikk på bekostning av god dyrevelferd. Flere av problemene som oppstod hadde med forsøksbetingelsene å gjøre. Med høyere tørrstoffinnhold i råflis og fôr, separat eteareal og god drenering, mener vi at vi kunne oppnådd en tørrere talle, mer optimale miljøforhold for mikrobene og bedre dyrevelferd. Feltforsøket i melkekubesetninger viste at det generelt er mulig å oppnå god produksjon og dyrevelferd også hos melkekyr på flisbasert talle. Dette forutsetter imidlertid at det investeres mye tid og flis til drifting av tallen. Økonomiske beregninger viser at treflis er billigere en halm, men at produksjon av flis og driften av tallen innebærer et betydelig merarbeid for bonden. Anbefalinger for etablering og drifting av flistalle til storfé er gitt.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Artikkel på norsk på stallmestern.no: Den 6. og 7. juni 2011 ble det i Reykjavik på Island avholdt et seminar om oppstalling og hold av hest. Seminaret samlet rundt 50 forskere, rådgivere, bygningskonsulenter og hesteeiere fra syv land og ble arrangert av NJF, den nordiske organisasjonen for jordbruksforskere. Dette er et sammendrag av de viktigste forskningsresultatene og diskusjonene som kom fram i løpet av seminaret.

Sammendrag

Geiter har en utpreget sosial motivasjon og setter pris på stabilitet i sitt sosiale miljø. Plasskrav, fortildeling og gruppestørrelse er viktige faktorer som alle påvirker aggresjonsnivået og harmonien i en flokk, og som derfor også kan påvirke produksjonen på lang sikt.