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Introduction Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) is an excellent example of a “super fruit” with potential health benefits. Both genotype and cultivation environment are known to affect the chemical composition of blackcurrant, especially ascorbic acid and various phenolic compounds. Environmental conditions, like temperature, solar radiation and precipitation can also have significant impact on fruit chemical composition. The relevance of the study is further accentuated by the predicted and ongoing changes in global climate. Objectives The aim of the present study was to provide new knowledge and a deeper understanding of the effects of post flowering environmental conditions, namely temperature and day length, on fruit quality and chemical composition of blackcurrant using an untargeted high performance liquid chromatography–photo diode array–mass spectrometry (HPLC– PDA–MS) metabolomics approach. Methods A phytotron experiment with cultivation of single-stemmed potted plants of blackcurrant cv. Narve Viking was conducted using constant temperatures of 12, 18 or 24 °C and three different photoperiods (short day, short day with night interruption, and natural summer daylight conditions). Plants were also grown under ambient outdoor conditions. Ripe berries were analysed using an untargeted HPLC–PDA–MS metabolomics approach to detect the presence and concentration of molecules as affected by controlled climatic factors. Results The untargeted metabolomics dataset contained a total of 7274 deconvolved retention time-m/z pairs across both electrospray ionisation (ESI) positive and negative polarities, from which 549 metabolites were identified or minimally annotated based upon accurate mass MS. Conventional principal component analysis (PCA) in combination with the Friedman significance test were applied to first identify which metabolites responded to temperature in a linear fashion. Multi-block hierarchical PCA in combination with the Friedman significance test was secondly applied to identify metabolites that were responsive to different day length conditions. Temperature had significant effect on a total of 365 metabolites representing a diverse range of chemical classes. It was observed that ripening of the blackcurrant berries under ambient conditions, compared to controlled conditions, resulted in an increased accumulation of 34 annotated metabolites, mainly anthocyanins and flavonoids. 18 metabolites were found to be regulated differentially under the different daylength conditions. Moreover, based upon the most abundant anthocyanins, a comparison between targeted and untargeted analyses, revealed a close convergence of the two analytical methods. Therefore, the study not just illustrates the value of non-targeted metabolomics approaches with respect to the huge diversity and numbers of significantly changed metabolites detected (and which would be missed by conventional targeted analyses), but also shows the validity of the non-targeted approach with respect to its precision compared to targeted analyses. Conclusions Blackcurrant maturation under controlled ambient conditions revealed a number of insightful relationships between environment and chemical composition of the fruit. A prominent reduction of the most abundant anthocyanins under the highest temperature treatments indicated that blackcurrant berries in general may accumulate lower total anthocyanins in years with extreme hot summer conditions. HPLC–PDA–MS metabolomics is an excellent method for broad analysis of chemical composition of berries rich in phenolic compounds. Moreover, the experiment in controlled phytotron conditions provided additional knowledge concerning plant interactions with the environment.

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The aim of the investigation was to assess and compare the environmental limits for growth cessation and floralinitiation in a range of new and established biennial-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars of diverseorigin under phytotron and field conditions. The results confirmed that growth cessation and floral initiation inbiennial-fruiting red raspberry are jointly controlled by the interaction of low temperature and short days (SD).When transferred from non-inductive high temperature and long day (LD) conditions to naturally decreasingautumn daylengths at varying phytotron temperatures on 18 August, growth immediately levelled off and ceasedcompletely within 2 weeks in all cultivars at 9 °C. Serial dissections of lateral buds revealed that floral initiationsimultaneously took place. At 15 °C on the other hand, the plants continued growing and remained vegetativeuntil around 15 September when the daylength had decreased to approximately 13 h. The change to 9 °C resultedin an immediate but short-lasting floral induction response that did not bring about initiation in buds situatednear the base of the canes, as was the case at 15 °C. At 18 °C, marginal floral induction took place only in thecultivars ‘Glen Ample’, ‘Balder’ and ‘Vene’, even at photoperiods down to 10 h, whereas at 21 °C, all cultivarsgrew vegetatively regardless of daylength conditions. However, exceptions were some plants of ‘Vene’ and‘Anitra’ that initiated terminal flowers at 18 and 21 °C and flowered directly without chilling (so-called tipflowering). Although some cultivars of Northern origin ceased growing and initiated floral primordia somewhatearlier (at longer photoperiods) than those of more southerly origin, the differences were relatively minor andnot consistent (no latitudinal cline). Results obtained in the field under decreasing autumn temperature anddaylength conditions agreed closely with the results in the phytotron. We therefore conclude that results ob-tained with raspberry in properly controlled daylight phytotron experiments are generally applicable to fieldconditions.

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Effects of annual versus biennial cropping with varying shoot densities on plant structure, berry yield and quality were studied in ‘Glen Ample’ raspberry over a period of four seasons (two cropping years). In the vegetative phase, primocane height and internode length were larger in the annual than in the biennial cropping system. These parameters as well as Botrytis infestation increased with increasing shoot density. In both cropping years, berry yields per unit area were about 20% higher in the biennial cropping system, whereas yields per shoot were not significantly different in the two systems. In both cropping systems, yields per shoot strongly declined with increasing shoot density, while yields per metre row increased slightly. Regardless of cropping system, yields per metre row did not increase with increasing shoot density beyond eight shoots per metre. The concentrations of dry matter, soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid as well as the intensity of juice colour all declined with increasing shoot density. We conclude that under controlled shoot density conditions, there is little scope for biennial yield increases that fully compensates for the lost crops every second year. However, the system greatly facilitates berry harvest and eases plant disease pressure.

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The effect of controlled nutrient feeding during the period of short day (SD) induction of flowering has been studied in three SD berry crops. An experimental system with standardized plant material grown with trickle fertigation in controlled environments was used. In strawberry, flowering was advanced and increased when an additional N pulse was given 1-2 weeks after commencement of a 4-week SD induction period, while the opposite resulted when the treatment was applied 2 weeks before start of SD. In blackcurrant, the highest flowering and yield were obtained when fertilization was applied shortly after the natural photoperiod had declined to the inductive length in September. While generous nutrient supply during spring and summer reduced berry soluble solids in blackcurrant, this was not observed with autumn fertilization. Autumn fertilization did not adversely affect plant winter survival or growth vigour in spring. Withdrawal of fertilization prior to, or at various stages during floral induction, did not significantly affect flowering and yield in raspberry, but marginally advanced flowering and fruit ripening.

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We examined the influence of fertigation on vegetative and generative parameters of strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) and evaluated rapid analysing tools for N and K in leaf tissue. The experiments were undertaken in an open polytunnel on “table top” with ‘Sonata’ and ‘Korona’ grown in 2-L pots filled with a peat-based soil mixture. The experimental design was a randomized plot with three replications. Plants were fertigated with EC levels of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mS cm-1, based on two stock solutions of 7.5 kg YaraLiva™ Calcinit and 7.5 kg Kristalon™ Indigo, both dissolved in 100 L of water. Percentage N and K in leaves differed between analysing methods, cultivars, EC and date. We found interactions between the cultivar and EC level and between date and cultivar for N and K in leaf. Analysing NO3- by a photometric method (PM) in a lab, and by Laqua twin (LT), showed significant interaction with N% of leaf dry matter (DM) only for LT (r2=0.36). N% increased with higher EC level, more for ‘Korona’ than for ‘Sonata’. LT K+ did not correlate with K% (r2=0.014). The number of crowns and runners increased for both cultivars up to EC 1.5, while the number of leaves was unaffected. Petioles were the shortest at the lowest EC. Flower initiation was earlier at low EC in both cultivars. In the following spring, the time to flowering and first harvest was reduced with the decreasing EC. The number of flowers per plant increased up to EC 1.5, but dropped strongly at EC 2.0 for ‘Korona’, while ‘Sonata’ had a gradual increase of flowers with the increasing EC, but the number was only a third of ‘Korona’, except at EC 2.0, where the amount was equal for both cultivars. The conclusion can be drawn that LT correlated better than ChlDualex with N in strawberry leaves. However, r2 was only 0.36 indicating that LT NO3- is a coarse management tool. LT K+ was not a promising tool for rapid K+ test in these experiments. ‘Korona’ seemed to benefit of higher N levels for both vegetative growth and generative development than ‘Sonata’ up to EC 1.5, but ‘Sonata’ reached a higher floral primordia development stage in early October.

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• Vernalisation requirement is an agriculturally important trait that postpones the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the spring. The family Rosaceae includes many agriculturally important fruit and berry crops that suffer from crop losses caused by frost injury to overwintering flower buds. Recently, a vernalisation-requiring accession of the Rosaceae model woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been identified in northern Norway. Understanding the molecular basis of the vernalisation requirement in this accession would advance the development of strawberry cultivars better adapted to temperate climate. • We use gene silencing, gene expression analysis, genetic mapping and population genomics to study the genetic basis of the vernalisation requirement in woodland strawberry. • Our results indicate that the woodland strawberry vernalisation requirement is endemic to northern Norwegian population, and mapping data suggest the orthologue of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1) as the causal floral repressor. We demonstrate that exceptionally low temperatures are needed to downregulate FvTFL1 and to make these plants competent to induce flowering at low postvernalisation temperatures in the spring. • We show that altered regulation of FvTFL1 in the northern Norwegian woodland strawberry accession postpones flower induction until the spring, allowing plants to avoid winter injuries of flower buds that commonly occur in temperate regions.

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BACKGROUND: It is questioned if Norwegian nurseries can compete with the continental nursery industry in an open market. OBJECTIVE: Investigated how quality of certified Norwegian strawberry transplants, developed and yielded from planting to first cropping year. METHODS: Plant qualities of Norwegian fresh and cold stored bare root- and plug-plants of ‘Korona’ and ‘Sonata’ were examined for establishing and yield parameters in the open, after three intervals of planting. Fresh plug-plants were delivered when available. Trials were established at NIBIO Research Station Kvithamar, Norway. Growth and yield parameters were registered in the establishing and cropping years. RESULTS: Plant establishment was poor in 2013 compared with 2014. Bare-root plants stored at 2–4°C generally developed poorly. Plug-plants established well at all delivery dates, except fresh plug in one year. Development of runner plants depended on plant type, cultivar and year. Plug- and bare root-plants planted immediately after first delivery generally developed best crowns. Primary flower primordia reached a more developed stage for ‘Sonata’ than for ‘Korona’. Fruit yield of bare root was low in the establishing years. Plant-types differed in yield and fruit weight between cropping years. CONCLUSIONS: Bare-root and plug- plants planted one day after delivery generally yielded best. Storage of bare-root plants generally reduced yield. Fresh plug plants had low yield when planted late. Fruit yield of A15 and A13 in the establishing year was not satisfactory.

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Plants of six strawberry cultivars were raised under controlled conditions and tested for flowering and yield potential. Short days (SD) at intermediate temperatures for 4 weeks in August induced profuse flowering in subsequent long days (LD) in all cultivars except the late-flowering ‘Malwina’. LD conditions induced flowering only in ‘Nobel’, which has an everbearing parent. ‘Nobel’ and ‘Saga’ exhibited broad temperature adaptation for SD floral induction, which was generally reduced or suppressed at 9 and 27°C. After autumn planting, all cultivars flowered most abundantly in plants raised in SD and intermediate temperatures. Flowering was earliest in ‘Nobel’ and ‘Rumba’. Plants that did not reach floral commitment after 4 weeks in SD continued and completed induction under subsequent natural SD conditions after planting in the field, demonstrating the capability of fractional induction. Berry yield varied in parallel with flowering in the field and was always higher in plants raised under SD conditions. The traditional cultivars ‘Florence’ and ‘Sonata’ out-yielded the more recent cultivars. Some cultivars lost more than two thirds of their initiated flowers during the winter with obvious consequences for their yields. With proper raising management, acceptable yields were obtained after autumn planting even in a cool Nordic climate.

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BACKGROUND Marked effects of the climatic environment on fruit chemical composition have often been demonstrated in field experiments. However, complex covariations of several climatic factors in the natural environment complicate the interpretation of such experiments and the identification of the causal factors. This can be better achieved in a phytotron where the various climatic factors can be varied systematically. Therefore, we grew four black currant cultivars of contrasting origin in a phytotron under controlled post-flowering temperature and photoperiod conditions and analysed the berries for their ascorbic acid, sugar and organic acid contents. RESULTS The analyses revealed significant effects of genotype on all investigated compounds. Particularly large cultivar differences were observed in the concentrations of l-ascorbic acid (AA) and sucrose. The concentrations of both AA and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), as well as the concentrations of all major sugars, decreased consistently with an increasing temperature over the temperature range 12–24 °C. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars with concentrations several fold higher than that for sucrose. AA was the main contributor to the total ascorbate pool in black currant berries. The AA/DHAA ratio varied from 5.6 to 10.3 among the studied cultivars. The concentration of citric acid, which was the predominant organic acid in black currant berries, increased with an increasing temperature, whereas the opposite trend was observed for malic and shikimic acid. Quninic acid was always present at relatively low concentrations. By contrast, photoperiod had no significant effect on berry content of any of the investigated compounds. CONCLUSION It is concluded that the post-flowering temperature has marked effects on the concentration of important chemical compounds responsible for taste and nutritional value of black currant berries, whereas photoperiod has no such effect in the studied cultivars. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry

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Black currant is a woody plant in which growth and development are intimately controlled by, and synchronised with seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperature. Concern over the potential impact of global warming on plant phenology and yield, led us to initiate relations. An experimental system with single-stemmed potted plants was developed which allowed a research program to address both qualitative and quantitative assessment of climatic responses. Growth cessation and flowering were both induced by short days, with critical photoperiods of approximately 17 and 16 h, respectively, for most cultivars. Both processes were advanced and promoted by increasing autumn temperature with an optimum in the 18-21°C region. An exception was cultivars of high-boreal origin, which had an early growth cessation at low temperature. Unexpectedly, however, not all plants flowered after exposure to 10 h photoperiod, and the number of flowers decreased as the photoperiod was reduced from the near-critical length of 15 h. This was due to premature dormancy induced by an abrupt change to photoperiods well below the critical level. Field experiments revealed that cultivars of varying geographic origin, exhibited a typical latitudinal cline in their photoperiodically controlled timing of growth and flowering responses. Breaking of bud dormancy and promotion of flower bud development required chilling at -5°C for 14 weeks or more for optimal responses. However, while chilling at -10°C for 8 weeks resulted in dormancy release, continued chilling to 16 weeks inhibited bud break completely. We therefore propose that excessive chilling induces secondary bud dormancy in black currant. The observed high chilling requirements of black currants concur with the reported vulnerability of this crop to declining winter chill in the wake of the ongoing global warming. Furthermore, such conditions also induce a particularly deep bud dormancy state that further increases the chilling need.

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The paper is a mini review on the climatic effects on berry production and berry quality in the Arctic north. Plants in the north are facing short growing seasons with low temperatures and long days with a unique light quality. The winter time is cold but with fluctuating temperatures, especially along the coast. Fluctuating winter temperatures and unstable snow cover is a challenge for the perennials that need to be dormant during winter time. Dormancy is induced in the autumn by a combination of day length and temperature. The wild berries domestic to the Nordic countries are adapted to these growth conditions while many of the commercially important berry species originate from more southern areas. Pre-breeding studies on interactions between genotype and environment are essential in order to develop climatically adapted berry cultivars for northern growth conditions.

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The effect of fertility status and temperature conditions during floral induction on flowering, berry yield,and weight and drupelet numbers of individual berries were studied in ‘Glen Ample’ raspberries grownunder controlled conditions. Withdrawal of normal fertilization prior to and at various stages duringfloral induction did not affect yield and berry size, but marginally advanced flowering and fruit ripening.The successive stages of floral initiation and differentiation were studied and identified by scanning elec-tron microscopy of the uppermost lateral buds of plants grown for six weeks under naturally decreasingautumn photoperiods at temperatures of 9, 15 and 21◦C. Low temperature advanced floral initiation, andadvanced and enhanced flowering and berry yield in the following season. However, at variance fromearlier studies, the plants eventually initiated flower primordia even at 21◦C. Marginal low temperatureand short day conditions during the last days before the temperature treatments were started on 17September might possibly have reduced the subsequent induction requirements enough to explain thisunexpected result. Correlation analyses revealed an over-all positive correlation between fruit weightand drupelet numbers (r = 0.568, P = 0.01). In berries from the early harvests, the number of drupelets perberry increased with decreasing temperature, while the numbers converged to the same level regardlessof temperature in the later harvests. Based on the progress of the floral initiation process at the vari-ous temperatures, we interpret this to mean that only the early initiated flowers, that gave rise to theearly maturing berries, were differentiated during the actual period of controlled temperature exposure,whereas the remaining flowers were differentiated afterwards when all plants were exposed to identicallow temperature conditions. Increased femaleness under optimal floral induction conditions is in agree-ment with results in both monoecious and dioecious plants and circumstantial evidence suggest that,in the raspberry, this might be mediated by changes in gibberellin activity which acts as a male sexualhormone in plants and is known to inhibit growth cessation and floral initiation in raspberry.

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Berry yield and chemical composition of four commercial black currant cultivars were recorded in a field experiment in Norway over an 8-year period and related by linear regression analysis to temperature and precipitation conditions prevailing during the May-July preharvest period. Highly significant differences between cultivars and among years were found for all measured parameters. Fruit dry matter, soluble solids and pH were positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with precipitation during May-July, while yield, berry weight, and the concentration of total phenols and ascorbic acid showed the opposite relationship, being highly negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with precipitation. Similar black currant experiments elsewhere in Europe have often given deviating results, varying from opposite to no effects of the same weather variables, suggesting that fruit composition is influenced by several interacting genetic and environmental parameters. We conclude that differences in local weather and soil conditions and the use of different cultivars complicate direct comparison of such field experiments. Nevertheless, the observed strong and opposite correlations with precipitation and temperature suggest an inherently low drought tolerance of black currant plants.

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In order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and vegetative growth and reproductive development in the strawberry, freshly rooted runner plants of the cultivar ‘Sonata’ were grown in a phytotron at temperatures of 12, 18 and 24 °C and photoperiods of 10 h short day (SD) and 20 h long day (LD) for 31 d and harvested at 10 d intervals. Plant dry weight and leaf area increases were exponential versus time, giving a linear regression with the natural log (ln). This rendered the relative growth rate (RGR) constant over time at each environmental condition. Over the entire 31 d growth period, the RGR increased linearly with increasing temperature across the range of temperatures with a further 10–13% enhancement by LD. A maximum RGR value of 0.077 g/g/d was determined in LD at 24 °C. Increases in the RGR was driven by a combined increase in net assimilation rate (NAR) and leaf area ratio (LAR) and was associated with an increased allocation of dry matter production into leaves and less into crowns and roots. Because of this, the shoot/root ratio increased consistently with increasing temperature and photoperiod, which was also associated with a significant increase in the tissue C/N concentration ratio. Low temperature promoted starch accumulation markedly in all parts of the plants, with a further enhancement by LD conditions, while the concentrations of soluble sugars were less affected by the climatic environment. Forcing of plants exposed to the various growth conditions for 31 d showed that all plants at 12 and 18 °C and 80% of those at 24 °C had initiated flowers in SD, whereas none had initiated flowers in LD regardless of temperature conditions. All these results demonstrate an opposite environmental relationship between vegetative growth and reproductive development in the strawberry.

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The effects of postflowering temperature and daylength on the concentration of individual phenolic compounds were studied in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) berries under controlled phytotron conditions. The four cultivars studied varied greatly in their concentrations of individual phenolic compounds and temperature stability for accumulation. The concentrations of a wide range of identified phenolic compounds were strongly influenced by temperature over the 12–24 °C range, often with opposite temperature gradient patterns for compounds within the same subclass. Accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonols increased under natural long day conditions, which provided an increased daily light integral, while under identical light energy conditions, photoperiod had little or no effect on the concentration of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, with the exception of members of the hydroxycinnamic acid subclass, the concentration of most phenolic compounds was higher in berries ripened outdoors than in the phytotron, apparently due to screening of UV-B radiation by the glass cover.

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As part of an overall assessment of the commercial suitability of strawberry cultivars for the Nordic environment, we studied 13 diverse cultivars in an experimental field in South East Norway. Early-maturing cultivars were characterized by early initiation of floral primordia and early flowering and fruit maturation. High temperatures in July and early August delayed floral initiation in the early cultivars, resulting in more synchronous initiation of early and late cultivars. The recent Norwegian cultivar ‘Nobel’, which has an everbearing parent, differed from the other cultivars by early initiation also at elevated summer temperature. Inadequate yield and berry size were identified as important causes for outdating of older cultivars, such as ‘Senga Sengana’ and ‘Glima’. Overall, the high-yielding and large-fruited ‘Sonata’ was judged as the best fresh consumption cultivar in Norway, and market trends indicate that it will continue to expand its market share at the expense of ‘Korona’, mainly because of inadequate fruit firmness and shelf life of the latter. Adequate yields and berry quality justify the use of the late maturing ‘Florence’ for prolongation of the fresh market season. The results are discussed together with practical experiences and market preferences in an attempt to provide overall cultivar recommendations for Norway.

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The effects of daylength and temperature on flowering of the cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) have been studied extensively at the physiological level, but information on the molecular pathways controlling flowering in the species is scarce. The flowering pathway has been studied at the molecular level in the diploid short-day woodland strawberry (F. vesca L.), in which the FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FvFT1)–SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (FvSOC1)–TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1) pathway is essential for the correct timing of flowering. In this work, we show by transgenic approach that the silencing of the floral repressor FaTFL1 in the octoploid short-day cultivar ‘Elsanta’ is sufficient to induce perpetual flowering under long days without direct changes in vegetative reproduction. We also demonstrate that although the genes FaFT1 and FaSOC1 show similar expression patterns in different cultivars, the regulation of FaTFL1 varies widely from cultivar to cultivar and is correlated with floral induction, indicating that the transcription of FaTFL1 occurs at least partially independently of the FaFT1–FaSOC1 module. Our results indicate that changing the expression patterns of FaTFL1 through biotechnological or conventional breeding approaches could result in strawberries with specific flowering and runnering characteristics including new types of everbearing cultivars.

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In order to identify the optimal harvest time and monitor changes in raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cv. Glen Ample) fruit quality during ripening and storage, quality was assessed and compared by physical, chemical and sensory fruit quality criteria. Visual classification of fruit colour according to the Natural Colour System (NCS) chart and by physical measurement of fruit adherence to the receptacle or fruit compression resistance yielded parallel and highly significant results. The light red colour stage corresponding to NCS S code 3060-Y90R was identified as the optimal harvest stage for commercial fresh marketing of the ‘Glen Ample’ cultivar. Fruit harvested at this stage developed the same chemical and sensory qualities as in situ matured fruits and maintained high sensory quality after 8 days of storage in the dark at 2–3 °C. As the fruits mature, the concentration of titratable acids decreases, whereas the concentrations of anthocyanins and the sugar:acid ratio increase in parallel with colour development. While correlation analysis revealed a correlation between sensory traits like sweetness and acidity with sucrose and the sugar:acid ratio, respectively, the overall fruit tastefulness was not strongly correlated with any specific phytochemical component, thus illustrating the complex nature of this sensory trait. Due to its ease of performance, picking raspberry fruits related to a standardised colour chart is recommended for picking raspberry fruits with optimal quality.

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Seasonal time-courses of flower bud initiation and differentiation were monitored during two growing seasons (2011 and 2012) in 19 black currant cultivars of distant geographic origin, grown in the field at a South Norwegian locality (60°40’N, 10°52’E; 250 m asl). For comparison, the time-courses of shoot elongation growth in 15 of the same cultivars were also monitored during the 2012 growing season.The results revealed widely different seasonal timings of growth cessation and floral initiation in cultivars of different latitudinal origin. High latitude cultivars originating from crosses and selections of local, wild black currant populations from the Kola peninsula and Swedish Lapland were particularly early and had ceased growing and had initiated floral primordia by mid-June.This was approx. 5 – 6 weeks earlier than any of the other cultivars from lower latitudes. However, these also varied in their earliness of growth cessation and flower initiation in relation to their latitudinal origin. Many cultivars bred and selected in Southern Scandinavia, Scotland, and Poland did not cease growing and initiate floral primordia until late August, 9 weeks after the early, highlatitude cultivars. Overall, the 19 cultivars constituted a typical latitudinal cline in their photoperiodically controlled timing of growth and flowering responses. The high-latitude Russian cultivars ‘Imandra’ and ‘Murmanschanka’ represent valuable additions to the limited diversity of the available black currant gene-pool, and may be of particular use for breeding cultivars adapted to the sub-Arctic environment.

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The use of artificial freezing tests, identification of biomarkers linked to or directly involved in the low-temperature tolerance processes, could prove useful in applied strawberry breeding. This study was conducted to identify genotypes of diploid strawberry that differ in their tolerance to low-temperature stress and to investigate whether a set of candidate proteins and metabolites correlate with the level of tolerance. 17 Fragaria vesca, 2 F. nilgerrensis, 2 F. nubicola, and 1 F. pentaphylla genotypes were evaluated for low-temperature tolerance. Estimates of temperatures where 50 % of the plants survived (LT50) ranged from −4.7 to −12.0 °C between the genotypes. Among the F. vesca genotypes, the LT50 varied from −7.7 °C to −12.0 °C. Among the most tolerant were three F. vesca ssp. bracteata genotypes (FDP821, NCGR424, and NCGR502), while a F. vesca ssp. californica genotype (FDP817) was the least tolerant (LT50 −7.7 °C). Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), total dehydrin expression, and content of central metabolism constituents were assayed in select plants acclimated at 2 °C. The LT50 estimates and the expression of ADH and total dehydrins were highly correlated (r adh = −0.87, r dehyd = −0.82). Compounds related to the citric acid cycle were quantified in the leaves during acclimation. While several sugars and acids were significantly correlated to the LT50 estimates early in the acclimation period, only galactinol proved to be a good LT50 predictor after 28 days of acclimation (r galact = 0.79). It is concluded that ADH, dehydrins, and galactinol show great potential to serve as biomarkers for cold tolerance in diploid strawberry.

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There is limited research about variations between cultivars for freezing tolerance in fruit crops and indeed much less is known about the distinctive in ground structure of the crown that herbaceous perennials depend on for regeneration in spring. Because strawberry is a representative species for the Rosaceae crops knowledge gained is expected to be transferrable to benefit improvement of many of these related crops. To gain insight into the molecular basis that may contribute to overwintering hardiness, a comparative proteomic analysis was carried out for four Fragaria x ananassa (octoploid strawberry) cultivars that differ in freezing tolerance. Protein expression was investigated in the overwintering relevant crown structure of strawberry from plants exposed to 0, 2, and 42 day cold treatments and were examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Some proteins, such as molecular chaperones, antioxidants / detoxifying enzymes, metabolic enzymes, and pathogenesis related proteins were revealed to be at significantly higher levels before cold exposure in the most freezing tolerant cultivars, (‘Jonsok’ and ‘Senga Sengana’) compared to the least tolerant cultivars (‘Frida’ and ‘Elsanta’). Freezing tolerance was evaluated for the cultivars before and after cold exposure, with findings that support that the most freezing tolerant cultivars are poised for rapid adaptation to cold exposure, suggesting potential differences in capacity or rate for cold acclimation. Thus, the molecular basis for enhanced overwintering survival may be related to the elevated basal level of a number of proteins, many of which are known to confer stress tolerances. These findings are presented and overlaid with a LFQP shotgun analysis and microarray analysis. This study presents the largest quantitative proteomic data-set for strawberry crown tissue during cold exposure to date. Through the comparison of these cultivars that differ in freezing tolerance, proteins that may contribute to cold tolerance but lack significant cold induction were revealed.

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A crucial consideration for strawberry producers in Norway and other northern countries is winter freezing damage. A long-term goal of the Norwegian strawberry breeding is to increase winter hardiness and to improve fruit quality. Due to the complexity involved in regulating and enhancing freezing tolerance, the progress in the improvement of cultivars using traditional screening methods have had limited success. Thus, the development of molecular markers for freezing hardiness would facilitate the selection work for this trait. In this effort, we have developed and adopted state-of-art molecular tools to investigate cold response in strawberry plants during the acclimation phase resulting in the identification of a large number of genes, proteins, and distinct metabolites that correspond to cold/freezing tolerance in strawberry. To identify proteins responsible for freezing tolerance in strawberry we have examined alterations in protein levels in strawberry varieties that differ in cold tolerance using either 2-DE gel analysis followed by LC-MS/MS analysis or a shotgun MS/MS approach. Proteomic analysis suggested 30 potential biomarkers that showed significant changes in the cultivated strawberry in response to cold. In addition, GC-MS-based metabolite profiling revealed the up-regulation of carbohydrates, polyols, amino acids, TCA intermediates, and other distinct secondary metabolites after cold treatment. Transcriptional analysis of the cold acclimated samples also confirmed the regulation upon cold-treatment with varietal differences in strawberry. Moreover, several F2-populations from the model F. vesca parents diverging in cold tolerance have been developed in order to facilitate mapping of QTLs by performing GBS analyses. The knowledge attained from these endeavors is expected to expedite breeding of strawberries to achieve freezing tolerant lines and provide an integrative understanding of the molecular pathways that underlie this characteristic. * Rohloff et al. (2012) Metabolite profiling reveals novel multi-level cold responses in the model Fragaria vesca. Phytochemistry 79:99-109. * Koehler et al. (2012) Proteomic study of low temperature responses in strawberry cultivars (Fragaria x ananassa) that differ in cold tolerance. Plant Physiology 159:1787–1805 * Davik et al., (2012) Low temperature tolerance in diploid strawberry species (Fragaria ssp.) and its correlation to alcohol dehydrogenase levels, dehydrin levels, and central metabolism constituents. Planta (in press; DOI: 10.1007/s00425-012-1771-2).

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To gain insight into the molecular basis contributing to overwintering hardiness, a comprehensive proteomic analysis comparing crowns of Fragaria × ananassa (octoploid strawberry) cultivars that differ in freezing tolerance was conducted. Four cultivars were examined for freeze tolerance and the most cold-tolerant cultivar (‘Jonsok’) and least tolerant cultivar (‘Frida’) were compared with a goal to reveal how freezing tolerance is achieved in this distinctive overwintering structure and to identify potential cold-tolerance associated biomarkers. Supported by univariate and multivariate analysis, a total of 63 spots from 2DE analysis and 135 proteins from label-free quantitative proteomics (LFQP) were identified as significantly differentially expressed in crown tissue from the two strawberry cultivars exposed to 0, 2, and 42 day cold treatment. Proteins identified as cold tolerance associated included molecular chaperones, antioxidants/detoxifying enzymes, metabolic enzymes, pathogenesis related proteins and flavonoid pathway proteins. A number of proteins were newly identified as associated with cold tolerance. Distinctive mechanisms for cold tolerance were characterized for two cultivars. In particular, the ‘Frida’ cold response emphasized proteins specific to flavonoid biosynthesis, while the more freezing tolerant ‘Jonsok’ had a more comprehensive suite of known stress responsive proteins including those involved in antioxidation, detoxification, and disease resistance. The molecular basis for ‘Jonsok’ enhanced cold tolerance can be explained by the constitutive level of a number of proteins that provide a physiological stress-tolerant “poise”.

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Bringebærplanten er en økonomisk viktig bærvekst som dyrkes i betydelig omfang i alle geografiske områder med temperert eller kjølig klima. På grunn av sin økonomiske betydning har bringebærplanten vært gjenstand for omfattende undersøkelser, og ny kunnskap om plantens biologi har stadig kommet til. Utviklingen i handelsdyrkingen har i den seinere tid gått i retning av utvidet dyrking i plasttunneller eller veksthus for å utvide sesongen og bedre bærkvaliteten. Dette stiller nye krav til forståelsen av hvordan vegetativ vekst, blomstring og årstidsrytme hos plantene er regulert av klima og kulturtiltak. I denne artikkelen gir vi en oversikt over grunnleggende trekk ved bringebærplantens bygning samt viktige reaksjoner på vekstklima og ulike kulturtiltak.

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Regionalt forskingsfond Vestlandet har gitt støtte til eit tre-årig prosjekt kalla ”Bærekraftig utviding av den norske bringebærsesongen; kortnamn BRINGINN”. Prosjekteigar er Innvik Fruktlager medan Bioforsk har det faglege og administrative ansvaret. Kortnamnet BRINGINN spelar på at bringebær må inn i tunnel eller veksthus skal ein klare å utvide sesongen, og at ein må vere innovative for å lukkast med eit slikt prosjekt. Omsetningsledda ser at det er rom for meir norske bringebær i marknaden, men det er viktig at vidare produksjonsvekst i hovudsak kjem i skuldersesongane for å unngå å mette marknaden midt i sesongen med påfølgande negativ prisutvikling.

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Viltvoksende solbær har et naturlig utbredelsesområde som viser at arten er godt tilpasset vårt klima. I kombinasjon med den karakteristiske smaken og det høge C-vitamininnholdet har dette gitt solbær en viktig plass i småhager over hele Norge. Kommersiell solbærproduksjon er derimot begrenset til Sør-Norge og særlig Østlandet. Solbær som råvare til industri og annen videreforedling blir høstet maskinelt og levert i bulk, og representerer den største verdien i solbærproduksjonen. Nylig har det også blitt etablert et norsk marked for håndplukkede solbær til friskkonsum, men produksjonen er foreløpig under utvikling. Produksjonsarealet i Norge totalt er ca 28 000 dekar. Strukturendringene i den norske solbærproduksjonen har omfattet en økt spesialisering med større investeringer og konsentrert risiko, som medfører at avlingsvariasjonene får store konsekvenser for den enkelte produsent. Klimaprognoser varsler mildere vintre, og dette vil påvirke vedaktige planteslag som solbær mht. knoppkvile (induksjon og bryting) og blomstringstidspunkt, og ytterligere øke risikoen for vårfrost. Næringen mangler kunnskap om hvilke egenskaper som bør vektlegges i de ulike dyrkingsområdene, og ønsker en metode for lettere å kunne identifisere genotyper som egner seg i ulike klima og dyrkingssystem (industri eller friskkonsum). Vi har derfor startet plantefysiologiske undersøkelser for ulike solbærsorter, og vil presentere en del resultater her (Sønsteby & Heide, 2011; Heide & Sønsteby, 2011). Forsøk med til sammen seks solbærsorter har blitt gjennomført i kontrollert klima for å undersøke effekten av temperatur (9, 12, 15, 18, 21 og 24°C) og daglengde (10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20 og 24 timer lys) på vegetativ vekst, vekststans, blomsterknoppdanning, knoppbryting og blomstring. Vekststans om høsten ble framskyndet av økende temperatur, og var tidligst ved 21 og 24°C. Sortene "Öjebyn" og "Kristin" var mest temperaturfølsomme, mens "Narve Viking" var minst påvirket av temperatur. Knoppbrytingen om våren ble forsinket med noen dager ved høg høsttemperatur, mens blomstringen var tidligst i planter fra midlere temperaturer. I tillegg ble det flere blomster og bær med økende høsttemperatur, med et optimum på 18 - 21°C. Vekststans og blomsterknoppdanning hos solbær påvirkes også av daglengden, og de undersøkte sortene hadde en kritisk daglengde for begge prosesser på 16 - 17 timer. Solbærplanta har en markert ungdomsfase, og trenger ca. 20 blad for å være i stand til å reagerer på klimafaktorene for å stoppe veksten og danne blomsterknopper. Våre undersøkelser viser at sorter som er foredlet fram i ulike klimasoner (Russland vs. Skottland), viser store kontraster i forhold til krav til temperatur og daglengde for vekst, vekststans og blomsterknoppdanning. Hovedkonklusjonen av disse undersøkelsene er at økt høsttemperatur ikke vil være noen ulempe for rik blomsterdanning og god kvileinduksjon hos solbær. Videre undersøkelser vil kunne identifisere hvilke sorter som er best tilpasset for dyrking i ulike klimaområder. Referanser Sønsteby, A. & Heide, O. M. 2011. Elevated autumn temperature promotes growth cessation and flower formation in black currant cultivars (Ribes nigrum L.). J. Hort. Sci. Biotech., (under trykking) Heide, O. M. & Sønsteby, A. 2011. Critical photoperiod for short day induction of flowering in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.). J. Hort. Sci. Biotech., (under trykking)

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“Verdens beste bær dyrkes i Nord-Norge” sies det. Det nordlige klimaet med lange dager og lave temperaturer gir søtere, mer fargesterke og smakfulle bær. Dette vet forbrukerne i nord å sette pris på, spesielt når det gjelder bær til friskkonsum. I dag er landsdelen langt fra selvforsynt med hagebær. Flere og større dyrkere av arter som jordbær, solbær, stikkelsbær, bringebær og rips må til for å kunne dekke en større andel av eget marked. I de tre nordligste fylkene bor det nesten en halv million mennesker, og de fleste av disse bor i byer og større tettsteder med gode forhold for salg av lokalproduserte bær. Hva må gjøres for at den patriotiske nordlendingen kan få kjøpe lokale bær?

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Recent research on how the structure and physiological development of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants are controlled by genotype and the climatic environment is reviewed. Some older work, specially on plant structure relations, is also included. Physiological differences between annual- and biennial-fruiting plant types are highlighted. One major difference is the different requirements for flower formation. While biennial-fruiting cultivars have an absolute low temperature (≤ approx. 15°C) requirement for floral initiation, annual-fruiting cultivars readily initiate floral primordia at temperatures as high as constant 30°C. Also, while biennial-fruiting cultivars are facultative short-day plants with a critical photoperiod of 15 h at intermediate temperatures, flowering is promoted by long photoperiods in at least some annual-fruiting cultivars. However, the essential difference that determines whether the shoot life-cycle becomes annual or biennial is that, in biennial-fruiting genotypes, floral initiation is linked to the induction of bud dormancy, whereas in annual-fruiting cultivars, floral initiation is followed by direct flower development. Although this is genetically determined, it is a plastic trait that is subject to modification by the environment. Thus, at low temperatures and short photoperiods, the majority of initiated buds do enter dormancy also in annual-fruiting cultivars, with tip-flowering as a result. Practical applications are discussed, and it is concluded that our present physiological knowledge-base provides excellent opportunities for manipulation of raspberry crops for out-of-season production and high yields. It also provides a firm platform for further exploration of the underlying molecular genetics of plant structures and response mechanisms.

Sammendrag

Den senere tids fokus på lokal mat, bærekraftig matproduksjon og helse har økt interessen og bruken av bær. Smaksmessig er den nordnorske bæra i verdenstoppen, og nordnorske forbrukere er opptatt av hvor bæra kommer fra. Dette gjelder spesielt bær til friskkonsum. I dag er Nord-Norge langt fra selvforsynt med hagebær. For å kunne dekke en større andel av eget marked trenger vi langt flere og større dyrkere av arter som jordbær, solbær, stikkelsbær, bringebær og rips. Eksport av nordnorske bær bør også være et langsiktig mål. Klimatiske forhold i nord stiller krav til kunnskaper og gir utfordringer, men også muligheter. Sykdomspresset er lite på grunn av lavere temperaturer og dette klimaet gir også søte bær med høyt innhold av ulike antioksidanter. For å kunne oppnå en lønnsom produksjon i framtida trengs klimatilpasset plantemateriale og klimaforbedrende tiltak på dyrkningssiden. Erfaringer fra ellers i landet viser at framtida ligger i tunneldrift. Dyrking i tunneler gir le og bedre klima for blomsterdannelse, blomstring og modning. Vi håper på å få i gang et nordnorsk satsningsprosjekt på hagebær i Nord-Norge. Dette prosjektet skal være forankret i næringa med dyrkere som deltagere. Fra gammelt av har det vært vanlig med rips i hagene i Nord-Norge, og man kan påstå at rips er den mest nordnorske av alle hagebær. Bioforsk Nord Holt har en samling av nordlig sortsmateriale (fra Norge, Finland og Russland) av både rips og solbær, og noen av disse er lovende for kommersialisering. Sortsmateriale vil bli oppformert og testet ute i felt hos dyrkere, i plasthus og under kontrollerte forhold i forsøksveksthus. Sortene vil bli evaluert i forhold til dannelse av blomsteranlegg, blomstring, god pollinering, produksjon, smak og egnethet for ferskvare og/eller prosessering. Prosjektet tar også sikte på å lage et strategidokument for bærproduksjonen i Nord-Norge. Arbeidsgruppa skal bestå av aktører fra FoU, rådgivningstjeneste, forvaltning, produsenter, industri og omsetningsledd. Strategien skal omfatte både kunnskapsbehov, økonomi og markedsmål.

Sammendrag

Tidligere forsøk med jordbær i kontrollert klima har vist at nitrogengjødsling før og under blomsterinitieringen kan gi tidligere og rikere blomstring i påfølgende sesong (Sønsteby m. fl. 2009). Den samme N-mengden tilført før blomsterdanningen hadde motsatt effekt, og forsinket og reduserte blomstringen. For nøyaktig tidfesting av innledningen på blomsterdanningen, og dermed riktig tidspunkt for gjødsling, ble parallelle felt med fire jordbærsorter etablert ved fem ulike lokaliteter fra sør til nord i Norge. For å fastlegge hvor lang tid det tar fra plantene eksponeres til kort dag (KD) til det kan observeres synlige anlegg til blomster i dissekerte kroner, ble det også gjort parallelle forsøk ved ulike temperaturer i klimarom (9, 12, 15, og 18 °C). Resultata viste at tidspunktet for blomsterdanningvarierte mye mellom sortene, men ble for alle sorter suksessivt forsinket ved økende breddegrad og høgde over havet, og ved avtakende temperatur i kontrollert klima. Hovedkonklusjonen av dette blir at tidspunktet for høstgjødsling må tilpasses såvel sort som geografisk lokalitet.

Sammendrag

Hvordan vil den globale opvarmning og de milde efterår, vi har haft de senere år, påvirke dannelsen af blomster hos solbær? Det spørgsmål har norske forskere undersøgt i fem sorter: Öjebyn, Ben Tron, Kristin, Ben Hope og Narve Viking.

Sammendrag

Bringebær (Rubus idaeus L.) er en økonomisk viktig bærart som er rik på antioksidanter og andre bioaktive forbindelser. Forskningen på innholdsstoffer i bringebær har hatt fokus på sortsvariasjon og effekt av håndtering, høsting og lagring. Det er derimot liten kunnskap om hvilken påvirkning miljøfaktorer som temperatur og lys har på innholdsstoffer. Bruk av plasttunneler i bringebærproduksjonen har økt i Norge, som i verden for øvrig. Dette fører til endringer i klimaet, som påvirker planteveksten, men som også kan påvirke innholdsstoffene i bæra. Her presenterer vi resultater fra en undersøkelse på virkningen av temperatur på bærkvalitet hos bringebærsorten "Glen Ample" (Remberg et al. 2010). Langskudd av bringebær i potter ble lagret ved -2°C igjennom vinteren og satt i en åpen plasttunnel fra 1. juni til blomstring (uke 22 til 30). Plantene ble deretter flyttet til klimarom ved 12, 18 og 24°C, og naturlig daglengde. Bær ble høstet to ganger i uka i 7 uker, for registrering av avling og bærstørrelse. I tillegg ble bær høstet i uke 33, 35 og 37, fryst ned og lagret ved -20°C til seinere kjemiske analyser. Bærene ble analysert for tørrstoff, oppløst sukker, titrerbar syre, pH, farge, L-askorbinsyre (C-vitamin) og antioksidant aktivitet (FRAP). Prosedyrer for kjemiske analyser er beskrevet av Remberg et al. (2007). Høg temperatur reduserte bærstørrelsen, men økte samtidig tørrstoffinnholdet i bæra. Med økt tørrstoffinnhold økte også konsentrasjonen av antioksidanter, oppløst sukker og titrerbar syre, samt farge og pH. Dette skyldtes imidlertid hovedsakelig en fortynningseffekt av store bær. Når analyseresultata ble uttrykt på friskvektbasis, ble derfor mye av temperatureffekten borte. Uansett beregningsmåte var imidlertid innholdet av C-vitamin størst ved låg temperatur. Resultata viser at temperaturen har motsatt effekt på bærstørrelse og konsentrasjonen av antioksidanter og andre viktige innholdsstoff, bortsett fra C-vitamin. Ettersom bærstørrelse er en viktig kvalitetsfaktor i seg selv, vil en dyrkingstemperatur på 12-18°C være et optimalt kompromiss ved dyrking av bringebær i plasttunnel. En slik temperatur vil også gi bær med høgt C-vitamin innhold. Referanser Remberg, S.F., Måge, F., Haffner, K. and Blomhoff, R. 2007. Highbush blueberries Vaccinium corymbosum L., raspberries Rubus idaeus L. and black currants Ribes nigrum L. - influence of cultivar on antioxidant activity and other quality parameters. Acta Hort. 744: 259-266. Remberg, S.F., Sønsteby, A., Aaby, K. and Heide, O.M. 2010. Influence of postflowering temperature on fruit size and chemical composition of Glen Ample raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.). J. Agric. Food Chem., 58: 9120-9128.

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Earliness, fruit yield and quality of six annual-fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars were tested under protected cultivation in a cool Nordic environment. After raising plants for 5 weeks in greenhouses with average mean temperatures of 20 degrees C, 22 degrees C, or 26 degrees C, the plants were cropped in an open plastic tunnel at latitude 61 degrees N. The highest yielding cultivars were 'Autumn Bliss' and 'Polka', with 640 g plant(-1). Overall, the most promising cultivar was 'Polka' which combined high yield with large fruit of good flavour and firmness. In earliness, 'Polka' was surpassed only by 'Autumn Bliss', which confirmed its position as the earliest commercial annual-fruiting cultivar. However, 'Autumn Bliss' had soft fruits with little flavour and a short shelf-life, which greatly reduced the potential of the cultivar for the fresh fruit market. The later ripening cultivar 'Erika' did not complete its crop under these conditions, but its large unrealised yield potential and good fruit quality rendered it extremely promising for environments with a longer growing season. 'Sugana' was late, with low yields and poor fruit quality, while 'Marcela' did not yield enough fruit to be of interest under the present conditions. High temperatures during the 5-week raising period generally advanced flowering and fruit ripening in all cultivars, with the notable exception of 'Autumn Treasure' in which flowering was suppressed and strongly delayed by high temperature. Under the present conditions, there was a highly positive correlation between earliness and fruit yield. Regression analyses identified a low number of dormant buds as the single most important component of plant architecture associated with high fruit yield, accounting for 47% of the total variation.

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The effects of postflowering temperature on the fruit chemical composition of Glen Ample raspberries were studied under controlled environment conditions. The berry weight decreased significantly with increasing temperature (12, 18, and 24 degrees C) and with progress of the harvest period. Because the moisture content increased in parallel with the berry weight, the antioxidant capacity (AOC) and the concentration of a range of bioactive compounds decreased with decreasing temperature and progress of the harvest season when expressed on a fresh weight basis in the conventional way. Under those circumstances, dry weight units are therefore preferable. However, despite the dilution effect of large berries, the concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) increased with decreasing temperature, even on a fresh weight basis. Berry AOC was closely correlated with total phenolic concentration (r = 0.958), predominantly anthocyanins and ellagitannins. While a total of 10 anthocyanins were detected, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside)-rutinoside accounted for 73% of the total, the former decreasing and the latter increasing with increasing growth temperature. By far, the most prevalent ellagitannins were lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6, both of which increased significantly with increasing temperature. It is concluded that the growth temperature has significant and contrasting effects on the concentration of a range of potentially bioactive compounds in raspberry.

Sammendrag

Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is an economically important small fruit species, rich in antioxidants and other phytochemicals (Rao and Snyder, 2010). Most research in the area of screening the antioxidant activity in dietary plants have mainly been focused on variation among species and cultivars and effects of postharvest handling and storage (e.g. Kalt et al., 2002). Little is known about the impact of environmental factors such as temperature and light conditions. The use of plastic tunnels for out-of-season production of red raspberries has expanded production in Norway. This involves a change in climate environment which might influence the chemical composition of the fruits. Here we present the results of an investigation of temperature on fruit quality of red raspberry (Remberg et al., 2010).

Sammendrag

Norske forsøk viser, at langskudsplanter af hindebær skal være lange og med mange sideskud for at give et stort udbytte. Det opnås bedst, hvis planterne produceres i plasthus og ikke på friland.

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To bioforskarar tok turen til Finland og universitetet i Helsinki for å diskutere prosjektsamarbeid over landegrensene. Dei vart imponert over måten finnane jobbar på , og kva ressursar dei har tilgjengeleg.

Sammendrag

Høstbærende bringebær har evnen til å blomstre og sette frukt på årsskudda og dermed gjennomføre hele livssyklusen på ett år. Dette medfører at de blir svært seine (høstbærende), og de må derfor dyrkes i plasttunnel eller veksthus hos oss. Vi har tidligere vist for sorten "Polka" at den, i motsetning til de vanlige sortene med toårig livssyklus, ikke trenger kort dag (KD) eller låg temperatur for å danne blomster. Tvert i mot var blomstringen framskyndet av lang dag (LD) og høg temperatur. Selv ved konstant temperatur på 30°C var det ingen problem med blomstringen. Dette stemmer også med engelske undersøkelser med sorten "Autumn Bliss". Det har i det siste kommet flere nye sorter av høstbærende bringebær på markedet, og vi har nå utført forsøk med noen av disse sortene. Vi presenterer her noen resultat fra denne undersøkelsen

Sammendrag

De viltvoksende amerikanske artene virginiajordbær (Fragaria virginiana) og chilejordbær (F. chiloensis) har gitt opphav til våre dyrka hagejordbær, F. x ananassa. Vi har undersøkt den klimatiske regulering av blomstringen hos noen populasjoner av disse artene og jamført dette med variasjonene i blomstrings-reguleringen hos hagejordbær. Resultata viser både fellestrekk og ulikheter som viser at mange, men ikke alle, egenskaper hos hagejordbær kan spores direkte tilbake til foreldrene.

Sammendrag

Produksjon av bringebær i veksthus og plasttunneller for friskkonsum har hatt et kraftig oppsving i de seinere år. Nye produksjonsmetoder er utvikla for dette formålet. Èn slik metode består i å dyrke planter (langskudd) i potter det første året for så å overvintre dem på kjølelager for driving i plasttunneller eller veksthus andre året. Denne såkalte langskudd-metoden gjør det mulig å variere og utvide produksjons- og høstesesongen i stor grad. Erfaringer både fra utlandet og her til lands har imidlertid vist at kvaliteten av langskudda er helt avgjørende for avlingsresultatet. I samarbeid med to produsenter av bringebærplanter har vi derfor undersøkt hvordan man best kan produsere langskudd med stort avlingspotensiale i vårt kjølige nordiske klima.

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Growth and flowering of the annual-fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivar 'Polka' were studied under controlled environment conditions in order to facilitate out-of-season production. Vegetatively-propagated plants originating from adventitious root buds were used. Height growth and the rate of leaf formation increased with increasing temperature, up to a broad optimum in the mid-20 degrees C range. While elongation was consistently enhanced by long-day (LD) conditions, photoperiod had no effect on the rate of leaf formation. LD stimulation of growth thus resulted from increased internode length only. In agreement with earlier reports, it was found that, in contrast to biennial-fruiting cultivars, such annual-fruiting cultivars do not need low temperatures for flower initiation, nor do they appear to have a juvenile phase during which they are un-responsive to flower-inducing conditions. 'Polka' plants responded to inductive conditions as early as the 5-leaf stage, and flowered freely across the entire range of growth temperatures, even at 30 degrees C. Flowering was advanced and the number of flowers increased with increasing temperature, up to an optimum at 27 degrees C. Flowering was also consistently advanced and occurred at lower nodes under LD than under short-day (SD) conditions across the whole range of temperatures. Night interruption for 3 h in the middle of the night was also effective, demonstrating that this is a true photoperiodic response and not merely an effect of increased light integral in LD. It was also confirmed that a distinct vernalisation-type advancement of flowering took place when small, non-dormant plants were exposed to additional chilling at 6 degrees C for several weeks. At low temperatures, a large proportion of the lateral buds were dormant, so that, at 12 degrees C, the plants actually flowered only at their tips. Dissections also revealed that the dormant buds had initiated flowers; but, because of their dormant state, they needed several weeks of chilling before they could flower (biennial-fruiting behaviour). Both types of buds were initiated by the same environmental conditions. Practical applications of the findings are suggested.

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Environmental control of flowering and runnering in three contrasting Fragaria chiloensis populations with geographic origins in Alaska, Oregon, and Chile have been studied under controlled environment conditions. All populations were principal short-day (SD) plants at intermediate temperatures (15 degrees C or 21 degrees C), while at low temperature (9 degrees C) the 'Alaska' and 'Chile' populations were essentially day neutral. However, the populations had contrasting temperature responses for flowering in SD at both constant and fluctuating day/night temperatures. At a day temperature of 18 degrees C, flowering increased with increasing night temperature from 9 degrees C to 21 degrees C in the 'Alaska' population, while the opposite trend was observed in the 'Chile' population. The sparsely flowering 'Oregon' population flowered only in SD within a narrow range of temperatures (15-18 degrees C). Photoperiod (10, 16, or 20 h) had no effect on flower development at 18 degrees C. All populations were runnering freely, but with different temperature and photoperiod modifications. It is concluded that the SD X temperature interaction in the flowering behaviour of the June-bearing cultivated strawberry, F. X ananassa, is inherited to a large extent from F. chiloensis, whereas the species does not appear to have contributed to the long-day (LD) flowering control in everbearing cultivars.

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Oppsummeringer av resultater etter grunnleggende forsøk med klimapåvirkning på vekst og blomstring hos vanlige og høstbærende bringebær, og etter utprøving i praksis og hos planteprodusenter. 

Sammendrag

Høstbærende bringebærsorter har vært kjent i mer enn 200 år. Framstillingen av disse sortene har bl. a. involvert kryssinger med andre Rubus-arter som R. arcticus (åkerbær), R. odoratus (rosebær), R. spectabilis (prydbringebær) med flere. Mens det enkelte skudd hos våre tradisjonelle bringebærsorter har en toårig livssyklus, har skudda hos de høstbærende sortene en ettårig livssyklus der så vel skuddvekst som blomstring og fruktutvikling gjennomføres i løpet av en enkelt vekstsesong. Vi har i de seinere år arbeidet med å utrede det fysiologiske grunnlaget for disse ulikhetene, og gir her en kort framstilling av dette.

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The effects of timing of nitrogen (N) fertilization relative to the beginning of a 4-week floral-inducing short-clay (SD) period have been studied in 'Korona' strawberry plants under controlled environment conditions. Groups Of low fertility plants were fertilized with 100 ml of calcium nitrate solution for 3 days a week for a period of 3 weeks starting at various times before and at the beginning of the SD period, as well as at different times during the SD period. All plants, including SD and long day (LD) control plants, received a weekly fertilization with a low concentration complete fertilizer Solution throughout the experiment. Leaf at-ea. fresh and dry matter increments of leaves, crowns and roots, as well as leaf chlorophyll concentration (SPAD Values) were monitored during the experimental period. A general enhancement of growth took place at all times of N fertilization. This was paralleled by an increase in leaf chlorophyll concentration, indicating that the control plants were in a mild state of N deficiency. When N fertilization was started 2 weeks before beginning of the SD period, flowering was delayed by 7 days, and this was gradually changed to an advancement of 8 days when the same treatment was started 3 weeks after the first SD. The amount of flowering was generally increased by N fertilization although the effect varied greatly with the time of N application. The greatest flowering enhancement Occurred when N fertilization started I week after the first SD when the number of flowering crowns and the number of inflorescences per plant were more than doubled compared with the SD control, while fertilization 2 weeks before SD had no significant effect on these parameters. Importantly, the total number of crowns per plant was not affected by N fertilization at any time, indicating that enhancement of flowering was not due to an increase in potential inflorescence sites. No flowering took place in the control plants in LD. Possible physiological mechanisms involved and practical applications of the findings are discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sammendrag

Månedsjordbær er remonterende typer av markjordbær (Fragaria vesca) som stammer fra planter som ble funnet i de franske Alpene for ca 350 år siden. I motsetning til vanlige markjordbær, som er kortdags-planter og heller ikke danner blomster ved temperaturer over ca 15 ºC, er månedsjordbær langdagsplanter med stor toleranse for høg temperatur og blomstrer rikt i lange dager ved 27 ºC. Dette er de samme blomstrings-reaksjonene som vi finner hos remonterende sorter av hagejordbær.

Sammendrag

Høstgjødsling av jordbær er relativt lite brukt hos oss. Stort sett får plantene passe seg selv etter at høstesesongen er over. Nylig utførte forsøk i kontrollert klima viste imidlertid at nitrogengjødsling idet blomsterdanningen innledes, like etter start av kort dag, kan forsterke blomsterdanningen. Derimot flrte N-gjødsling like før start av kort dag til forsinket blomstring. dette har aktualisert spørsmålet om presisjonsgjødsling av jordbær om høsten.

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Det vert stilt mange krav til nye jordbærsortar. Dei viktigaste er avling, smak, bærstorleik, resistens mot skadegjerarar og modningstid. Jordbærsesongen er svært kort, og vi treng både betre tidlege og seine sortar. I tillegg til dei vanlege sortane, vert interessante sortar med svært lang blomstring- og haustetid prøvde.

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In the Nordic strawberry industry only single-cropping cultivars are used. Several everbearing cultivars have been tried, but neither yield nor quality has been satisfactory. In 2005, new everbearing cultivars were collected and an experiment was established in a polyethylene tunnel. Yield and runnering capacity were recorded in two seasons. The cultivars were the English 'Flamenco' and 'Everest', the Dutch 'Elan' and the Norwegian 'Rita', 'Rondo', 'Ridder' and 'Rosa'. Plug plants were planted in double rows on low ridges mulched with plastic at a plant density equivalent to 50,000 plants per ha. A block design with 20 plants per plot and four replicates was used. The field was harvested two to three times a week during the whole season from June until the beginning of October in both years. Berry size was recorded at all harvests while taste and general performance were evaluated using a scale 1-9. In the first year, the everbearing cultivars had significantly higher yield than the single-cropping cultivars due to more inflorescences, but this was levelled out the second year. While the cropping season of the single-cropping cultivars is only about four weeks, the everbearing cultivars were picked from late June until beginning of October, in both years. The highest yields were obtained by 'Everest' (729 and 844 g) followed by 'Rita' and 'Ridder'. The cultivars 'Elan' and 'Rondo' scored highest both in taste and general performance. 'Everest' also performed well, but flavour was not acceptable.

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Techniques for the production of raspberry long canes with high yield potential were studied on a research station and in two commercial nurseries in South Norway. Potted 'Glen Ample' plants were grown in the open and in polyethylene greenhouses during two seasons in order to optimize Cultural practices. Dates of propagation and transfer to the production sites were varied. Following cold storage from December to early June, the canes were tipped (cut) at 160 cm height and grown in open plastic tunnels in the fruiting season for the evaluation of growth and yield performance. Remarkable berry yields of 1.5-3.8 kg per plant (cane) were regularly achieved. When grown in the open, later starts than June 1 (June 15 and July 1) successively reduced yields. On the other hand, an earlier start involves risks of growth cessation due to low spring temperature. When grown in greenhouses, high yields were still possible when plants were transferred from propagation conditions as late as July 1, although optimal yields of nearly 4 kg per plant were obtained with transfer on June 15. In a year with unusually high summer temperatures, the yields of canes produced in the open and in greenhouses did not vary significantly, whereas in the second year with normal summer temperatures, canes produced in greenhouses consistently out-yielded those produced in the open by about I kg per cane. Regression analyses revealed that high yields were associated with fruiting cane architecture traits such as cane height, number and length of laterals, and a low proportion of dormant buds. The single most important component was lateral length which alone accounted for 82% of the yield variation. Since lateral lengths increased from the shoot tip towards the base, cane heights in excess of 2 m are required for the attainment of top yields as the uppermost nodes with short and low-yielding laterals then can be eliminated by tipping. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sammendrag

Resultater og erfaringer med forsøk med produksjon av langskudd av bringebær, med vektlegging på klimapåvirkninger for vekst og blomsterdanning.

Sammendrag

Summarising research on raspberry and strawberry the last five years, with discussions of points of future possible collaboration with the University of Helsinki.

Sammendrag

Det er en vanlig oppfatning blant bærdyrkere at relativt lav temperatur er gunstig for rik blomsterdanning hos jordbær og bringebær. I ei tid med klimaendringer, er det derfor mange som spør om hvordan de milde høstene vi har hatt i det siste, påvirker blomstring og avling. Vi har i de seinere åra studert blomstring hos arter og sorter av jordbær og bringebær under kontrollerte klimaforhold, og kan nå langt på vei forklare fysiologiske særtrekk for blomstring hos disse artene, og derigjennom peke på fordeler og begrensninger som dyrking av disse gir oss under våre klimaforhold.

Sammendrag

Det er en vanlig oppfatning blant bærdyrkere at relativt lav høst-temperatur er gunstig for rik blomsterdanning hos jordbær og bringebær. I ei tid med klimaendringer, er det derfor mange som spør om hvordan de milde høstene vi har hatt i det siste, påvirker blomstring og avling. Vi har i de seinere åra studert blomstring hos arter og sorter av jordbær og bringebær under kontrollerte klimaforhold, og kan nå langt på vei forklare fysiologiske særtrekk for blomstringen hos disse artene, og derigjennom peke på fordeler og begrensninger for dyrkingen under endrede temperaturforhold. Hovedkonklusjonen blir, at mens mildere høster vil være en fordel for blomsterdanningen hos våre vanlige jordbærsorter, og for høstbærende bringebær, vil dette virke negativt og føre til seinere blomsterdanning hos to-årige bringebærsorter.

Sammendrag

Commercial strawberry production in Scandinavia started as early as the 1920s, with the cultivar `Abundance". Although the production area was about 1500 ha, the yield was very low (< 3 t ha-1). In the 1960s Scandinavia had a large increase in strawberry area and yield per hectare. The strong development of strawberry production came after the introduction of the cultivar `Senga Sengana", new growing techniques (black polyethylene mulch) and the release of new and more efficient fungi- and herbicides. Over the past 30 years, the yield and growing area has stabilized, although the number of strawberry growers has decreased strongly. Today, Scandinavia has a strawberry production of about 8500 ha, yielding about 75 000 tons of berries in a very short summer-season. Almost all strawberry growing is perennial production with single-cropping (SD) cultivars in open field, and the fields are normally kept for 3-5 years. The main strawberry cultivars grown today are `Korona", `Polka", `Honeoye", `Jonsok" and `Florence". The area of `Sonata" is increasing. While almost all strawberries up to the 1970s were picked and sold through a "pick-your-own" system, today, almost 95% is sold through wholesale dealers for fresh consumption, and only a small amount is frozen for processing. Since the mid 1990s, there has been a slow decrease in the strawberry production area in Scandinavia. This is due to an over-production of strawberries in a short, hectic season, giving very low prices. To avoid this, attempts are being made to extend the season, especially with row cover, plastic tunnels, stored plants and new cultivars (including everbearing cvs.). The growing area covered with polyethylene tunnels are now increasing in all the Scandinavian countries. The area of raspberry in Scandinavia was stable up to the 1990s, with a production of about 500 ha. The production was mainly for the processing industry with old Norwegian and Finnish cultivars. Since 1995, the raspberry area has doubled, and is still increasing. This came after introduction of the Scottish cultivar `Glen Ample", which has shifted the production from mainly for the processing industry, over to mainly for fresh consumption. This development was started in Norway, and the other Scandinavian countries are following up. Introduction of `Glen Ample" has given the growers new possibilities to increase their income, and the focus on extending the season and on berry quality, have increased. About half of the Norwegian raspberry production is now under polyethylene tunnels, and this leads again to new possibilities of extension of the season by growing long canes or primocane-fruiting varieties like `Polka". Less than 120 ha of blueberries are produced in Scandinavia. The yields are low, and the picking cost too high. But, there is increasing interest, related to health benefits, from the marked. The main challenges for berry production in Scandinavia are access to and cost of labour, and how to meet the increased competition from imported berries. The Scandinavian countries have also strong restrictions in the number, and use of pesticides. Increased focus on taste and quality will be important in the future.

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Environmental control of the annual growth cycle of 'Glen Ample' raspberry has been studied in order to facilitate crop manipulation for out-of-season production. Plants propagated from root buds were raised in long days (LD) at 21 degrees C and then exposed to different temperature and daylength conditions at varying ages. Shoot growth was monitored by weekly measurements and floral initiation by regular sampling and examination of axillary bud #5. Under natural summer daylight conditions at 60 degrees N shoot growth was nearly doubled at 21 degrees C compared with 15 degrees C, while at 9 degrees C one half of the plants ceased growing and formed flower buds at midsummer. Developing shoots have a juvenile phase and could not be induced to flower before the 15-leaf stage. No significant reduction in induction requirements was found in larger plants. Plants exposed to natural light conditions from 10th August, had an immediate growth suppression at 9 and 12 degrees C with complete cessation after 4 weeks (by September 7). This coincided with the first appearance of floral primordia. At 15 degrees C both growth cessation and floral initiation occurred 2 weeks later (by September 21), while at 18 degrees C continuous growth with no floral initiation was maintained until early November when the photoperiod had fallen below 9 h. The critical photoperiod for growth cessation and floral initiation at 15 degrees C was 15 h. Plants exposed to 10-h photoperiods at 9 degrees C for 2-4 weeks had a transient growth suppression followed by resumed growth under subsequent high temperature and LD conditions, while exposure for 5 or 6 weeks resulted in complete growth cessation and dormancy induction. The critical induction period for floral initiation was 3 weeks although no transitional changes were visible in the bud before week 4. When exposed to inductive conditions for marginal periods of 3 or 4 weeks, an increasing proportion of the plants (20% and 67%, respectively), behaved as primocane flowering cultivars with recurrent growth and terminal flowering. It is concluded that growth cessation and floral initiation in raspberry are jointly controlled by low temperature and short day conditions and coincide in time as parallel outputs from the same internal induction mechanism. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sammendrag

Etter sine dyrkingsmessige egenskaper blir våre dyrkete hagejordbær inndelt i engangsbærende og flergangsbærende (remonterende) sorter. Mens blomstringen hos de vanlige engangsbærende sortene har vært gjenstand for omfattende undersøkelser og er kjent for å være indusert av kort dag (KD), har det vært betydelig forvirring i litteraturen om daglengde-reaksjonen for de flergangsblomstrende sortene. I et nylig avslutta forskningsprosjekt har vi imidlertid kunnet fastslå at danningen av blomsterknopper hos disse sortene er indusert av langdags (LD)-forhold. Ved høy temperatur (> 25 ºC) er disse plantene obligatoriske LD-planter, mens de ved midlere temperaturer (15 - 20 ºC) også vil blomstre under KD-forhold, men da er blomstringen sterkt forsinket. Ved lave temperaturer (< 10 ºC) er imidlertid også disse sortene dagnøytrale i likhet med flere av de engangsbærende sortene.

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A field fertilizer trial planted in late August was used to study effects of fertilizer timing and application method on flowering and ripening in strawberry cv. Korona. In treatment 1 (T1), fertilization in August prior to planting was followed by fertigation with low nutrient rate from May to August in the first harvest year. In treatment 2 (T2) all nutrients were applied as nutrient solution from May to August the first harvest year. By August in the first harvest year, the total amount of fertilizer applied was similar for both treatments (80 kg N ha(-1)). Equal amounts of water were also applied in both treatments. In the second harvest year, all the fertilizer was applied using fertigation from May to August. Both treatments were given the same fertilizer rate (80 kg N ha(-1)) to study after-effects of T1 and T2. In the first harvest year, preplant fertilized plants flowered earlier and required a higher number of days and day-degrees from anthesis to berry ripening than did T2 plants which were not fertilized until spring the first harvest year. Significant differences were found in yield but not in the number of berries, as berry size was significantly higher in T1. No significant differences were found between fertilizer treatments in the second harvest year, although T2 tended to yield the maximum number of berries later in the season than T1.

Sammendrag

The environmental control of flowering in five populations of Fragaria virginiana ssp. glauca and three populations of F virginiana ssp. virginiana (henceforth referred to as F virginiana), obtained as seed from the National Plant Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, OR, USA, has been studied under controlled environment conditions. Except for the F virginiana ssp. glauca population PI 551648 from the Wasatch Mountains in Utah, which was truly day-neutral across a 9 degrees - 27 degrees C temperature range, all the other populations of both sub-species behaved as quantitative (facultative) short-day (SD) plants with earlier and more abundant flowering under SD than under long-day (LD) conditions. Flowering of the remaining F virginiana ssp. glauca populations was governed by a significant interaction of photoperiod and temperature. The SD dependence for flowering increased with increasing temperature from 9 degrees C to 27 degrees C. The optimum temperature for the SD flowering response was 15 degrees - 21 degrees C. While SD promotion of flowering was more pronounced in the F virginiana populations, temperature had no significant main effect on flowering in this sub-species, demonstrating a wide temperature tolerance for flowering. Vigorous runner formation was observed in all populations, in both SD and LD, with a highly significant advancement effect of increasing temperature. The flowering and runnering responses of these E virginiana populations are discussed in relation to their putative paternity of perpetual-flowering F. X ananassa cultivars. It is concluded that, with the complex inheritance in these octoploid plants, the flowering responses of the populations studied here are not reflected in the LD flowering response of cultivated everbearing strawberries.

Sammendrag

Det er en vanlig oppfatning blant dyrkere at relativt låg temperatur er gunstig for rik blomsterdanning hos jordbær. I ei tid med klimaendring, er det derfor mange som spør om hvordan de milde høstene vi har hatt i det siste, påvirker blomstring og avling. Samtidig er det mange som har erfart at en sein jordbærsort som "Florence" har gitt små avlinger i nord og i høgtliggende områder med tidlig og kjølig høst. Vi har derfor studert virkningen av ulike temperaturer på blomsterdanningen hos sortene "Florence", "Frida" og "Korona" under kontrollerte klimaforhold og jamført dette med avlingstall fra forsøk med de samme sortene i distrikt med ulike temperaturforhold. Resultata viser at optimal temperatur for kortdags-indusert blomsterdanning er så høg som 18 °C, og at sortsforskjeller i avling i ulike distrikt for en stor del kan forklares ut fra forskjeller i høst-temperaturen.

Sammendrag

The environmental control of flowering in the perpetual-flowering (everbearing) diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca ssp. semperflorens cultivars 'Rugen' and 'Baron Solemacher' has been studied in controlled environments. Seed-propagated plants were exposed to 10-h short-day (SD) and 24-h long-day (LD) conditions at temperatures ranging from 9 degrees - 27 degrees C. The results revealed a quantitative LD response of flowering that increased in strength with increasing temperature, to become almost obligatory at 27 degrees C. Occasional runner formation was observed in SD at high temperature, conditions which were inhibitory to flowering, demonstrating that runnering ability is not completely lost in these genotypes. A comparison with the perpetual-flowering octoploid F X ananassa 'Elan', in one experiment, demonstrated an identical LD X temperature interaction in the two species. The results are discussed in relation to available information on the genetics of flowering habits in the two species. Since seasonal flowering types of F vesca and E X ananassa have also been shown to share a principally identical flowering response, controlled by SD and low temperature, it is concluded that a remarkably similar flowering control system is present in the diploid F vesca and the octoploid F. X ananassa. Despite the large genetic differences between the two species, and regardless of the origin of the cultivars, the seasonal flowering types are all SD plants, while their perpetual-flowering counterparts all appear to be LD plants. In both cases, there is a pronounced interaction with temperature; the photoperiodic responses increasing with increasing temperature, in both cases. This raises the question whether a common genetic flowering control system is present in both species.

Sammendrag

Remonterende jordbærsorter er langdagsplanter, og er dermed svært godt tilpasset våre lange, lyse sommerdager. Sortene har stort avlingspotensiale og bærer gjennom en lang sesong. I et sortsforsøk ved Bioforsk Kise i 2006 og 2007, ble sju remonterende sorter sammenlignet med Korona. I 2007 ble det høstet mer enn 800 gram pr. plante for den beste sorten etter høsting fra 18. juni til 15. oktober. Vi trenger imidlertid bedre remonterende sorter før disse vil få sitt store gjennombrudd hos oss.

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The effect of night temperature on short day (SD) floral induction has been studied in three June-bearing strawberry cultivars of different geographic origin and compared with yield performance in the cool Nordic environment. At the optimum day temperature of 18 degrees C, the SD flowering response of the cultivars 'Florence' and 'Korona' increased significantly with increasing night temperature from 9 to 18 degrees C, while an optimum was reached at 15 degrees C in the cultivar 'Frida' that is selected under cool-environment conditions in Norway. Also, while saturated flowering response was obtained with 3 weeks of SD treatment at all temperatures in 'Frida', several plants of 'Florence' and 'Korona' failed to initiate flowers at 9 degrees C night temperature even with 5 weeks of SD. The effect of extended SD period was particularly pronounced in 'Florence'. The slow SD floral induction response of 'Florence' was associated with a 2 week delay of anthesis in subsequent long day (LD) conditions at 21 degrees C. Yield performance of the same cultivars during 2 years under field conditions at Nes Hedmark and in North Norway also demonstrated that the yield potential of 'Florence' was not realized under the climatic conditions prevailing at these locations. In both years the yields varied significantly among the cultivars,'Frida' having the highest yields followed by 'Korona', with 'Florence' far below. It is concluded that, in the Nordic environment, autumn (September) night temperatures are obviously suboptimal for yield performance of some June-bearing strawberry cultivars, and that this effect is mediated by autumn temperature effects on flower initiation responses. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sammendrag

Produksjonsklare planter er planter med ferdig utviklete blomsteranlegg, som kan drives og gi avling 2 " 3 mnd. etter planting. Gartnerhallen vil starte produksjon av slike planter av jordbær og bringebær. For å oppnå en tilfredsstillende kvalitet, må det skaffes ny kunnskap om vekstfysiologien hos jordbær og bringebær, for derigjennom å utvikle nye metoder og produksjonssystemer hos Gartnerhallens planteprodusenter. I 2006 ble det derfor etablert et 4-årig brukerstyrt prosjekt i regi av Gartnerhallen, med Bioforsk og UMB som samarbeidspartnere. Her vil vi presentere vekstfysiologiske resultater fra forsøk under kontrollerte klimaforhold med bringebærsorten "Glen Ample" (Sønsteby & Heide, 2008).

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Avlingsdata for to år er presentert frå to sortsforsøk med solbærsortarmed i alt 18 sortar og eit sortsforsøk med rips med åtte sortar. Analysar av viktige kvalitetseigenskapar som fargekvalitet, C vitamin og innhald av antioksidantar er presentert for eitt år.

Sammendrag

Flergangsbærende jordbærsorter, i motsetning til de vanlige engangsbærende sortene, blomstrer og gir bær så lenge lys- og temperaturforhold er gode nok. Her presenteres foreløpige resultater fra sortsforsøk med vanlige og engangsbærende jordbærsorter i plasttunnel. Forsøket er gjennomført ved Bioforsk Øst Kise

Sammendrag

Produksjonsklare planter er planter med ferdig utviklete blomsteranlegg, som gir avling 2 " 3 mnd. etter planting. Gartnerhallen vil starte produksjon av slike planter av jordbær og bringebær av en tilfredsstillende kvalitet. For å klare dette må det skaffes ny kunnskap om vekstfysiologien hos jordbær og bringebær, og derigjennom utvikle nye metoder og produksjonssystemer hos Gartnerhallens sju planteprodusenter. Det er derfor etablert et 4-årig brukerstyrt prosjekt i regi av Gartnerhallen, med Bioforsk og UMB som samarbeidspartnere. Her presentere noen foreløpige resultater for bringebær etter ett forsøksår.

Sammendrag

Produksjonsklare planter er planter med ferdig utviklete blomsteranlegg, som gir avling 2–3 mnd. etter planting. Gartnerhallen vil starte produksjon av slike planter av jordbær og bringebær av en tilfredsstillende kvalitet. For å klare dette må det skaffes ny kunnskap om vekstfysiologien hos jordbær og bringebær, og derigjennom utvikle nye metoder og produksjonssystemer hos Gartnerhallens sju planteprodusenter. Det er derfor etablert et 4-årig brukerstyrt prosjekt i regi av Gartnerhallen, med Bioforsk og UMB som samarbeidspartnere. Her presenteres noen foreløpige resultater for bringebær etter ett forsøksår.

Sammendrag

The effects of photoperiod (12, 13, 14, 15 or 16 h), day-temperature (12, 15, 18, 24 or 27"C) and night-temperature (6, 9 or 12 oC) and their interactions on flower and inflorescence emergence were investigated by exposing 4 week old runner planst of strawberry cvs. Korona and Elsanta during a period of 3 weeks. A daily photoperiod of 12 or 13 h resulted in the highest numbers of plants with emerged flowers. A photoperiod of 14 h or more strongly reduced this number, while no flowers emerged at a photoperiod of 16 h. Plants exposed to photoperiods of 12 or 13 h flowered earlier and had longer flower trusses. A day-temperature of 18 oC and a night temperature of 12 oC were optimal for plants to emerge flowers and resulted in shortest time to flowering. A night temperature of 6 oC strongly reduced the number of plants that emerged flowers, especially when combined with lower day-temperatures. Photoperiod and temperature had no effect on the number of inflorescences, all flowering plants produced on average one inflorescence. The number of flowers on the inflorescence increased with decreasing day temperature and when photoperiod was raised fra 12 to 15 h. In general, `Korona" was more sensitive to photoperiod and temperature than `Elsanta", and had a lower optimal day-temperature for flower emergence. Results of this experiment may be used to produce high quality plant material or to define optimal conditions when combining flower induction and fruit production.

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Floral induction and development requirements of a range of latitudinal and altitudinal Norwegian populations of the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca L. have been studied in controlled environments. Rooted runner plants were exposed to a range of photoperiods and temperatures for 5 weeks for floral induction and then transferred to long day (LD) at 20 degrees C for flower development. A pronounced interaction of temperature and photoperiod was shown in the control of flowering. At 9 degrees C, flowers were initiated in both short day (SD) and LD conditions, at 15 and 18 degrees C in SD only, whereas no initiation took place at 21 degrees C regardless of daylength conditions. The critical photoperiod for SD floral induction was about 16 h and 14 h at 15 and 18 degrees C, respectively, the induction being incomplete at 18 degrees C. The optimal condition for floral induction was SD at 15 degrees C. A minimum of 4 weeks of exposure to such optimal conditions was required. Although the populations varied significantly in their flowering performance, no clinal relationship was present between latitude of origin and critical photoperiod. Flower development of SD-induced plants was only marginally advanced by LD conditions, while inflorescence elongation and runnering were strongly enhanced by LD at this stage. The main shift in these responses took place at photoperiods between 16 and 17 h. Unlike all other populations studied, a high-latitude population from 70 degrees N ('Alta') had an obligatory vernalization requirement. Although flowering and fruiting in its native Subarctic environment and after overwintering in the field in south Norway, this population did not flower in the laboratory in the absence of vernalization, even with 10 or 15 weeks of exposure to SD at 9 degrees C. Flowering performance in the field likewise indicated a vernalization requirement of this high-latitude population.

Sammendrag

Vi har studert den klimatiske reguleringen av blomsterdanningen hos en rekke norske populasjoner av markjordbær. Resultata viser mange likhetstrekk med det som er kjent for hagejordbær med et utpreget samspill av temperatur og daglengde. Markjordbær er således dagnøytrale og danner blomster i både korte og lange dager ved 9 °C, ved 15 °C bare under kortdags-forhold, mens de ikke evner å danne blomster i det hele tatt ved 21 °C uansett daglengdeforhold.

Sammendrag

Perpetual-flowering strawberry cultivars are commonly classified as photoperiodically day-neutral, even though early investigations demonstrated long-day (LD) regulation. An important reason for this inconsistency is that these freely flowering plants are difficult to establish in a true vegetative state, and experiments have therefore, often been started using runner plants with pre-formed inflorescences. In order to circumvent this problem, we have used the perpetual-flowering F1-hybrid `Elan" that is propagated by seed, and is thus not pre-conditioned by its earlier life history. The results demonstrated a marked quantitative LD response across a range of temperatures from 9º - 27ºC. Seedlings were responsive to the LD stimulus at an early stage, and early flowering required LD exposure almost from germination. The critical daylength for the early flowering response was about 15 h at 18ºC. Because of this threshold LD response, it is concluded that regulation of flowering is truly photoperiodic in nature, and not merely an effect of additional light. Flower development was also slightly advanced by LD conditions. Stolon formation was strongly enhanced by short day conditions in combination with high temperature. Thus, not only flowering, but also runnering, was oppositely affected by photoperiod in `Elan" compared with mono-flowering cultivars. The results are discussed in relation to the photoperiodic classification of strawberries.

Sammendrag

Sortar av solbær og rips for økologisk produksjon må ha god resistens mot viktige soppar og skadedyr. Registreringar i sortsforsøk i fleire regionar syner stor variasjon mellom sortane. Bær av solbær og ripa har høgt innhald av helsefremmande innhaldsstoff, men analysar har synt store variasjonar mellom sortane. Registreringar i fleire år vil syna om sortane rangerer likt frå år til år.

Sammendrag

Ved Bioforsk Øst Kise er det forsøksfelt hvor ripssorter blir prøvd ved økologisk dyrking. Artikkelen presenterer de første resultatene fra forsøkene og gir foreløbige vurderinger av seks ripssorter plantet i 2002. Det presenteres avlingstall, verdier for bær- og klasestørrelse samt kartfall og løst tørrstoff.

Sammendrag

To felt som sammenligner henholdsvis 10 og 8 solbærsorter egnet til økologisk dyrking er plantet på Bioforsk Kise i 2002 og 2004. Artikkelen gir foreløpige vurderinger av 10 solbærsorter plantet i 2002, vurdert etter to høsteår.

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Jordbærmjøldogg (Sphaerotheca macularis) og jordbærøyeflekk (Mycosphaerella fragariae) kan gi betydelig skade både på bær og bladverk hos jordbær. Det finnes flere alternative midler som har forebyggende virkning mot mjøldogg og øyeflekk. De mest aktuelle av disse er ulike såper (som grønnsåpe), oljer (vegetabilske oljer og mineraloljer) og bakepulver (natriumhydrogenkarbonat). Svovel er også et godt forebyggende middel mot mjøldogg som også er tillatt brukt i økologisk dyrking.

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Et forskningsprosjekt (2002 " 2005) med mål å lage et bedre sprøyteutstyr for bekjempelse av skadegjørere i jordbær er avsluttet. Prosjektet ble ledet av Bioforsk Øst Kise i samarbeid med IMT ved Universitetet for miljø og biovitenskap (UMB). I denne artikkelen trekkes det fram noen konklusjoner fra det avsluttede prosjektet, samt presentere videreføringen av arbeidet i 2006, for å oppnå et best mulig sluttprodukt som brukerne kan anvende i praksis.

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Dormancy and flowering responses of the strawberry cultivars Korona and Elsanta have been studied in controlled environments. After short day (SD) floral induction for 5 weeks at temperatures ranging from 9 to 27°C, long photoperiods only were required for optimal leaf and inflorescence growth and development at 18°C, with no additional effect of chilling. However, with extended SD treatment for 10 or 15 weeks at 15°C the plants entered the usual semi-dormant state typical for strawberry plants in late autumn, and subsequent long day (LD) conditions could not fully reverse the restrained growth habit. Extended SD treatment at 6°C did not bring about this dormant state, indicating that the dormancy-inducing effect of SD is continuously nullified by such low temperature. When SD induced plants were forced under continued SD conditions, leaf and inflorescence growth were strongly restrained even in plants that had been chilled for up to 6 weeks. The restrained plant growth habit attained in SD, proved not to be a reliable indicator of the dormant state of the plants as it occurred also at low temperature. Floral induction in `Korona" and `Elsanta" was shown to have an obligatory SD requirement at temperatures ranging from 9 to 21°C, while SD floral induction was marginal at 27°C. The floral inducing effect of SD was also strongly reduced at temperatures below 9°C. Application of these findings for multiple cropping of inherently single-cropping strawberry cultivars in winter season greenhouse production systems is discussed.

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Passive drift samplers were mounted on a frame, attached to the sprayer, at 2 m behind the nozzles of different strawberry spraying systems. The spraying systems were operated at a common tractor speed of 2 m s-1. The drift samplers were made of cotton and acryle thread of 2 mm diameter, 3 m long and these were mounted horizontally on a frame at different heights up to 2.0 m above the ground. Comparing measurements at different growth stages (1 in May and 2 in August) demonstrated that drift was reduced by 75% due to the increased filtering effect of the leaf density in August. The drift from a tunnel sprayer was 10% and 13% of a reference sprayer when using an end-curtain and 55% and 37% without any end-curtain at growth stages 1 and 2, respectively. At growth stage 1, using 80 015 nozzles at 200 mm from the plants gave a significant increase in drift compared with the same nozzles at 100 mm from the plants. At growth stage 2 the reference sprayer at 1.0 MPa gave a significant higher drift than at 0.5 MPa. Using AI nozzles reduced the drift significantly.

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Bioforsk Øst Kise leder prosjektet ”Studier av remonterende jordbærsorter for utvidet sesong og økte avlinger”. Prosjektet startet i 2004 og skal avsluttes i 2007. Planteforsk er ansvarlig for prosjektet, med Universitetet for miljø- og biovitenskap som samarbeidspartner. Hensikten er å frembringe ny og grunnleggende kunnskap om bruk av flergangsbærende (remonterende) jordbærsorter i Norge, og å utvikle dyrkingsteknikker som forventes å gi grunnlag for en økt og mer forutsigbar produksjon av kvalitetsbær fra mai til september. Flergangsblomstrende jordbærsorter beskrives ofte i litteraturen som dagnøytrale planter, som blomstrer uavhengig av daglengden, men blomstringsforholdet er uklart. Våre foreløpige resultater med sortene ’Rita’ og ’Elan’ viser at disse sortene er kvantitative langdagsplanter, dvs. blomstringen framskyndes av lang dag, men plantene vil også blomstre under kortdagsforhold, men noe forsinket. Dette vil i så fall bety at sortene bør dyrkes på en noe annen måte enn om de var dagnøytrale, både for å øke avlingene og for å produsere utløpere. I prosjektets første fase er det gjennomført forsøk i veksthus og klimakammer, og det er etablert et sortsforsøk med sju flergangsblomstrende- og tre kortdagssorter i plasttunnel i bakken ved Bioforsk Øst Kise.

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I artikkelen blir det presentert foreløpige resultater fra sortsforsøk plantet i september 2005, med tre vanlige og sju remonterende jordbærsorter i plasttunnel. Forsøket er gjennomført ved Bioforsk Øst Kise.

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The effects of photoperiod (10, 12, 16, 20 or 24 h), day-temperature (12, 15, 18, 24 or 30°C), the number of short days (14, 21 or 28 days), plant age (4, 8 or 12 weeks) and their interactions on flower and inflorescence initiation were investigated in strawberry cv. Korona. No flowers emerged in plants exposed to photoperiods of 16, 20 or 24 h or to a short day treatment for 14 days. All plants exposed to short days at daily photoperiods of 10 or 12 h for 21 days or longer, emerged flowers at temperatures between 12 and 18°C. A further increase in temperature led to a drastic decrease in the total number of flowers per plant. A short day treatment (10 or 12 h photoperiod) of 28 days resulted in highest numbers of inflorescences and flowers per plant, while a short day treatment of 21 days resulted in the highest numbers of flowers per inflorescence. Complete flower induction was observed in only 4-week-old runner plants. The number of inflorescences and the number of flowers per inflorescence increased with plant age. However, the start of flowering was delayed with increasing plant age. Results clearly demonstrate interactions between photoperiod, temperature, duration of short day treatment and plant age on flowering. This knowledge may be used to produce flower-induced plants in a greenhouse or to develop a model for predicting flower behaviour in the field.

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Jordbærplanta har en vekst- og utviklingsrytme som er nøye kontrollert av og synkronisert med de ytre klimatiske miljøforholda, særlig temperatur og daglengde (Heide, 1977), og dette fører til at denne rytmen er sterkt årstidsbundet i naturen. Vegetativ vekst så vel som blomstring og vinterkvile er nøye regulert av disse miljøfaktorene. Forståelsen av dette er viktig blant annet for å kunne utvikle jordbærproduksjon utenom vanlig sesong.

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A system for winter greenhouse production of strawberries was developed in Norway. Plants of the June-bearing cultivar `Korona" were artificially induced to flower with short-day (SD) treatments. Plants were induced to flower three times: in July, in September and in December, and were harvested from November to June. Three-week old strawberry plants exposed to fourteen 12-hour SD cycles in May, were compared to non-treated plants (control) and large, cold-stored tray-plants. Photoperiod preconditioned plants produced significantly more branch crowns than control plants, but less than cold-stored tray-plants. Preconditioned plants produced more fruits than control plants, but the difference was not significant. Cold stored tray-plants had the highest total yield. Large multiple-crown, cold-stored tray-plants are of variable quality and expensive in Norway. Photoperiodic preconditioning is potentially useful for increasing strawberry productivity and therefore the profitability of a winter greenhouse production system.

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Growth cessation and dormancy development in autumn are important adaptive responses of plants for survival in cold climates. This requires the timely sensing and transduction of a seasonal environmental signal, which for most species, including strawberry, is the decreasing daylength of autumn. However, in strawberry plants the dormant state is only quantitative and can be considered a state of semidormancy. Thus, the so-called dormant plants developing under prolonged short day (SD) conditions in autumn retain the capability for growth, albeit at a reduced rate. Dormancy and flowering responses of the strawberry cultivars Korona and Elsanta were studied in controlled environments. Plants were exposed to short day for 5 weeks at temperatures ranging from 9 to 27°C, and subsequently forced at short and long day at 18ºC. Effects on leaf and inflorescence growth and runner formation were recorded. Results from these and further experiments with prolonged short day exposure at temperature of 6 and 15ºC, will be presented and discussed.

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Et NFR-prosjekt (2002-2005) har blant annet hatt som mål å forbedre eksisterende sprøyteutstyr i jordbær. Væskefordeling, avsatt mengde og dråpedekkevne er estimert visuelt ved bruk av et overflatefluoriserende stoff, Lumogen. I tillegg er det brukt et fluorescerende stoff, Fluorescein, for måling av væskekonsentrasjon og mengdeanalyse ved hjelp av et fluorometer. Væskemengden økte i løpet av sesongen tilnærmet proporsjonalt med bladmassen. Det ble brukt tre dyser per rad ved første og andre sprøytetidspunkt og fem dyser per rad ved siste tidspunkt. Dyser med en toppvinkel på 65 og 80º ved 0,5 MPa viste gjennomgående gode resultater, spesielt med tanke på analysert avsatt mengde. En avstand lik 100 mm til de nærmeste bladene gav best resultat ved første sprøyting, mens en avstand lik 200 mm var best for senere sprøytinger, spesielt med tanke på variasjoner i plantestørrelse i feltet. Bruk av AI (Air Injection)- og DG (Drift Guard) dyser gav et gjennomsnittlig resultat ved tidlig sprøyting, selv om visuell dekkevne grunnet de større dråpene var noe redusert. Da avdriften er størst ved tidlig sprøyting, vil slike dyser være et godt alternativ for å redusere avdriften. DG-dysene gav et gjennomsnittlig resultat også for store planter.

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I et 4-årig prosjekt ("Økologisk produksjon av jordbær i Hedmark og Oppland") har det blant annet vært jobbet med alternative midler til bekjempelse av jordbærmjøldogg (Sphaerotheca macularis) og jordbærøyeflekk (Mycosphaerella fragariae) i frilandsjordbær. I det første året, 2001, ble det ikke registrert noen infeksjon av jordbærmjøldogg eller jordbærøyeflekk i feltet. I 2002 var det en liten, men signifikant (P = 0,04) reduksjon av mjøldogginfeksjon på blader behandlet med svovel. I 2003 reduserte behandling med svovel og bakepulver med rapsolje infeksjonen på bladene (P = 0,01), og på bær med henholdsvis 18,7 og 18,0 prosent (P = 0,1), når en sammenligner med kontrollen (sprøytet med vann). I 2004 reduserte alle alternative midler unntatt grønnsåpe, mjøldogginfeksjonen på blad (P = 0,004). Svovel og bakepulver med grønnsåpe ga størst reduksjon av mjøldogg på bær henholdsvis 15,1 og 13,9 prosent (P = 0,1) sammenlignet med kontrollen. I 2003 fikk planter behandlet med svovel og rapsolje med og uten bakepulver redusert infeksjon av jordbærøyeflekk (P = 0,005). I 2004 ga behandling med svovel signifikant reduksjon (P = 0,04) av infeksjon sammenlignet med kontrollen.

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Planteforsk Kise leder prosjektet "Studier av remonterende jordbærsorter for utvidet sesong og økte avlinger". Prosjektet startet i 2004 og skal avsluttes i 2007. Planteforsk er ansvarlig for prosjektet, med Universitetet for miljø- og biovitenskap som samarbeidspartner. Hensikten er å frembringe ny og grunnleggende kunnskap om bruk av remonterende (flergangsbærende) jordbærsorter hos oss, og å utvikle dyrkingsteknikker som forventes å gi grunnlag for en økt og mer forutsigbar produksjon av kvalitetsbær fra mai til september.

Sammendrag

Et prosjekt (2002-2005) har blant annet som mål å forbedre eksisterende sprøyteutstyr i jordbær. Væskefordeling, avsatt mengde og dråpedekkevne er estimert visuelt ved bruk av et overflatefluoriserende stoff, Lumogen. I tillegg er det brukt et fluorescerende stoff, Fluorescein, for måling av væskekonsentrasjon og mengdeanalyse ved hjelp av et fluorometer. Væskemengden økte i løpet av sesongen tilnærmet proporsjonalt med bladmassen. Det ble brukt tre dyser per rad ved første og andre sprøytetidspunkt og fem dyser per rad ved siste tidspunkt. Den eksisterende LTI-bommen viste bedre resultater i 2004 enn i 2003, mens Klip Klap sprøyten viste noe under gjennomsnittet. Dyser med en toppvinkel på 65 og 800 ved 0,5 MPa og 100 til 200 mm avstand til de nærmeste bladene viste gjennomgående gode resultater, spesielt med tanke på analysert avsatt mengde. Bruk av AI (Air Injection)- og DG (Drift Guard) dyser gav et gjennomsnittlig visuelt resultat, men en lavere analysert avsetning. Slike dyser kan likevel være aktuelle å kombinere, der en er ekstra utsatt for avdrift av væske. Prosjektet fortsetter ut 2005.

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Artikkelen omhandler resultater fra to økologiske sortsfelt i jordbær; Ved Planteforsk Sæter, Kvikne og ved Planteforsk Kise, Nes på Hedmark. Avlingsresultater presenteres for to år.

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In Norway and Finland, strawberry cultivation in greenhouses still is limited. However, interest in strawberry cultivation in greenhouses or under high tunnels is increasing rapidly. Controlled environments offer growers an opportunity to produce strawberries year-round, and specifically, during the off-season (September to June) when Norwegian and Finnish strawberries are not readily available and carry a high price. Work on manipulation of flower induction through temperature and photoperiod fluctuations in Norway and Finland in order to develop out-of-season strawberry production are presented and discussed.

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This paper focuses on the cropping systems in northern European countries such as Norway and Finland. Challenges with growing, an strategies for development for "out-of-season" production are discussed.

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Et NFR-prosjekt (2002-2005) har blant annet som mål å forbedre eksisterende sprøyteutstyr i jordbær. Væskefordeling, avsatt mengde og dråpedekkevne er estimert visuelt ved bruk av et overflatefluoriserende stoff, Lumogen. I tillegg er det brukt et fluorescerende stoff, Fluorescein, for måling av væskekonsentrasjon og mengdeanalyse ved hjelp av et fluorometer. Væskemengden økte i løpet av sesongen tilnærmet proporsjonalt med bladmassen. Det ble brukt tre dyser per rad ved første og andre sprøytetidspunkt og fem dyser per rad ved siste tidspunkt. Den eksisterende LTI-bommen viste bedre resultater i 2004 enn i 2003, mens Klip Klap sprøyten viste noe under gjennomsnittet. Dyser med en toppvinkel på 65 og 80° ved 0,5 MPa og 100 til 200 mm avstand til de nærmeste bladene viste gjennomgående gode resultater, spesielt med tanke på analysert avsatt mengde. Bruk av AI (Air Injection)- og DG (Drift Guard) dyser gav et gjennomsnittlig visuelt resultat, men en lavere analysert avsetning. Slike dyser kan likevel være aktuelle å kombinere, der en er ekstra utsatt for avdrift av væske. Prosjektet fortsetter ut 2005.

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Ved bruk av metoden som gjev avling annakvart år, blir bringebærfelta delt i to klart skilde fasar; nemleg den vegetative fasen der skota veks opp, dannar blomsterknoppar og overvintrar. Det følgjande året er kjem den generative fasen då avlinga blir hausta. I England blir bringebæra dyrka i plasttunnel. Ved annakvart års bering treng ein berre å dekke det feltet som gjev avling. Dersom feltet som blir hausta annakvart år, gjev meir enn halve avlinga i forhold til tradisjonell dyrking, vil dei spare pengar på plastdekking. I dette eksempelet fekk dei dobbel avling i feltet der dei la opp til annakvartårsbering. Dei skriv då at kostnadane til plasttunnelar kan halverast.

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Vindruedyrkermiljøet i Noge er lite, men stadig økende. Nye og bedre sorter tilpasset kjølig klima er nå kommet på markedet. I dag finnes noen få sorter som vi med sikkerhet vet kan lykkes i vårt kjølige klima.

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Et samarbeidsprosjekt (2002 - 2005) er i gang med formål å fornye og/eller videreutvikle sprøyteutstyr i jordbær. Foreløpige resultater er presentert. Væskefordeling, avsatt mengde og dekningsgrad ble estimert visuelt ved hjel av et fluoriserende sporstoff og en UV - lampe. Viktige forsøksparametre var antall dyser, dysetype og dyseavstand. Væskemengden var konstant ved samme sprøytetidspunkt, men ble økt i takt med økt bladmasse. Dyser med 80º toppvinkel og en avstand fra dyse til plante på 200 mm, ga det beste resultatet. For små og store planter, henholdsvis 3 stk. 80 03 og 5 stk. 80 02 dyser ga det beste resultatet. Forsøkene vi fortsette i 2004 og 2005.

Sammendrag

`Korona` strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), were studied over a period of three years. A significant effect of mulching was found in the first harvest year, but additional fertilizer did not affect total yield. Bark mulch slightly decreased the level of leaf nitrogen, but increased the level of leaf phosphorus and potassium in all years. Bark had a significant, negative effect on soil nitrate and ammonium content in the two first seasons. Mulching increased the soil moisture content in all years.

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Seleksjonen PK97.48.1 har vist seg å ha flere gode egenskaper som råstoff for industrien, og den kan kanskje komme til å erstatte den gamle sorten "Senga Sengana". Videre utprøvinger vil vise dette, men så langt har resultatene vært lovende.

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Artikkelen oppsummerer noen små forsøk som er gjort på biologi, overvåking og skade, samt med nye kjemiske midler, nyttenematoder og utgjerding i årene 2000-2003.  Enkelte populasjoner av jordbærsnutebille ser ikke lenger ut til å la seg bekjempe med konvensjonelle plantevernmidler. Utenlandske forsøk har vist at jordbærplanter kan kompensere for opptil 50% avbitte knopper ved å utvikle nye knopper og/eller øke bærstr, men dette ser i liten grad ut til å gjelde norske jordbærplanter. I et økologisk felt som ble fulgt i 4 år, økte antall avbitte knopper per plante sterkt fra første til tredje høstingsår, for så å avta. I det tredje året var oppimot 80 blomsterknopper avbitt per plante. For å overvåke billebestanden i et felt, er registrering av selve billen ved risitng av planter over et hvitt fat en raskere metode enn å telle avbitte knopper, og sier også mer om mulig framtidig skade. Pilotforsøk med utgjerding og nyttenematoder har vist lovende resultater.

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Heftet har kort informasjon om alle sider ved økologisk produksjon av Ribesartene rips, solbær og stikkelsbær. Det er avsnitt om vekst og utvikling, skjering,krav til jord og dyrkingsstad og klima. Gjødsling og vatnig vert drøfta. Det same med sortar og sortseigenskapar, planter og planteoppal og dyrkingsmåtar. Innanfor plantevern vert utfordringar innanfor ugras, sjukdomar og skadedyr drøfta. Litt om hausting, lagring og omsetnad og om regelverket er også med.

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Behandling med svovel (Thiovit, 0,7%) og en blanding av rapsolje (Rapsolje, Askim Frukt og Bærpresseri, 1%) og bakepulver (0,5%) reduserte infeksjonen av jordbærmjøldogg (Sphaerotheca macularis f. sp. fragaria) på planter og bær av jordbærsorten Korona.  I 2003, ble også infeksjonen av jordbærøyeflekk (Mycosphaerella fragariae) på bladene signifikant redusert ved behandling med svovel og rapsolje sammenlignet med kontrolleddet (sprøytet med vann).

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Alternative metoder mot jordbærmjøldogg (Sphaerotheca alchemillae) og gråskimmel (Botrytis cinerea) ble undersøkt i to feltforsøk ved Planteforsk Kise. Det ble ikke registrert angrep av mjøldogg på blad i 2001, eller på bær i noen av årene. I 2002 ble det registrert mjøldogg på bladverket etter avhøsting. Ruter behandlet med svovel hadde signifikant mindre mjøldoggangrep på bladverket sammenlignet med kontrolleddet og ruter behandlet med olje ved registrering en uke etter avhøsting. Ved registrering seint i august hadde ruter behandlet med svovel mindre mjøldoggangrep enn ruter behandlet med olje og bakepulver pluss såpe. I 2002 ga sprøyting med nyttesoppen Trichoderma atroviride (harzianum) P1 en signifikant reduksjon i prosent råtne bær, basert på vekt, sammenlignet med ledd behandlet med C. rosea + T. atroviride (harzianum), før blomstring og etter avhøsting. Trichoderma atroviride (harzianum) P1 ga også en signifikant reduksjon i råteprosent, basert på antall bær, sammenlignet med ledd behandlet med C. rosea. Friske bær ble tatt ut til simulert lagringsforsøk tre ganger i høsteperioden i begge år. I 2002 viste lagringen at sprøyting i blomstringsperioden med C. rosea + T. atroviride (harzianum) P1, og T. atroviride (harzianum) P1 reduserte infeksjonen sammenlignet med kontrolleddet.

Sammendrag

Nyttesoppene Trichoderma harzianum (atroviride) P1 og Gliocladium roseum ble sprøytet på hver for seg, eller i kombinasjon, på jordbærplanter før blomstring, i blomstringsperioden eller etter høsting, i et forsøk på å redusere bærråtning forårsaket av Botrytis cinerea. I 2002 ga sprøyting med nyttesoppen Trichoderma atroviride (harzianum) P1 en signifikant reduksjon i prosent råtne bær, basert på vekt, sammenlignet med ledd behandlet med G. roseum + T. harzianum (atroviride), før blomstring og etter avhøsting. T. harzianum P1 ga også en signifikant reduksjon i råteprosent, basert på antall bær, sammenlignet med ledd behandlet med G. roseum. Friske bær ble tatt ut til simulert lagringsforsøk tre ganger i høsteperioden i begge år. I 2002 viste lagringen at sprøyting i blomstringsperioden med G. roseum + T. harzianum (atroviride) P1, og T. harzianum (atroviride) P1 reduserte infeksjonen sammenlignet med kontrolleddet.

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Jordbær sprøytes oftere med kjemikalier enn andre bær, og hovedårsaken er gråskimmelsoppen. Foreløpig er kjemiske midler mest effektivt mot gråskimmel, men en sterk økning i forskning omkring alternative behandlingsstrategier viser at biologisk bekjemping kan ha potensial til å begrense sykdommen. I dag er isolater av Trichoderma de mest vanlige antagonistene i kommersielle produkter for biologisk bekjempelse av plantesykdommer. Sopp av slektene Gliocladium (Clonostachys) og Ulocladium har også effekt mot gråskimmel i jordbær. Resultater fra norske forsøk med biologisk kontroll av gråskimmel er diskutert.

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Et samarbeidsprosjekt (2002-2005) i regi av Planteforsk er igangsatt med formål å fornye og/eller videreutvikle sprøyteutstyr i jordbær. Det vil bli kjørt feltforsøk med diverse prototyper allerede sommeren 2003. Eksisterende sprøyteutstyr ble kartlagt høsten 2002. Enkle avsetnings- og avdriftsmålinger ble utført. Bruk av skjerm viste seg å ikke være noen garanti for redusert avdrift. I dette prosjektet vil det derfor bli sett på muligheten til å utnytte plantene selv som avskjerming. Forslag på prototyper som vil inngå i prosjektet er beskrevet. Det er også diskutert hvilke plantesoner som må behandles for ulike skadegjørere, og hvordan dette teknisk kan sikres på en optimal måte. Endelige forsøksresultater og nøyaktig tekniske beskrivelse på utviklet sprøyteutstyr vil først være endelig fastsatt ved prosjektets avslutning. Rianor AS deltar som norsk industripartner i prosjektet. Et viktig mål er at utstyret blir satt i produksjon og kan tilbys jordbærdyrkerne.

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Et samarbeidsprosjekt (2002-2005) i regi av Planteforsk er igangsatt med formål å fornye og/eller videreutvikle sprøyteutstyr i jordbær. Eksisterende sprøyteutstyr ble kartlagt høsten 2002, og feltforsøk med ulike prototyper ble gjennomført i 2003. Metodikk, metoder, og foreløpige resultater er presentert.

Sammendrag

To- til tre uker gamle planter av `Korona` ble gitt kort dag (KD) i 12 timer per døgn i to uker i mai, etterfulgt av fire uker naturlig lang dag, og fire uker kort dag for første blomsterinduksjon. Kort dag ble gitt ved å dekke plantene med svart plast. Kjølelagrede produksjonsklare planter ble også tatt med i forsøket. Alle plantene ble satt inn i veksthus, og gitt en naturlig kort dag i september og desember for en andre og tredje blomsterinduksjon. Barrotplanter uten en ekstra kortdagsbehandling ble brukt som kontroll. Barrotplanter med to uker KD hadde signifikant flere kroner enn barrotplanter, men hadde færre kroner enn de produksjonsklare plantene. Barrotplanter med to uker KD produserte flere bær enn barrotplanter igjennom hele sesongen, selv om forskjellen ikke var signifikant sikker. Kjølelagrede produksjonsklare planter ga størst avling. Forsøket viser at ved å dekke plantene med svart plast i 12 timer per døgn i to uker før første induksjon, kan en med et produksjonsopplegg som dette få økt totalavlingen for en sesong med 1,8 kg bær per m2 veksthus.

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Denne artikkelen omtaler resultater etter to år med feltforsøk med alternative midler mot mjøldogg (Sphaerotheca alchemilla) og nyttesopper mot gråskimmel (Botrytis cinerea), og resultater etter ett år med sortsutprøving i økologisk jordbærproduksjon.

Sammendrag

Prosjektet "Økologisk jordbærproduksjon i Hedmark og Oppland" (2000 - 2003), som ledes fra Planteforsk Kise er godt i gang. To økologiske jordbærprodusenter fra hvert av fylkene bidrar i prosjektet. Prøvefelt med jordbærsorter er lagt ut hos dyrkerne, og forsøksfelt med sorter, alternative metoder mot jordbærmjøldogg og antagonistiske sopper mot gråskimmel er etablert ved Planteforsk Kise og hos èn av dyrkerne. Artikelen presenterer resultater etter første sesong.

Sammendrag

Prosjektet "Økologisk jordbærproduksjon i Hedmark og Oppland" (2000 - 2003), som ledes fra Planteforsk Kise er godt i gang. To økologiske jordbærprodusenter fra hvert av fylkene bidrar i prosjektet. Prøvefelt med jordbærsorter er lagt ut hos dyrkerne, og forsøksfelt med sorter, alternative metoder mot jordbærmjøldogg og antagonistiske sopper mot gråskimmel er etablert ved Planteforsk Kise og hos èn av dyrkerne. Artikelen presenterer resultater etter første sesong.

Sammendrag

Fireårig prosjekt startet opp sommeren 2002. Skal fokusere på biologisk kontroll av skadedyr,og utvikling av sprøyteutstyr, og har som mål å øke kompetansen blant forskere, veiledere og dyrkere om disse to strategiene for redusert plantevernmiddelbruk

Sammendrag

I forbindelse med gjennomføring av et økologisk veilednings- og informasjonsprosjekt i bær (solbær, rips og stikkelsbær), i regi av ringleder Sigrid Mogan fra LFØ frukt- og bærring, ble det 4- - 6. september 2002 arrangert fagtur til Danmark for å studere danskenes produksjon av økologisk ribes. Inntrykk fra en ripsdyrker på Sjælland, og fra forskningsstasjonen Årslev på Fyn, presenteres i del 2 av artikelen.

Sammendrag

I forbindelse med gjennomføring av et økologisk veilednings- og informasjonsprosjekt i bær (solbær, rips og stikkelsbær), i regi av ringleder Sigrid Mogan fra LFØ frukt- og bærring, ble det 4- - 6. september 2002 arrangert fagtur til Danmark for å studere danskenes produksjon av økologisk ribes. Inntrykk fra to solbærdyrkere presenteres i artikelen.

Sammendrag

Grimsby gartneri, Hobøl i Østfold, produserer i dag friske jordbær til markedet i perioden november - mai. Produksjonsmåten som er utviklet er spesiell ved at det blir høstet tre avlinger på de samme jordbærplantene gjennom en sesong. I dette delprosjektet har vi blant annet sett på muligheten for å stabilisere og øke avlingen i november -desember. Dette ble gjort ved å prøve virkningen av ulike plantekvaliteter, og manipulering av plantene for om mulig å danne flere sidekroner og dermed flere blomsterklaser og bær. Barrotplanter gitt 2 uker kortdag ga like gode resultater som bruk av produksjonsklare planter. Artikkelen diskuterer muligheter og utfordringer ved vinterproduksjon av jordbær

Sammendrag

To- til tre uker gamle planter av `Korona` ble gitt kort dag (KD) i 12 timer per døgn i to uker i mai, etterfulgt av fire uker naturlig lang dag, og fire uker kort dag for første blomsterinduksjon. Kort dag ble gitt ved å dekke plantene med svart plast. Kjølelagrede produksjonsklare planter ble også tatt med i forsøket. Alle plantene ble satt inn i veksthus, og gitt en naturlig kort dag i september og desember for en andre og tredje blomsterinduksjon. Barrotplanter uten en ekstra kortdagsbehandling ble brukt som kontroll. Barrotplanter med to uker KD hadde signifikant flere kroner enn barrotplanter, men hadde færre kroner enn de produksjonsklare plantene. Barrotplanter med to uker KD produserte flere bær enn barrotplanter igjennom hele sesongen, selv om forskjellen ikke var signifikant sikker. Kjølelagrede produksjonsklare planter ga størst avling. Forsøket viser at ved å dekke plantene med svart plast i 12 timer per døgn i to uker før første induksjon, kan en med et produksjonsopplegg som dette få økt totalavlingen for en sesong med 1,8 kg bær per m2 veksthus.

Sammendrag

Produksjon av jordbær under spanske plasttunneler på Horgen i Frogn kommune. Dette gir tidligere modning og økt bærkvalitet. Dryppvanning og bruk av skjermet sprøyte i tunnelene er også omtalt.

Sammendrag

Norsk eksportsatsning, status og fremtid Hvordan produsere 2000 kg jordbær per dekar Avrenning av plantevernmidler fra jordbærfelt - presentasjon av prosjekt og foreløpige resultater Registreringer i prøveplantinger med Friske norske delikatessebær - hvordan bør vi satse videre? Genetisk variasjon i isolater av Phytophthora cactorum som gir rotstokkråte og/eller lærråte i jordbær Identifikasjon av Phytophthora fragariae ved hjelp av molekylære metoder Testing av resistens mot rotstokkròte (Phytophthora cactorum) i jordbær Varmebehandling av jordbærplanter mot raud marg, rotstokkròte og jordbærmidd Stativdyrking i jordbær Jorddekking til jordbær Dekking mot frostskader i jordbær Sortsprøving i jordbær

Sammendrag

Resultater som viser avlingstall for jordbær med jorddekke av lagret bark, fersk bark, plast, halm og udekka jord. Resultater fra tre forsøk fra ulike deler av landet

Sammendrag

Forsøk som viser resultater fra forsøk med jordbær: Jorddekke av lagret bark, fersk bark, plast, halm og udekka jord. Resultater fra forsøk med redusert bruk av soppmidler mot gråskimmel. Vekst og blomstring hos jordbær.

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Innovative løsninger for økt lønnsomhet i grøntnæringa - TEKNOBÆR


De to største utfordringene norsk grøntnæring står ovenfor, er høye arbeidskostnader og stabilt høye avlinger av god kvalitet. Det skjer en rask teknologisk utvikling i og rundt landbruket. Bruk av avansert teknologi, inkludert robotisering til for eksempel behovsprøvd gjødsling, vanning og plantevern og ved innhøsting er ikke lengre framtiden, det er på full fart inn i internasjonalt landbruk. Hagebruksnæringen har arbeidsintensive produksjoner som har sterkt behov for å finne innovative løsninger på de høye arbeidskostnadene. Mer ekstremvær og utfordringer med resistens hos plantepatogene sopper og skadedyr mot kjemiske plantevernmidler gjør at norsk grøntproduksjon i framtida vil foregå med vær-vern, ved dyrking under et dekke av plast. I land som England, Frankrike, Nederland og Spania foregår i dag mer enn 90% av bærproduksjonen i plasttunneler. Bruk av plasttunneler gir bedre plantevekst, høyere avlinger og mindre problemer med viktige skadegjørere. Avlingen per arealenhet kan økes med 50 til 100%. Men det er mange utfordringer som må løses: næringsforsyningen må bli mer presis, plantevernstrategiene må tilpasses, kvaliteten på plantematerialet må forbedres, etc. I plasttunneler kan planter dyrkes i bakken eller på opphøyde renner, i jord eller i substrat. Plantene kan ‘designes’ til produksjonssystemet og overvintres på kjølelager, slik at produksjonen kan programmeres og sesongen utvides. En slik semi-kontrollert produksjon vil gi flere muligheter til å effektivisere arbeidsoperasjoner og gjøre produksjonen mer miljøvennlig. Satsingen vil gi økt kunnskap/kompetanse i NIBIO og bidra til å gjøre instituttet nasjonalt ledende innen forskning på tekniske løsninger i landbruket.

Aktiv Sist oppdatert: 21.11.2017
Slutt: des 2020
Start: jan 2017