Anne Kari Bergjord Olsen

Forsker

(+47) 992 93 370
annekari.bergjord@nibio.no

Sted
Steinkjer

Besøksadresse
Statens Hus, Strandvegen 38, 7734 Steinkjer

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Multilocation testing remains the main tool for understanding varietal responses to the environment. Here, Latvian and Norwegian hull-less and hulled barley varieties were tested in field experiments in Latvia and Norway in order to assess the varieties adaptability across environments (sites). Two Latvian (cv Irbe and cv Kornelija) and one Norwegian hull-less barley variety (cv Pihl) were tested along with one Latvian (cv Rubiola) and one Norwegian hulled barley variety (cv Tyra) under conventional and organic management systems. The grain yield, together with physical and chemical grain parameters were compared, and variety yield and protein stability detemined. Overall, grain yield of hull-less barley varieties was significantly lower than for hulled barley varieties regardless of climatic conditions and management system. However, in the organic farming systems this difference between barley types was less pronounced. The hull-less barley varieties cv Pihl and cv Irbe, along with both hulled varieties, had good yield stability across environments and were well adapted to both cropping systems. Hull-less barley varieties tended to contain more protein and β -glucans than hulled barley varieties. Despite being bred for local conditions in Norway and Latvia, our study shows that all the varieties used may be successfully transferred across countries.

Sammendrag

Våronna utgjør ei kritisk fase i dyrkingen av vårkorn. Utsatt såtid reduserer avlingsutbytte, mens bearbeiding av våt jord ødelegger jordstruktur og hemmer plantevekst. Mange arbeidsoperasjoner skal utføres på kort tid for å lage et godt såbed. Det er viktig å så kornet så tidlig som mulig når jorda er laglig for jordarbeiding. Jorda er laglig når den har tørket så mye at den kan bearbeides med ønsket resultat, dvs. med lite energiforbruk og uten klumpdannelse, hjulsluring eller pakking av dypere jordlag. Et klima med økt nedbørsmengde og –intensitet medfører at tidsperioden der jorda er laglig for våronn er svært kort enkelte år, eller at jorda forblir fuktig så lenge at man blir tvunget til å så ved ulaglige forhold. Behov for forenklet våronn oppstår først og fremst når: 1) Det har kommet så mye nedbør at jorda ikke tørker tilstrekkelig, og det haster med å få sådd kornet hvis det skal kunne bli modent. Da er det spesielt viktig med lett redskap for å unngå jordpakking. 2) Jorda er laglig, men mye nedbør i vente gjør at en må forenkle våronna. Da trengs det utstyr med stor kapasitet eller utstyr som gjør det mulig med færre antall arbeidsoperasjoner. I begge tilfeller har det mye å si om jorda er bearbeidet om høsten eller ikke, og hvilken jordtype en har. Tidligere forsøk med redusert jordarbeiding har hovedsakelig blitt gjennomført ved laglige jordforhold. Vanskelig våronn i Trøndelag i 2015 medførte rundt 350 søknader om avlingsskadeerstatning. Flere prøvde å forenkle våronna med ulike kreative løsninger. Noen lyktes, mens andre mislyktes. Gårdbrukere, rådgivere og forvaltning etterlyser mer kunnskap om alternative metoder for våronn under ulaglige forhold for å kunne opprettholde kornproduksjonen også i klimatisk vanskelige år. «Våronn plan B» er et utviklingsprosjekt som har som mål å gi anbefalinger for alternative våronnstrategier for korndyrking, tilpasset ulik jordtype og ulik laglighet av jorda. Gjennom feltforsøk i 2017 og 2018 på leirjord og sandjord hos NIBIO Kvithamar i Trøndelag testes ulike aktuelle metoder og redskap for forenklet våronn ved laglige og mindre laglige jordforhold med hensyn til effekt på kornavling og jordstruktur. Feltforsøkene inkluderer både redskap som kan bidra til redusert kjørebelastning ved ulaglige forhold og redskap som kan bidra til å redusere antall operasjoner og dermed nødvendig tidsbruk i en hektisk våronnsperiode. I tillegg gjennomføres det nå en spørreundersøkelse blant kornprodusenter i Trøndelag for å innhente og videreformidle deres erfaringer med forenklet våronn og tilpasning av jordarbeiding med tanke på endret klima. Prosjektet «Våronn plan B» gjennomføres i 2017-2019 og er finansiert av Klima- og miljøprogrammet i Landbruksdirektoratet og Fylkesmannen i Trøndelag. Felleskjøpet Agri bidrar med redskap til utprøving. NIBIO er ansvarlig for prosjektets gjennomføring. Mer informasjon om prosjektet finnes her: https://www.landbruksdirektoratet.no/no/miljo-og-okologisk/klima-og-miljoprogrammet/prosjekter-2013/klimatilpasning/v%C3%A5ronn-plan-b

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Many goose species feed on agricultural land, and with growing goose numbers, conflicts with agriculture are increasing. One possible solution is to designate refuge areas where farmers are paid to leave geese undisturbed. Here, we present a generic modelling tool that can be used to designate the best locations for refuges and to gauge the area needed to accommodate the geese. With a species distribution model, locations are ranked according to goose suitability. The size of the area to be designated as refuge can be chosen by including more or less suitable locations. A resource depletion model is then used to estimate whether enough resources are available within the designated refuge to accommodate all geese, taking into account the dynamics of food resources, including depletion by geese. We illustrate this with the management scheme for pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus implemented in Norway. Here, all geese can be accommodated, but damage levels appear to depend on weather, land use and refuge size.

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Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this model, four winter wheat cultivars were sown in a field experiment in Uppsala, Sweden in 2013 and 2014. The LT50 was determined by tests of frost tolerance in November, and the cultivars’ LT50c was estimated. Further, recorded winter survival from 20 winter wheat field variety trials in Sweden and Norway was collected from two winter seasons with substantial winter damages. FROSTOL simulations were run for selected cultivars at each location. According to percentage of winter damage, the cultivar survival was classified as “survived,” “intermediate” or “killed.” Mean correspondence between recorded and simulated class of winter survival was 75% and 37% for the locations in Sweden and Norway, respectively. Stress factors that were not accounted for in FROSTOL might explain the poorer accuracy at the Norwegian locations. The accuracy was poorest for cultivars with intermediate LT50c levels. When low temperature was the main cause of damage, as at the Swedish locations, the model accuracy was satisfying.

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Gjess i Nord-Trøndelag har vært systematisk overvåket om høsten siden 2014. Denne rapporten presenterer resultater fra disse registreringene, både geografisk fordeling og i henhold til jaktpraksis. Rapporten presenterer også kort noe sentrale funn fra forskningen i regionen, både fra den konfliktfylte vårsitasjonen og jaktsesongen om høsten. Flest gjess forekommer om høsten i Levanger kommune, mens noen lokaliteter i Steinkjer har mye gjess og antallet har vært økende i flere deler av fylket. Dette gjelder både for kortnebbgås og grågås. Flest gjess forekommer i områder der jakten er tilrettelagt og organisert med et lavere jakttrykk som gjør at gjessene til enhver tid har friarealer der det ikke jaktes. I disse områdene er også fellingstallet høyest. Kortnebbgåsbestanden er i vekst og er i dag på et nivå (87 963 individer) som er over det vedtatte bestandsmålet på 60 000 individer. Følgelig må det felles flere kortnebbgjess, både i Norge og Danmark, om de internasjonale målene skal nås. En internasjonal forvaltningsplan er også under utvikling for grågås. En gåsejakt- App er utviklet for å kunne gi fortløpende fellingstall på gjess og er ønsket brukt av gåsejegerne. Utformingen av denne er blant annet basert på innspill fra jegere, som gjennom en spørreundersøkelse også fremstår som motiverte og reflektere og som ønsker å bidra i prosesser omkring forvaltningen av gjess i Norge. Grunneiere/gårdbrukere på sin side viser gjennom et flertall i en spørreundersøkelse at de ønsker å tilrettelegge for gåsejakt. Dette er primært motivert ut fra ønsker om å redusere antallet gjess som vil kunne ha positive ringvirkninger på beiteskadene om våren. Resultater både fra modellberegninger og innhegningsforsøk viser imidlertid at skadene på dyrket mark varierer både mellom år og områder, men at noen grunneiere til enhver tid blir mer skadelidende enn andre. Både jakt og skadeproblematikk for landbruket er viktige deler i de internasjonale planene både for kortnebbgås og grågås (under planlegging), og relevante tiltak vil diskuteres, identifiseres og iverksettes også i det internasjonale fora. NØKKELORD Nord-Trøndelag, kortnebbgås, grågås, overvåking, arealbruk, bestandsutvikling, jakt, fellingstall, jegerundersøkelser, landbrukskonflikter, nasjonal og internasjonal forvaltning KEY WORDS : Nord-Trøndelag, pink-footed goose, greylag goose, monitoring, habitat use, population development, hunting, harvest data, hunter survey, agricultural conflicts, national and international management

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1.A large population increase of the Svalbard-breeding pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus over recent decades has intensified the conflict with agriculture at the spring-staging sites in Norway. Knowledge of the yield loss caused by goose grazing in these northern areas is lacking, and the motivation behind the study was to quantify a relationship between grazing pressure and yield loss of agricultural grasslands and corresponding changes in vegetation composition. 2.Field trials were established on agricultural grasslands at four sites in central Norway. Eight plots were established at each site; four with exclosures to exclude or reduce grazing from geese and four with access for the geese. The exact same plots were followed for 2–4 years. Dropping density, used as a measure of grazing pressure, and compressed sward height were recorded throughout the goose staging periods, and dry matter yield was determined at first and second harvests. Plant samples from first harvests were analysed for vegetation composition. 3.Grazing pressure varied between both years and sites. Exclosures reduced grazing pressure by 75–78% during high-pressure grazing periods and increased first harvest yields by up to 31%. At lower grazing pressure, exclosures prevented grazing completely. Grazing pressure was inversely correlated with dry matter yield at first harvest, but second harvest yields were unaffected. 4.The fraction of sown species declined while the fraction of weeds increased during the study both in open plots and exclosures, but level of grazing pressure did not have any significant influence on the overall fraction of sown species, or in any specific year. 5.Synthesis and applications. As the same plots were measured over several years, it was possible to quantify goose-grazing effects beyond one season. In the context of the wildlife-agriculture conflict, the results demonstrate that some farmers always suffer disproportionately with yearly variations. The relationship between grazing pressure and yield loss may provide knowledge to a regional goose grazing subsidy scheme in the study area, identifying the most affected areas and distributing the subsidies correspondingly. However, the seasonal variations in grazing pressure demonstrate the difficulty of targeting exact areas on a yearly basis. On the other hand, the observed variations may promote another management tool in the form of delayed ploughing of stubble fields before spring sowing, as stubble fields may attract more geese, reducing the grazing pressure on agricultural grasslands and hence the overall conflicts with agricultural interests.

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Accurate estimation of winter wheat frost kill in cold-temperate agricultural regions is limited by lack of data on soil temperature at wheat crown depth, which determines winter survival. We compared the ability of four models of differing complexity to predict observed soil temperature at 2 cm depth during two winter seasons (2013-14 and 2014-15) at Ultuna, Sweden, and at 1 cm depth at Ilseng and Ås, Norway. Predicted and observed soil temperature at 2 cm depth was then used in FROSTOL model simulations of the frost tolerance of winter wheat at Ultuna. Compared with the observed soil temperature at 2 cm depth, soil temperature was better predicted by detailed models than simpler models for both seasons at Ultuna. The LT50 (temperature at which 50 % of plants die) predictions from FROSTOL model simulations using input from the most detailed soil temperature model agreed better with LT50 FROSTOL outputs from observed soil temperature than what LT50 FROSTOL predictions using temperature from simpler models did. These results highlight the need for simpler temperature prediction tools to be further improved when used to evaluate winter wheat frost kill.

Sammendrag

Den Nord-Atlantiske Oscillasjonen (NAO) påvirker klimaet på store deler av den nordlige halvkule. Formålet med denne studien var å bestemme NAOs innvirkning på risikoen for frostskader i høsthvete. Modellsimuleringer ble utført for totalt 53 vintersesonger fra 1957/58 til 2009/10. Resultatene viser at det var større risiko for frostskader under negative NAO-faser enn under positive og nøytrale faser.

Sammendrag

Climate and weather variability affect agricultural crop production. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the variation in air pressure difference in the northern Atlantic Ocean. A positive NAO index with higher than normal air pressure near the Azores and lower than normal near Iceland results in warm and wet winters in northwestern Europe. A negative NAO index gives opposite climatic effects in this region. We determined the effect of the NAO on the risk of frost injury in winter wheat for conditions that represent northwestern Europe by applying the FROSTOL model to dynamically simulate hardening, de-hardening and other physiological processes determining frost tolerance and frost injury in winter wheat. This model uses soil surface temperature and snow cover as driving variables. In total, 53 winter seasons from 1957-58 to 2009-10 were simulated to account for historical trends and variations in the NAO. Monthly and seasonal mean NAO indices for all years within this period were categorised into positive, neutral or negative phases. The winter wheat simulations included 3 locations in Norway (Apelsvoll, ås and Kvithamar), 2 wheat frost tolerance types and 3 planting dates. The results showed that negative NAO phases, especially in February and March, increased the risk of frost injury in winter wheat. The risk of frost injury was higher at Apelsvoll and ås than at Kvithamar, especially in negative NAO phases or after early planting. The results obtained can be used to design crop management practices and systems with higher production security.

Sammendrag

The anticipated future changes in temperature, precipitation and snow cover caused by global warming may affect winter survival of autumn sown wheat. More variable weather conditions may cause an increased frequency of periods with alternating freezing and thawing and less stable snow covers. In the present study, the course of plant frost tolerance and growth potential was studied by exposing cold acclimated plants of winter wheat to conditions with alternating periods of freezing and thawing (either -1 °C or +5 °C), and differing durations of snow cover. Tests of frost tolerance and determination of growth potential were performed each time the temperature or snow cover conditions were changed. Periods without snow cover and + 5 °C caused dehardening, with loss of frost tolerance being more pronounced during the first dehardening period than in the second one. The ability to reharden after a dehardening period decreased towards the end of the experimental period. Mild periods during winter also seemed to exhaust plant growth potential, possibly by increasing respiration rate while photosynthesis was still restricted. The results indicate some of the challenges we may face regarding overwintering of winter wheat in a future climate.

Sammendrag

The model FROSTOL simulates course of frost tolerance in winter wheat on a daily basis from sowing on as affected by soil temperature (2 cm), snow cover, phenological development, and a genotypic maximum level of frost tolerance (LT 50). A series of cultivar trials in Finland was used to evaluate the model's ability to estimate plant survival in natural field environments during winters with differing weather conditions. Recorded survival was compared with number of intersections between the curves of simulated LT50 and the soil temperature curve for each field. A cumulative stress level (CSL) was calculated based both on number of intersections and FROSTOL simulated stress levels. The correlation between CSL and field recordings was quite low. While the field trials characterize a general ability to stand various types of winter stress, FROSTOL estimates damage caused by the soil temperature regime only. However, FROSTOL simulations seemed to correspond reasonably well to field observations when low temperature was the eventual cause of damage.

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A Canadian model that simulates the course of frost tolerance in winter wheat under continental climatic conditions was adopted and further developed for use in an oceanic climate. Experiments with two cultivars were conducted during two winters in Central Norway. All plants were hardened at the same location. After hardening, in mid November, they were distributed to three locations with contrasting winter climates. Plants were sampled several times during autumn and winter and tested for frost tolerance, expressed as LT50 (the temperature at which 50% of the plants were killed). Results from the experiment were used in parameterization and cross validation of the new model, called FROSTOL, which simulates LT50 on a daily basis from sowing onwards. Frost tolerance increases by hardening and decreases by dehardening and stress, the latter caused by either low temperatures, or by conditions where the soil is largely unfrozen and simultaneously covered with snow. The functional relationships of the model are all driven by soil temperature at 2 cut depth. One of them is in addition affected by snow cover depth, and two of them are conditioned by stage of vernalization. Altogether five coefficients allotted to four of the functional relationships produced a good agreement (R-2 = 0.84) between measured and modelled values of LT50. A cross validation of the model indicated that the parameters were satisfactorily insensitive to variation in winter weather. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Damping av jord er en gammel metode for bekjempelse av ugras, sopp, nematoder og virus. Desinfeksjon ved hjelp av damp ble tatt i bruk allerede i begynnelsen av forrige århundre, men det var først i begynnelsen av dette århundre metoden ble benyttet i større omfang, og da spesielt i veksthus. I motsetning til de kjemiske desinfeksjonsmidlene, hadde damping en mer universell virkning ved sin effekt både på ugrasfrø, nematoder, sopp og virus. Damping ble derfor av mange sett på som den beste metoden for desinfeksjon av jord (Newhall et al., 1931, og Baker, 1950). Etter hvert overtok imidlertid de kjemiske midlene markedet, og utviklingen av dampingsteknikken stoppet opp. Det er derfor relativt lite nyere litteratur og forsøksresultater fra bruk av jorddamping