Biografi

Eg er forskar på fôrdyrking, fôrutnytting og produksjon av mjølk og kjøtt hos drøvtyggjarar. Eg har hatt spesielt fokus på utfordringar i økologisk produksjon. I seinare tid har eg arbeidd med prosjekt innan fôrdyrking, blant anna på kostnader i dyrking av fôr, korleis engtype, hausteregime og ensileringsprosessen påverkar fôrkvalitet og produksjon og kvalitet av mjølk. Vidare arbeider eg med korleis driftsmåte påverkar berekrafta til produksjonen, bruk og utnytting av beite, erstatningar for syntetiske vitamin, bruk av tang og tare som fôrtilskot og alternative tiltak mot parasittar hos sau

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Meir nedbør og færre dagar med opphaldsvêr i vekstsesongen gjer det vanskeleg å hauste enga til rett tid utan pakkingsskader på jorda. I prosjektet GrassRobotics undersøkte vi korleis hausting med lettvektsrobot påverka avling, kvalitet, haustevindauge, jordpakking og rot:skot-forhold samanlikna med traktor og rundballepresse. Dette vart testa i feltforsøk på NIBIO Fureneset i åra 2018 til 2021. Tre nivå av pakking/hausteregime (Utan pakking, Robot, Standard) var lagt ut på storruter i eit faktorielt forsøk med split-plot design med tre gjentak, og to typar engfrøblandingar (Vestland, Bladgras) var testa på småruter innanfor storrutene. Behandlinga på storrutene var ei blanding mellom pakking og hausteregime der Standard hadde tre slåttar og tre overkøyringar med traktor og rundballepresse etter slåttane per år, og Robot hadde fem slåttar og fem overkøyringar med robot per år. Robot med fem slåttar gav lågare tørrstoff- og fôreiningsavling enn Standard med tre slåttar. Grovfôret i Robot hadde høgre energiverdi enn i Standard. Det var ingen effekt av frøblanding på avling og kvalitet. Engavlinga heldt seg stabilt høg i alle tre engåra både i Robot og Standard. Den femte slåtten i Robot, med veksetid frå slutten av august til slutten av september, gav svært lita avling og vil ikkje vere realistisk å utføre i praksis. Grasveksten avtek i september truleg på grunn av låg solinnstråling. Med standard hausteutstyr ville ein i to av dei tre engåra fått problem med å hauste på tørr nok jord utan fare for jordpakking. Alle åra var jorda for våt frå starten av september og utover, og hausting med tradisjonelt hausteutstyr bør skje før dette. Ein lett robot kan brukast kort tid etter nedbør, men for å unngå regn under hausting må kapasiteten tilpassast at ein mange år har få dagar utan nedbør i vekstsesongen. Motstanden i jord frå 5 cm jorddjupne og nedover var lågare etter bruk av robot enn etter bruk av standard hausteutstyr, noko som tyder på at robothausting reduserer jordpakkinga. Vi fann ikkje skilnad i jordtettleik, luftkapasitet eller luftpermeabilitet mellom Robot og Standard. Det var ikkje skilnad i nitrogenavling mellom dei to haustesystema.

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Formålet med arbeidet var å sammenligne møller for maling av grasprøver før kjemisk analyse og NIR-analyse. Alternative mølletyper ble testet for homogenitet av malt tørket gras (kornfordeling). Ferdig malte prøver er analysert for fôrkvalitetsparametre på to forskjellige NIR-analyseapparat for å teste om mølletype påvirker resultatene. Konklusjon er at valg av mølle ikke påvirker analyseresultatet.

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Som drøvtyggar har sauen evne til å omdanna fiberrikt fôr, som ikkje er eteleg for menneske, til høgverdig protein, i kjøtt og biprodukt, med essensielle aminosyrer. I norsk sauehald er det meste av fôrgrunnlaget grovfôr, og beite står for om lag 60 % av fôrinntaket. Men det blir også brukt ein del kraftfôr og mjølkeerstatningar med humant etelege ingrediensar. I denne studien undersøkte vi kor mykje eteleg protein vi får ut i høve til mengd eteleg protein gitt i fôringa. Effektiviteten er rekna som høvetalet (HePeff) med mengd eteleg protein i kjøtt, blod og innmat i høve til mengd eteleg protein brukt i fôringa. Dersom det blir produsert meir eteleg enn det som blir brukt i fôringa, er effektiviteten HePeff større enn 1. Det blei også estimert i kor stor grad aminosyrer brukt i fôringa blir oppgradert til essensielle aminosyrer for menneske. Dette uttrykt som differansen mellom fordøyelege essensielle aminosyrer i kjøtt, blod og innmat og mengd av dei same aminosyrene brukt i fôringa. Datagrunnlaget var tal frå sauebruk som var med i Driftsgranskingane i jordbruket i åra 2018-2020. Mengd innkjøpt kraftfôr og mjølkeerstatning blei estimert ut frå rekneskapstal. Ingrediensar i innkjøpt fôr blei estimert ut frå opplysningar gitt av fôrprodusentar. I kalkylane såg ein på kva det hadde å seie om raps og rapsprodukt i kraftfôret vart rekna som humant eteleg. Dersom ein rekna at både kjøtt, blod og innmat er eteleg, og rapsprodukt ikkje er humant eteleg, blei det i gjennomsnitt produsert om lag like mykje humant eteleg protein som brukt i fôringa, HePeff = 1. Dersom ein ikkje rekna proteinet i raps som humant eteleg, blei det for alle fordøyelege essensielle aminosyrer produsert meir enn brukt i fôringa i regionane ‘Austlandet andre bygder’ og ‘Trøndelag andre bygder’, medan det for andre deler av landet var om lag same mengd protein i kjøtt og biprodukt som det vart brukt i fôringa. Proteineffektiviteten var høgare i regionar med gode utmarksbeite, og Fjell- og dalbygder i Trøndelag og på Austlandet hadde høgare HePeff enn Agder og Rogaland. Mengd kraftfôr per vinterfôra sau og tal gangslam (levande lam på hausten) per vinterfôra sau hadde sterk effekt på HePeff, og det er fullt mogleg å betre effektiviteten med relativt små justeringar av mengd og type ingrediensar i kraftfôr

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Renewable energy in the form of biogas can be produced by anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal manure. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on the long-term effects of AD-treated manure on soil characteristics and crop productivity, compared with untreated manure. A field experiment was established in a perennial grass-clover ley in 2011 to study the effects on important soil and crop characteristics when the slurry from a herd of organically managed dairy cows is anaerobically digested. While the rate of manure application affected soil concentrations of extractable nutrients and pH, these variables were unaffected by AD. Soil organic matter (SOM) concentrations decreased in all plots and faster on the plots with high intrinsic SOM. The decrease was similar with application of untreated (non-digested) slurry (US) and anaerobically digested slurry (ADS), and it was not affected by application rates. The general decline may be explained by the initial high SOM content, the long-term effect of drainage, and higher temperatures with climatic change. US and ADS gave similar yields of grass-clover ley (2 cuts/year) and green fodder, on average 0.79 and 0.40 kg DM m−2, respectively. Clover yield was similar in manured treatments and the non-fertilized control. With respect to crop yields and chemical soil characteristics, long-term (10 years) effects of AD in an organic dairy cow farming system seem to be minor. The benefits of extracting energy from the slurry did not compromise grassland productivity or soil quality in the long term.

Sammendrag

Rapporten inneholder ei sammenstilling av kunnskap om status for miljømessig, økonomisk og sosial bærekraft i norsk jordbruksproduksjon og er svar på et oppdrag som NIBIO fikk fra Landbruks- og matdepartementet i november 2022. Bærekraft er operasjonalisert som jordbrukets evne til å vedvare. Det bestemmes igjen av om det drives på en måte som ikke kommer i konflikt med seg sjøl og sitt eget produksjonsgrunnlag og heller ikke med livsvilkår og ressurser for mennesker og hensyn til naturmiljøet utenfor sektoren. Det er også forutsatt at norsk jordbruk skal levere goder og tjenester i tråd med mål fastlagt i norsk landbrukspolitikk. Dette betyr ikke at konservering av status er et mål. Det kan tvert imot være slik at endringer nettopp er en avgjørende forutsetning for at jordbruket i Norge kan bestå og levere godt i all framtid. Dette skal analyseres i en etterfølgende del 2 av oppdraget. Hovedpunkt fra gjennomgangen av kunnskapskilder og ei sluttvurdering av status for bærekraft finnes i et sammendrag sist i rapporten.

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The antiparasitic potential of plants could offer a vital solution to alleviating the costs of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in ruminant production globally. Leveraging known bioactive molecules, however, is complex, where plant species, extraction processes and seasonality impact bioavailability and efficacy. This study assessed the impact of a comprehensive set of factors on the antiparasitic activity of Norwegian conifers to identify bark compounds specific against GIN. Antiparasitic activity was determined using in vitro assays targeting morphologically distinct life stages of ovine GIN: the egg hatch assay and larval motility assay. In depth characterisation of the chemical composition of the bark extracts was carried out using chromatographic separation, UV-absorbance, and molecular mass profiles to identify compounds implicated in the activity. Three key findings emerged: (1) the activity of bark extracts varied markedly from 0 to 100% antiparasitic efficacy, owing to tree species, extraction solvent and seasonality; (2) the GIN exhibited species-and stage-specific susceptibility to the bark extracts; (3) the presence of condensed tannins, amongst other compounds, was associated with anthelmintic activity. These findings add new insights into urgently needed alternative parasite control strategies in livestock.

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Mjølkekyr i midt- og seinlaktasjon som går på beite eller har grunnrasjon basert på graskløversurfôr treng ikkje ekstra E-vitamintilskot. For sinkyr og kyr i tidleg laktasjon og for kyr som har ein grunnrasjon basert på høy, høyensilasje eller heilgrødsesurfôr er det naudsynt med ekstra E-vitamin

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Mitigating enteric methane (CH4) emissions is crucial as ruminants account for 5% of global greenhouse gas emissions. We hypothesised that less frequent harvesting, use of crops with lower WSC concentration, ensiling at low crop dry matter (DM) and extensive lactic acid fermentation would reduce in vitro CH4 production. Timothy (T), timothy + red clover mixture (T + RC) or perennial ryegrass (RG), cut either two or three times per season, was wilted to 22.5% or 37.5% DM and ensiled with or without formic acid-based additive. Silages were analysed for chemical composition and fermentation products. In vitro CH4 production was measured using an automated gas in vitro system. Methane production was, on average, 2.8 mL/g OM lower in the two-cut system than in the three-cut system (P < 0.001), and 1.9 mL/g OM lower in T than in RG (P < 0.001). Silage DM did not affect CH4 production (P = 0.235), but formic acid increased CH4 production by 1.2 mL/g OM compared to the untreated silage (P = 0.003). In conclusion, less frequent harvesting and extensive silage fermentation reduce in vitro CH4 production, while RG in comparison to T resulted in higher production of CH4.

Sammendrag

Increasing the protein value in grass silages for dairy cows is of interest to increase use of homegrown protein sources and reduce nitrogen (N) losses to the environment. Studies have shown that wilting of grass silage can improve the metabolizable protein (MP) value by increasing the rumen microbial protein yield (MCP) and rumen escaped feed protein. We hypothesised that feeding wilted grass silage can improve milk and milk protein production in dairy cows and reduce the need for MP, estimated as amino acids absorbed in the small intestine (AAT), in concentrate. To test this, a continuous feeding experiment with 48 early to mid-lactation Norwegian Red dairy cows, kept in a loose housing system was conducted. Treatments were first cut grass silages from round bales, harvested at early booting from a sward of timothy (Phleum pratense), perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis), wilted to 260 and 417 g dry matter (DM)/kg fresh matter. The grass silage was fed ad libitum and supplied with 8.3 kg/d of concentrate, either low (108 g AAT/kg DM) or high (125 g AAT/kg DM) in MP concentration, in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted for 11 weeks, with the 2 first weeks, where cows received same feeding, used as covariate, and the last 4 weeks were used as data collection period. Wilting reduced fermentation products, ammonia and soluble N in the grass silage, while increased residual water-soluble carbohydrates, like expected. However, there was no difference between treatments in daily silage DM intake (13.1 kg) and milk yield (30.2 kg) or milk content, but feeding high MP concentrate increased urea and uric acid in urine. No major differences were found for rumen pH, amino acids in blood plasma or purine derivatives over creatinine index, as indirect estimate for MCP. In conclusion, high silage DM and high MP in concentrate did not increase the milk production in this study.

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A continuous production experiment was conducted in Norway with 48 Norwegian Red dairy cows in early- to mid-lactation, to investigate the effect of grass silage with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or formic acid (FA) additives, on milk yield (MY) and milk protein yield (MPY). Grass wilted to 250 g dry matter (DM)/kg was inoculated with homofermentative LAB to obtain LAB silage, whilst FA silage was produced adding a FA-based additive. The two silages were fed ad libitum and supplemented with an average 10.3 kg of either high (H) or low (L) metabolizable protein (MP) concentrates, in a 2 ✗ 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The treatments were LAB silage and L concentrate, LAB silage and H concentrate, FA silage and L concentrate and FA silage and H concentrate. The use of FA resulted in lower levels of residual water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and higher levels of ammonia nitrogen (NH3single bondN), compared to LAB. In situ results for FA silage showed lower rumen degradability of crude protein (CP), while gas in vitro results showed lower utilizable CP (uCP), compared to LAB silage (782 vs. 750 g/kg DM and 128 vs. 119 g/kg DM, respectively). The purine over creatinine (PDC) index did not indicate any effects on the microbial protein synthesis (MPS) from any of the treatments. The higher daily intake of FA silage (12.5 vs.13.7 kg DM for LAB and FA, respectively, P < 0.001), did not result in significant differences in daily MY (31.0 vs. 30.2 kg, P = 0.208), nor MPY (1.08 vs.1.07 kg/day, P = 0.878) for LAB and FA, respectively. Feeding H concentrate gave higher MPY (P = 0.036), higher urea in milk (P < 0.001), plasma (P < 0.001) and urine (P = 0.008) and tended to give higher MY (P = 0.063) for both silages. For amino acids (AA) in plasma, alanine was higher for FA silage than for LAB silage (P = 0.030), while histidine (P = 0.001), leucine (P = 0.015) and glutamine (P = 0.007) were higher for both silages when cows were fed H concentrate. In conclusion, the FA and LAB additives did not affect MY or MPY any differently. Feeding H concentrate resulted in higher MPY for both silages, but reduced nitrogen (N) efficiency.

Sammendrag

Våren er godt i gang, og før me veit ordet av det, så er det plutselig slått att! Det har dei siste åra vore auka fokus på fôrkvalitet, og skilnad på god og dårleg fôrkvalitet. Kva er det som påverkar korleis kvaliteten av grovfôret vert , og kva verktøy har bonden for å ta dei rette avgjerdslene for å få den kvaliteten han eller ho treng til akkurat si gardsdrift? I denne podkasten snakkar me med Petter Klette som er rådgivar i Tine, og Håvard Steinshamn som er forskar i Nibio.

Sammendrag

Nok grovfôr av rett kvalitet er avgjerande for å lukkast i mjølkeproduksjon. På Fureneset testar dei no ut om tidlegare gjødsling og tidlegare slått kan vera med å bidra til meir grovfôr med høg fôrkvalitet. I denne episoda snakkar vi med Håvard Steinshavn og Åsmund Mikalsen Kvifte, som begge er forskarar i Nibio

Sammendrag

Avlingsnivået i økologisk dyrka eng er avhengig av ytre vekstfaktorar som jord og vêr, både om vinteren og i vekstsesongen. Vidare er botanisk samansetjing i enga, særleg innhald av kløver, gjødslingsnivå, alder på enga og tal slåttar viktig. Avlingskvaliteten er i stor grad påverka av dei same faktorane. Tidleg førsteslått, hyppig slått og høg andel kløver gir høg fôrverdi, høgt proteininnhald og høg proteinavling.

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Kløverinnslaget er viktig for avlingsmengd og proteininnhald i økologisk dyrka eng. Kløver har også høg fordøyelegheit. Kyr et gjerne kløver og har høgare fôropptak og mjølkeproduksjon når surfôret er kløverrikt. På grunn av høgt proteininnhald i kløver, kan proteinutnyttinga i mjølkeproduksjonen gå ned med aukande innslag av kløver i rasjonen.

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Vitamin E is essential and supplementation to the diet is often needed to meet the requirements of farm animals. This is particularly relevant during long indoor periods where conserved forages must be fed, as conservation can degrade Vitamin E. However, synthetic vitamins are regarded as contentious inputs in organic agriculture. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate if the standard recommendations for supplementation can be revised and adapted for organically managed dairy cows, on the basis of that the diets differ from those in conventional systems. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the response to Vitamin E supplementation considering lactation and gestation stage and the composition of the basal diet. Most of the experiments that focused on animal health-related issues were conducted during late gestation and early lactation. In more recent studies reporting positive effects of Vitamin E supplementation on animal health and fertility, cows were fed conserved forages such as hay, haylage or maize silage, which all have low natural content of Vitamin E. In the studies reporting no or only minor positive effects of Vitamin E supplementation, cows were often fed diets based on grass or grass-clover silages, which reflects the structure of organic cattle diets. In conclusion, it was proposed that Vitamin E supplementation is not needed for mid and late lactating cows on pasture or fed a basal diet of grass-clover-silages. For dry and peripartum cows as well as for cows fed maize silage, hay or haylage, supplementation was strongly recommended

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Det norske landbasert matsystemet kan defineres som et system bestående av produksjon, foredling, transport og konsumpsjon av jordbruksprodukt. I denne rapporten presenteres resultatene av en SWOT-analyse med hensyn til norsk matsikkerhet av produksjonsdelen av matsystemet. Formålet med SWOT-analysen var å 1) avdekke de viktigste komponenter for å sikre bærekraft for norsk selvforsyning og hvilke trekk i matsystemet som kan svekke denne bærekraften, og 2) drøfte effekten av forventet politikkutvikling på disse komponentene, og klargjøre hvordan dette påvirkere selvforsyningen, dvs. evaluere selvforsyningens robusthet.

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Background Eimeria spp. are widespread apicomplexan parasites known to cause coccidiosis in livestock, resulting in reduced animal welfare and productivity, particularly in sheep. The treatment options are limited, and there is an emerging development of resistance against registered pharmaceuticals. Spruce bark is rich in plant secondary metabolites (PSM), such as condensed tannins, which are bioactive compounds previously shown to have antiparasitic activity. Here, we examined the anticoccidial properties of bark extract of Norway spruce (Picea abies) against a field isolate of ovine Eimeria spp. by treating Eimeria-infected pre-ruminant lambs with water-extracted bark daily for 12 days. We hypothesised that the bark extract would reduce the faecal oocyst excretion and, consequently, the severity of diarrhoea. Results Oral administration of spruce bark extract significantly reduced the excretion of Eimeria oocysts in milk-fed lambs post treatment till the end of the trial 22 days post infection. This difference in oocyst excretion between the treated and the untreated infected animals increased with time. Compared to the untreated and the sham-infected control group, the group treated with bark extract had softer faeces and reduced milk intake during the treatment period. After discontinuing the treatment, the treated animals got a more solid and formed faeces compared to that of the untreated control group, and the milk intake increased to the level of the sham-infected, untreated control group. The bark extract treated animals had a lower body weight and a lower mean daily body weight gain throughout the whole duration of the experiment. Conclusions Bark extract from Norway spruce showed marked anticoccidial properties by reducing the faecal oocyst count and associated diarrhoea in young lambs. Simultaneously we experienced detrimental effects of the treatment, displayed as reduced feed intake and daily body weight gain. Therefore, we suggest conducting similar studies with lower bark extract dosage to explore the possibilities of a better trade-off to reduce the negative impact while maintaining the antiparasitic effect. Keywords: Coccidia, Coccidiocide, Eimeria, Industrial by-products, Sheep

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Grass-clover silage constitutes a large part of ruminant diets in Northern and Western Europe, but the impact of silage quality on methane (CH4) production is largely unknown. This study was conducted to identify the quality attributes of grass silage associated with variation in CH4 yield. We expected that silage nutrient concentrations and silage fermentation products would affect CH4 yield, and that these factors could be used to predict the methanogenic potential of the silages. Round bales (n = 78) of grass and grass-clover silage from 37 farms in Norway were sampled, incubated, and screened for in vitro CH4 yield, i.e. CH4 production expressed on the basis of incubated organic matter (CH4-OM) and digestible OM (CH4-dOM) using sheep. Concentration of indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) was quantified using the in situ technique. The data were subjected to correlation and principal component analyses. Stepwise multiple regression was used to model methanogenic potential of silages. Among all investigated silage composition variables, neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom) and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations obtained the greatest correlations to CH4-OM (r = −0.63 and r = 0.57, respectively, P < 0.001), while concentration of iNDF negatively correlated with CH4-OM (r = −0.48, P < 0.001). In vivo organic matter digestibility (OMD) and concentration of ammonia-N (NH3-N) in silages were also correlated to CH4-OM (r = 0.44 and r = −0.32, P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). The stepwise regression using CH4-OM as response variable included aNDFom, WSC, iNDF, silage propionic acid and pH in descending order. The stepwise regression using CH4-dOM as response variable included WSC, aNDFom and iNDF in descending order. Among in vitro rumen short chain fatty acids (SCFA), molar proportion of butyrate was the most prominent in increasing CH4-OM and CH4-dOM (r = 0.23 and r = 0.36, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), while molar proportion of propionate was the most prominent SCFA in reducing CH4-OM and CH4-dOM (r = −0.23 and r = −0.26, respectively, P < 0.05). Regression models that account for silage quality attributes can be used to predict CH4 yield from silages with a coefficient of determination (R2) between 0.33 (CH4-dOM) and 0.65 (CH4-OM). In conclusion, concentration of WSC increased in vitro CH4-OM and CH4-dOM, while concentration of aNDFom and iNDF decreased CH4-OM and CH4-dOM in grass silages.

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Background: Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control is traditionally achieved with the use of anthelmintic drugs, however due to regulations in organic farming and the rise in anthelmintic resistance, alternatives are sought after. A promising alternative is the use of bioactive plant feeding due to the presence of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) such as proanthocyanidins (PAs). This study focussed on the perennial shrub heather (Ericaceae family), a plant rich in PAs, highly abundant across Europe and with previously demonstrated anthelmintic potential. Methods: In vitro assays were used to investigate heather’s anthelmintic efficacy against egg hatching and larval motility. Heather samples were collected from five European countries across two seasons, and extracts were tested against two GIN species: Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Polyphenol group‑specific ultraperformance liquid chromatography‑tandem mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify relevant polyphenol subgroups present, including the PA concentration and size and ratio of the subunits. Partial least squares analysis was performed to associate efficacy with variation in PSM composition. Results: Heather extracts reduced egg hatching of both GIN species in a dose‑dependent manner by up to 100%, while three extracts at the highest concentration (10 mg/ml) reduced larval motility to levels that were not signifi‑ cantly different from dead larvae controls. PAs, particularly the procyanidin type, and flavonol derivatives were associ‑ ated with anthelmintic activity, and the particular subgroup of polyphenols associated with the efficacy was depend‑ ent on the GIN species and life stage. Conclusions: Our results provide in vitro evidence that heather, a widely available plant often managed as a weed in grazing systems, has anthelmintic properties attributed to various groups of PSMs and could contribute to sustainable GIN control in ruminant production systems across Europe.

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I rapporten listes og drøftes datakilder som viser hvor store grovfôravlinger som høstes i Norge. Målet med gjennomgangen var å se om det finnes tallgrunnlag som gir et sikkert og presist anslag for praksisavlingene i ulike regioner og driftsformer. Hovedkonklusjonen er at et slikt grunnlag ikke finnes. Modellberegninger, forsøksresultater, avlingsregistreringer ute på gårdsbruk, samt estimat ut fra dyras behov og opptak av grovfôr viser stor variasjon både innen og mellom metoder og måleserier. Variasjonen skyldes både ulike registrerings- og beregningsmetoder, ulike fysiske og biologiske forutsetninger for planteproduksjon og variasjon i dyrkingssteknikk og høsteregimer. Gjennomgangen har også vist at det er behov for et entydig begrepsapparat som presist klargjør hvor avling er målt i kjeden fra fôrdyrking til fôrutnytting. Det er et stort spenn med mange tapsposter fra modellberegna potensiell avling, via stående avling i enga og ferdig konservert avling til netto utnytta avling i drøvtyggeren. Til slutt i rapporten foreslås målemetoder og registreringsprogram for mulige utvidelser og forbedringer av norsk grovfôravlingsstatistikk. Dette vurderes også opp mot bruksområde for statistikken. Vesentlige utvidelser og større presisjon i målinger av ferdig konservert fôr på gårdsbruk er mulig, men vil bli svært kostbart og trolig aldri nøyaktig og spesifikk nok til alle tenkelige formål. Innen kort tid vil det sannsynligvis bli mulig å utnytte informasjon fra fjernmåling fra satellitter, droner eller bakkegående kjøretøy til å tallfeste stående avling med geografisk oppløsning på skiftenivå. Det ligger også et potensial i å utnytte og integrere de stadig større mengdene med gårdsspesifikke data for fôring, avdrått og innkjøpt kraftfôr slik at en får presise estimat for nettoavlinger av grovfôr på enkeltbruk.

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Lengre vekstsesong gjer det mogleg å hauste enga oftare, noko som betrar grovfôrkvaliteten og reduserer behovet for kraftfôr i til dømes mjølkeproduksjon. Standard maskin og reiskap for dyrking og hausting av gras er tungt, og auka i tal slåttar per år vil auke pakking og skading av jorda. Det vil mellom anna gje lågare avlingar. Med små sjølvgåande lette robotar kan det tenkjast at enga kan haustast oftare utan at det går ut over jordstruktur og plantevekst. Formålet med dette arbeidet var å teste økonomiske lønsemd av å hauste enga fem gonger i året, som i eit tenkt robotsystem (Robot-system), samanlikna med standard hausting tre gonger i året (Standard-system). I Robot-systemet var graset tenkt slått, vendt, raka saman, samla opp og transportert til ei stasjonær rundballe-presse med ei flåte av sjølvgåande robotar (Thorvald II) med ein lastekapasitet på 200 kg per roboteining, medan i Standard-systemet var graset slått med ei breispreiarslåmaskin med knekkar, raka saman og pressa med såkalla kombipresse. Tal for avlingsmengd og fôrkvaliteten av surfôret frå avlinga var frå eit engdyrkingsforsøk på Fureneset forsøksstasjon der to engfrøblandingar vart hausta tre eller fem gonger i året over tre engår. Dei økonomiske kalkylane vart gjort for to mjølkebruk med enten 200 eller 400 tonn mjølkekvote, med enten 8 000 eller 10 000 kg energikorrigert mjølk (EKM) per årsku. Optimering av fôrrasjonen for dei ulike avdråttsnivåa og ulike grovfôrkvalitetane vart gjort i NorFor ved hjelp av programmet «TINE Optifôr». Vi brukte kalkyleprogrammet «Grovfôrøkonomi» for å rekne ut dyrkings-, haustings- og utfôrings-kostnadar av grovfôr og samla fôrkostandar for grovfôr og kraftfôr. Det var ingen effekt av engfrøblanding på avling og fôrkvalitet. Tre slåttar årleg gav i gjennomsnitt 16% høgare avling enn fem slåttar (1237 kg TS/daa vs. 1040 kg TS/daa), medan surfôrkvaliteten av samla årsavling var høgare med fem enn tre slåttar. Avlingsskilanden mellom fem og tre slåttar var om lag den same i alle tre engår. Fôroptimeringa viste at den betra fôrkvaliteten med Robotsystem auka grovfôropptaket med 14%, og reduserte kraftfôrbehovet med 45% ved eit avdråttsnivå på 8000 kg EKM og med 28% ved 10000 kg EKM. På grunn av lågare avling og høgare fôropptak var arealbehovet 32% større med Robotsystemet enn Standardsystemet. Låg lastekapasitet på den sjølvgåande roboten og stor kapasitet på stasjonær rundballepressa gjer at Robotsystemet var meir kostbart enn Standardsystemet. Men dersom graset i Robotsystemet blir samla opp og pressa med ei kombipresse, som i Standardsystemet, gav Robotsystemet lågare totale fôrkostander enn Standardsystemet. Dette resultatet var avhengig av arealtilskotssone, og i lågare tilskotssone enn 5B, var det ingen forskjell mellom haustesystema. På grunn av det større arealbehovet, var klimagassutsleppet i dyrking av grovfôret større i Robotsystemet, først og fremst på grunn av større lystgassutslepp frå kunstgjødsel. Det blir konkludert med at hausteteknologien i Robotsystemet vi testa kan fungere, men den må tilpassast større autonome traktorar som har høgare kapasitet til oppsamling og transport av fortørka gras og som kan brukast i andre driftsoperasjonar. Analysen viste også at heile mjølkeproduksjonssystemet, både fôrdyrkinga og husdyrproduksjonen, må analyserast samla for å kunne avgjere om ei endring i driftstiltak i grovfôrproduksjonen vil gje betre lønsemd eller mindre miljøbelastning

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Key words: VKM, risk assessment, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment, Norwegian Environment Agency, potential toxic elements (PTEs), fertiliser, soil improver, fertiliser products, growing media, circular economy, circulation of organic fertilisers, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium Cr(tot) (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn). Background and purpose of the report The potentially toxic elements (PTE) arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium Cr(tot) (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) occur as ingredients or contaminants in many fertilisers, soil improvers, engineered soil and growing media. Application of these fertiliser products might represent a risk towards the environment, farm animals and humans, particularly when applied annually over several years. The present risk assessment evaluates the application of selected fertilisers according to certain scenarios for representative Norwegian agricultural areas, from Troms in the North to Ås in Southeastern and Time in Southwestern Norway, with different soil properties, precipitation and PTE concentration in present agricultural soil. There is an increasing trend to produce locally (e.g. in urban farming) and home-grown vegetables that are cultivated in engineered soil and growth media. The maximum levels (MLs) set for PTEs in different organic fertilisers, engineered soil and growing media for use in urban farming, home growing and the cultivation of vegetables and garden fruits, and a set of MLs also for application in agricultural cultivation of crops, have been evaluated. Environmental fate processes and the transfer of PTEs have been modelled and the environmental risks for terrestrial and aquatic organisms, including from secondary poisoning have been estimated. Potential risks to humans and farmed animals by increased exposure to PTEs from, respectively, agriculturally produced crops, vegetables cultivated at home and urban farming or forage and grazing have been evaluated. The recycling of nutrients is urgently needed to achieve circular economy, but the derived sustainable products have to be safe, which requires the introduction of and adherence to science-based maximum levels of unwanted substances (e.g. pollutants). This assessment evaluates consequences of the application of different fertiliser products: mineral P fertilisers, manure from cattle, pig, poultry and horse, fish sludge, digestates and sewage sludge - in order to identify PTE sources with potential environmental, animal and human health risks, and to evaluate the appropriateness of the current MLs regarding different applications of organic-based fertilisers, engineered soil and growing media at present, and in a 100-year perspective. Approach and methods applied The approach for environmental and health risk assessments builds on previous work performed for hazardous substances in soil (e.g. VKM 2019, VKM 2014, VKM, 2009, Six and Smolders, 2014). Concentrations of PTEs in soil over time were calculated using a mass balance model, which considers the input by atmospheric deposition, use of fertilisers and soil improvers, as well as loss by leaching, run-off and plant uptake. The resulting first-order differential equation was solved analytically and implemented into Excel®. Run-off and loss by leaching were estimated from data on precipitation, infiltrating fraction and run-off fraction of the water under consideration of the distribution coefficient Kd for the concentration ratio of bulk soil-to-water. This Kd value takes aging sufficiently into account and is thus more realistic than those derived from batch tests. The Kd was estimated separately for each region using established regression equations, with soil pH, organic matter content and clay content as predictors. ...........

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The reduction of copper-based plant-protection products with the final aim of phasing out has a high priority in European policy, as well as in organic agriculture. Our survey aims at providing an overview of the current use of these products in European organic agriculture and the need for alternatives to allow policymakers to develop strategies for a complete phasing out. Due to a lack of centralized databases on pesticide use, our survey combines expert knowledge on permitted and real copper use per crop and country, with statistics on organic area. In the 12 surveyed countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, and the UK), we calculated that approximately 3258 t copper metal per year is consumed by organic agriculture, equaling to 53% of the permitted annual dosage. This amount is split between olives (1263 t y−1, 39%), grapevine (990 t y−1, 30%), and almonds (317 t y−1, 10%), followed by other crops with much smaller annual uses (<80 t y−1). In 56% of the allowed cases (countries × crops), farmers use less than half of the allowed amount, and in 27%, they use less than a quarter. At the time being, completely abandoning copper fungicides would lead to high yield losses in many crops. To successfully reduce or avoid copper use, all preventive strategies have to be fully implemented, breeding programs need to be intensified, and several affordable alternative products need to be brought to the market.

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Helminth parasitic infections are common in small ruminants in Norway; infection is usually treated with anthelmintic drugs, but anthelmintic resistance is an increasing problem. It is necessary to identify strategies to reduce the use of anthelmintic drugs and mitigate the impact of anthelmintic resistance. Condensed tannin (CT)-rich forages have been shown to reduce the helminth burden in small ruminants, but these forages have limited cultivation potential in Scandinavia. A good source for CT in cold climatic regions may be the bark of several commercially utilized tree species. In the present study, we determined the content and characterized the type of CT in bark extracts of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), spruce (Picea abies L.), and birch (Betula pubescens). Extracts of selected bark samples were tested for their anthelmintic efficacy against the ovine infectious nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta. Total CT content was higher in the bark from younger (10–40 years old) pine and spruce trees; it decreased with tree age in pine, whereas it remained relatively stable in the bark of spruce and birch. Pine trees consisted of 100% procyanidins, whereas prodelphinins were present in most spruce (4–17%) and all birch samples (5–34%). Our studies clearly showed that there is variation in the anthelmintic activity of water and acetone extracts of bark samples collected from various sites around Norway, as this was measured with two independent in vitro assays, the egg hatch and larvae motility assays. The anthelmintic activity of some extracts was consistent between the two assays; for example, extracts from the three samples with the highest CT content showed very high activity in both assays, whereas the extract from the sample with the lowest CT content showed the lowest activity in both assays. For other extracts, activity was not consistent across the assays, which could be attributed to the susceptibility of the different stages of the parasitic life cycle. We demonstrated that bark extracts from commercially used trees in Scandinavia have the potential to be used as alternatives to anthelmintics. Further work should focus on refining the associations between bark extracts and anthelmintic activity to identify the best strategies to reduce the input of anthelmintic drugs in livestock production systems.

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To hundre mjølkebruk i Midt-Norge blei delt i tre nesten like store grupper; 'Låg' (68 gardar), 'Medium' (67 gardar) og 'Høg' (68 garder), etter årleg tildeling av kraftfôr til mjølkekyrne for å teste effekten av kraftfôrnivå på indikatorar for miljøpåverknad og økonomisk lønsemd. Gjennomsnittleg årleg kraftfôrnivå per ku var 15,4, 18,8 og 21,7 GJ nettoenergi laktasjon (NEL) og årleg avdrått i energikorrigert mjølk (EKM) per ku var 7868, 8421 og 8906 kg i høvesvis 'Låg', ‘Medium’og ‘Høg’. Standard livsløpsanalyse og dekningsbidrag blei brukt til å bestemme indikatorar for miljøpåverknad og økonomiske resultat av mjølk- og kjøttproduksjon. Den funksjonelle eininga var mengde 2,78 MJ spiseleg energi, tilsvarande 1,0 kg EKM eller 0,42 kg kjøtt eller en kombinasjon av mjølk og kjøtt som utgjer 2,78 MJ, altså EKM ekvivalent i mjølk og kjøtt levert EKM-eq. Det globale oppvarmingspotensialet, energiintensiteten og nitrogenintensiteten var i gjennomsnitt 1,46 kg CO2- eq./kg EKM-eq., 5,61 MJ energibruk/kg EKM-eq., og 6,83 N input/N-produkt, og var ikkje forskjellig mellom gruppene. Gardar med ‘Låg’ kraftfôrtildeling brukte mindre areal av total arealbruk til dyrking av innkjøpt fôr utanfor garden enn de i ‘Høg’ (0,39 vs. 0,46 daa/daa), men det totale arealet som blei brukt per kg EKM-eq. var større ('Låg' 3,24 vs. 'Høg' 2,84 m2/kg EKM-eq.). Dekningsbidraget per kg EKM-eq. levert var i gjennomsnitt høgare på 'Låg' gardar (6,57 NOK/kg EKM-eq.) enn 'Medium' (6,04 NOK/ kg EKM-eq.) og 'Høg' (5,73 NOK/kg ECM-eq.). Vår analyse viser at høgare kraftfôrnivå ikkje alltid gir mindre global oppvarmingspotensiale og mengd fossil energi per kg mjølk og kjøtt produsert samanlikna med lågare kraftfôrnivå.

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For nokre av driftsystema vi granska i SusCatt-prosjektet undersøkte vi nærmare korleis ein overgang til meir grovfôrbasert fôring kan ha å seie for lønnsemda. Fem SusCatt-system blei vurdert, inkludert arbeidet i Sverige der en samanlikna effekt av rase og fôrstyrke på storfekjøttproduksjon av både oksar og kastratar frå mjølkekyr, og i Storbritannia med rein grovfôrbasert storfekjøttproduksjon frå ammekyr. I mjølkeproduksjonen, blei effekt av kraftfôrnivå på lønnsemd studert ved bruk av husdyrkontrolldata i Noreg og for italienske gardar effekten av å redusere mengde maissurfôr i rasjonen...

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The widespread apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is responsible for severe gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals. The treatment options are limited, and the efficacy of available drugs is low. Bark contains condensed tannins (CT), which are bioactive compounds previously shown to inhibit parasite development. Here, we examined the anti-cryptosporidial properties of bark extract of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) against C. parvum by means of an in vitro growth inhibition test. We hypothesized that bark extracts would have dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the development of C. parvum in cell culture. Bark extracts from Scots pine extracted with acetone, methanol, and water as solvents, were investigated using human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells infected with C. parvum. Oocysts were inoculated onto the cell monolayer and bark extract was added at 7 different concentrations. Parasite growth inhibition was quantified by qPCR. The acetone and methanol extracts demonstrated a sigmoid dose-dependent inhibition of C. parvum. The IC50 values were 244.6 and 279.1 µg dry matter extract/mL, and 25.4 and 24.1 µg CT/mL, for acetone and methanol extracts, respectively. The IC50 for both extracts were similar, both with regards to the dry matter concentration of each extract and to CT concentrations. Given the limited treatment options available for Cryptosporidium spp., the evidence generated in our study encourages further investigation into the in vitro and in vivo effects of pine bark extracts against C. parvum.

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SusCatt considered a wide range of innovations or system comparisons in the 6 countries, all aimed to improve sustainability within European cattle farming. On the whole, these involved reducing production intensity, making greater use of home-grown grass and other forage crops on farms – generally with promising results for beef and dairy production when we considered their potential impact across the 3 pillars of sustainability...

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Subclinical parasite infections in livestock production have huge economic impact on the farming industry, leading to decreased animal welfare and reduction in meat, milk and wool production. The global spread of anthelmintic resistance has exacerbated the threat of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections to small ruminant health and production. Phytochemicals, such as condensed tannins (CT), have shown promising anthelmintic potential, and could complement other management practices to reduce anthelmintic use for parasite control. Conifer bark is a rich source of CT. Studies have shown that the content of CTs in Norway spruce and Scots pine varies, but on average they contain around 4% CTs. This study explored the anthelmintic activity of bark from Norwegian conifers over two seasons, extracted with three different solvents (water, acetone, methanol), against two sheep GIN, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colbriformis. Bark extracts were analysed to determine their total CT content and tested in vitro, with the aim to quantify their impact on egg hatching and L3 larval motility. Results show significant variation in efficacy of the extracts on egg hatching in a dose dependent manner. The CT content of the bark extracts were not always associated with LD50 values, indicating that other plant compounds may have additional anthelmintic effects. Preliminary results of the L3 larval motility test showed that incubation in the bark extracts had a smaller impact on this parasite stage at the concentrations tested. This research brings new insights into the potential anthelmintic activity of different phytochemicals and discusses the potential of bark extracts as a tool in the sustainable control of GIN in small ruminants.

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Denne rapporten er en del av kunnskapsgrunnlaget ved fastsetting av tilskudd ved avlingssvikt i eng. Registrerte engavlinger har vært stabile etter 2014, med unntak for tørkeåret 2018. Kommuneinndelingen er endret i deler av landet, og det er laget tilråding for avlingsklasser for de nye kommunene. Å bruke gjeldende soner for AK-tilskudd som grunnlag for normavlinger frarådes fordi variasjonen innen hver sone er for stor. Med AK-soner som enhet ville det for eksempel ikke ha blitt differensiert mellom normalavlinger i kystkommunene i Vestland, fjellbygdene i Innlandet og store deler av Agder. En vurdering av forsøk med økologisk grovfôrproduksjon på Apelsvoll og Kvithamar tilsier at avlingsnivået da blir ca. 75 prosent av konvensjonell avling. Normavlinger for innmarksbeite har vi lite grunnlag til å foreslå fordi kvaliteten og avlingsnivået på innmarksbeitene varierer mye innenfor relativt små geografiske områder. Til slutt er det gitt en orientering om at de nye egnethetskartene for gras i framtiden kan bli et verktøy for å bestemme normalavling i gras for jordsmonnskartlagte områder.

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Coccidiosis is a serious disease caused by Eimeria spp. in young lambs in Norway. Re-sistance against anticoccidial chemicals has been demonstrated in conventional sheep farm-ing. In organic farming we are looking for natural plant sources to increase animal health and welfare. Condensed tannins (CT) have showed effect against coccidia in several trials. Extract from Norwegian spruce bark (Picea abies), a waste product from the wood industry, was shown to contain CT in a Norwegian study. In our trial we tested the effect of bark extract from Norwegian spruce against Eimeria spp in young lambs. The extract was prepared by hot water extraction followed by evaporation and freeze drying. 24 naïve lambs were randomly grouped, 16 of them were inoculated with 100 000 Eimeria oocysts each for three days at 3 weeks of age, and eight of the 16 were treated with bark extract for 12 successive days post infection. The CTg per lamb per day correspond to 0.05% BMW. A control group of eight lambs was not infected or treated. Individually faeces samples were collected and analysed for faecal score and oocysts. Clinically observations and weight gain were measured. In this trial the bark extract was found to have a significant effect on the development of Eime-ria spp. oocysts in the lambs (p<0,001). The extract was given by a stomach tube, and had a negative effect on the lambs appetite as long as it was administered.

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Farms in Central Norway, feeding more forage and pasture to their dairy cows, achieved lower milk yield per cow but higher profitability than farms feeding more concentrate feeds, mainly because of more governmental subsidies per kg milk and meat produced. Also, our analysis does not support the general assumption that higher concentrate feeding and milk production lowers global warming potential and energy needed per kg of milk and meat produced compared with more extensive systems

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The SusCatt project investigates alternative systems to improve sustainability in European cattle production, taking different approaches in Norway, Sweden, Germany, Poland, UK and Italy – all making greater use of pasture and forage, reducing damaging or external inputs. Rather than us deciding on how we tell everybody about findings, one project task is to ask potential audiences about their sources of information – how they gain knowledge? Ideally, this will offer guidance on an effective dissemination strategy. Project messages are relevant to multiple sectors: farmers, extension workers, consumers and policy makers. Attempts were made to survey these multiple stakeholders. We collected 236 opinions and found considerable variation, not only between groups but also between the same sectors in different countries. The most popular and highest-ranking sources overall were traditional press formats of newspapers and magazines. On the other hand, accessing information from social media was very polarised; almost non-existent for German and Polish stakeholders but widely used by UK farmers (possibly skewed by the dominance of face-to-face rather than on-line data collection). Findings suggest that each message from research projects needs a customized approach in dissemination, depending on the target audience and their regular habits of sourcing information

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Formålet med dette arbeidet var å kvantifisere effekter av ulike driftsvalg i dyrking, høsting,konservering og utfôring av grovfôr på totale fôrkostnader i de grovfôrbaserte driftsformene melkeproduksjon på storfe, kombinert melke- og kjøttproduksjon på storfe, spesialisert kjøttproduksjon på storfe og sauehold. Har. Vi brukte en modifisert versjon av analysemodellen ‘Grovfôrøkonomi’ som verktøy. De økonomiske beregningene er gjennomført innenfor scenarioanalyser som representerer bestemte kombinasjoner av de biologiske, agronomiske, tekniske, og økonomiske produksjonsfaktorene innenfor en driftsform. For hver driftsform har vi konstruert et eksempelbruk med standardverdier for de ulike produksjonsfaktorene, som danner grunnlaget for sammenligningen av de økonomiske effektene av de ulike faktorkombinasjonene eller scenariene. Scenarioanalysene omfatter verdikjeden i produksjonen av konservert grovfôr fra jordet (dyrking, høsting og konservering) til fôrbrettet (fôring)…..

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-Valg av engtype, antall slåtter per år og antall engår før fornying har mer å si for de totale fôrkostnadene enn valg av høsteutstyr og rundballepresseutstyr. -Fortørking for å øke tørrstoffinnholdet i graset før pressing har sterk effekt på kostnadene ved at det reduserer arbeidsbehov og traktorbruk. - Kostnadsreduksjon ved å kutte ut ensileringsmiddel er større enn gevinsten med sparte kraftfôrkostnader når slikt middel brukes. -Leie og leiekjøring av kombipresse gir høyere kostnader enn eie, men gir langt færre arbeidstimer. Fordelene med leie av kombipresse vil øke med høyere timepris på arbeidskrafta. -Husdyrgjødselhandtering har betydning for økonomien. Når det ligger til rette for det, er slangespredning billigst og med lavt arbeidsforbruk. Det kan være gunstig økonomisk å vurdere sameie av slangesprederutstyr og/eller vogner med nedlegger eller stripespreder som kan brukes med større «tidsvindu» -Kjøreavstand betyr mye både for dyrkings- og høstekostnadene. Kjøreavstand bestemmer hvilke husdyrgjødsellinjer som er kostnadsmessige optimal, og den positive effekten av fortørking på kostnad øker med kjøreavstanden

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- Konservering av surfôret i rundballer er mer kostnadseffektivt enn konservering i nye plan- og tårnsiloer - Oppsamling av graset med snittelessevogn og konservering i tårnsilo er mer tidseffektivt ved kort kjøreavstand enn rundballer - Leie av selvgående finsnitter gir om lag samme totale grovfôrkostnad som eie av traktormontert finsnitter, men er langt mer tidseffektiv. Det kreves da bra transportlogistikk. - Utfôringskostnadene utgjør ¼ av de totale grovfôrkostnadene - For plansilo gir traktormontert fullfôrvogn for blanding og utkjøring av fôret betydelige lavere kostnad enn stasjonær fôrmikser for blanding og takhengt båndfôringsanlegg for utfôring

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The aim of this work was to calculate farm specific LCAs for milk-production on 200 dairy farms in Central Norway, where 185 farmed conventional and 15 according to organic standards. We assume that there are variations in environmental emission drivers between farms and therefore also variation in indicators. We think that information can be utilized to find management improvements on individual farms. Farm specific data on inputs and production for the calendar years 2014 to 2016 were used. The LCAs were calculated for purchased products and on farm-emissions, including atmospheric deposition, biological nitrogen fixation, use of fertilizer and manure. The enteric methane emission from digestion was calculated for different animal groups. The functional unit was one kg energy- corrected milk (ECM) delivered at farm-gate. For the 200 dairy farms there were huge variations of farm characteristics, environmental per- formance and economic outcome. On average, the organic farms produced milk with a lower carbon footprint (1.2 kg CO2 eq./kg ECM) than the conventional ones (1.4 kg CO2 eq./kg ECM). The organic farms had also a lower energy intensity (3.1 MJ/kg ECM) and nitrogen intensity (5.0 kg N/kg N) than their conventional colleagues (4.1 MJ/kg ECM and 6.9 kg N/kg N respectively). The contribution margin was better on the organic farms with 6.6 NOK/kg ECM compared to the conventional with 5.9 NOK/kg ECM. The average levels of the environmental indicators were comparable but slightly higher than findings in other international studies. The current study proved that the FARMnor model allows to calculate LCAs for large number of individual farms. The results show that the environmental performance and economic outcome vary between farms. We recommend that farm specific LCA-results are used to unveil what needs to be changed for improving a farm’s environmental performance.

Sammendrag

The aim of this work was to calculate farm specific LCAs for milk-production on 200 dairy farms in Central Norway, where 185 farmed conventional and 15 according to organic standards. We assume that there are variations in environmental emission drivers between farms and therefore also variation in indicators. We think that information can be utilized to find management improvements on individual farms. Farm specific data on inputs and production for the calendar years 2014 to 2016 were used. The LCAs were calculated for purchased products and on farm-emissions, including atmospheric deposition, biological nitrogen fixation, use of fertilizer and manure. The enteric methane emission from digestion was calculated for different animal groups. The functional unit was one kg energy- corrected milk (ECM) delivered at farm-gate. For the 200 dairy farms there were huge variations of farm characteristics, environmental per- formance and economic outcome. On average, the organic farms produced milk with a lower carbon footprint (1.2 kg CO2 eq./kg ECM) than the conventional ones (1.4 kg CO2 eq./kg ECM). The organic farms had also a lower energy intensity (3.1 MJ/kg ECM) and nitrogen intensity (5.0 kg N/kg N) than their conventional colleagues (4.1 MJ/kg ECM and 6.9 kg N/kg N respectively). The contribution margin was better on the organic farms with 6.6 NOK/kg ECM compared to the conventional with 5.9 NOK/kg ECM. The average levels of the environmental indicators were comparable but slightly higher than findings in other international studies. The current study proved that the FARMnor model allows to calculate LCAs for large number of individual farms. The results show that the environmental performance and economic outcome vary between farms. We recommend that farm specific LCA-results are used to unveil what needs to be changed for improving a farm’s environmental performance.

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Mountain grazing conditions represent a constraint on lamb growth performance for various reasons. One approach to counteract these effects is to graze lambs on improved pastures. We tested the effects of grazing ewes and/or their lambs on established grass-clover (GCM), chicory alone (CHA), and grassclover-chicory (GCC) stands on spring (Exp.1) and summer (Exp.2) pastures on lamb performance. We hypothesized that CHA and GCC would sustain higher spring and autumn daily gain of lambs compared with GCM. In Exp.1, 12 twin-rearing ewes together with their 24 lambs were randomly allocated into three sward types replicated twice (n=2 ewes, 4 lambs/replicate) and monitored for 25 d before sending to mountain pasture. In Exp.2, 24 weaned lambs from the mountain pasture were again randomly allocated to one of the above pasture types and grazed for 28 d. We observed differences in chemical composition and estimated energy values between swards containing chicory and GCM swards. However, these did not affect lamb performance during both experiments, contrary to our previous findings, suggesting that grazing sheep either selected against chicory, or the observed differences in chemical composition among sward types were not strong enough to influence performance, or a combination of the two possible effects

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Lokal verdiskaping basert på utmarka i verdsarvområda Vestlandsk fjordlandskap kan ikkje sjåast isolert, men er tett knytt til heile samfunnsutviklinga på desse stadene. Det tradisjonelle landbruket i desse områda har skapt verdfulle naturgode som biologisk mangfald, opne turområde med høg rekreasjonsverdi, turstiar og anna. Fleire av desse naturgoda er viktige for reiselivsnæringa. Kulturlandskapet er også viktig for verdsarvstatusen i seg sjølv, ettersom dette er ein viktig del av kjerneverdiane til området (OUV). Utviklinga i landbruket gjer at tungdrivne areal også i verdsarvområda går ut av bruk. Opphøyr eller låg bruksintensitet går spesielt ut over utmarksressursane og dei seminaturlege naturtypane. Utmarka i Geirangerfjordområdet er særleg trua, da tradisjonell bruk med beiting, slått og hausting no i stor grad har teke slutt, og naturtypane gror att med buskar og kratt. Gjengroing fører til tap avvariasjon, artar og økologiske funksjonar. Intensivering av landbruket vil også forringe naturverdiane og landskapskvalitetane. For at landbruket ikkje berre skal vere eit «kulisselandbruk», men vere del av eit berekraftig driftssystem, må tilgjengelege arealressursar på innmark og utmark nyttast til matproduksjon og andre livsviktige økosystemtenester. Gjeldande landbrukspolitikk, med mål om stordrift og effektivisering av matproduksjonen, er ei sterkare drivkraft enn dei tiltaka som er sett inn for å bremse og motverke at tungdrivne areal går ut av bruk i verdsarvområda. Den lokale turist- og reiselivsnæringa kan også hamne i noko av same marginaliserte situasjonen som landbruksnæringa fordi dei ikkje lenger er dei mest sentrale aktørane. Eksterne aktørar representert ved cruiseindustri, turbussar og storskala reisearrangørar er ofte i enda større grad premissleverandørar. Det trengs ei heilskapleg tilnærming for å løyse utfordringane. Ein prosess som forskyv maktbalansen frå eksterne aktørar innan masseturisme og i retning lokalt næringsliv og verdiskaping og som inkluderer innbyggjarane, krev nytenking, utvikling av nye forretningsmodellar og evne til gjennomføring gjennom demokratiske planprosessar. Av ulike konkrete verkemiddel som kan prøvast ut, men da helst som element i ein større endringsprosess, vil vi peike på særskilde landbrukspolitiske verkemiddel i retning sveitsisk modell, turistskatt, anna betaling for fellesgode og bygdeutviklingsprosjekt som kan gi auka tilflytting og ny næringsaktivitet. Dialog og partnarskapsbygging kan fremme ansvarleg medverknad.Forskingsbehova for verdsarvområda og tilsvarande område med store og unytta ressursar i utmarka er mange, og arbeidsgruppa si vurdering er summert og konkretisert i denne rapporten

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Dairy products are often considered challenging for health due to their saturated fatty acid content, yet they also provide beneficial nutrients, some unique to ruminants. The degree of fat saturation is influenced by cows’ diets; grazing pasture enhances unsaturated fatty acids in milk compared with conserved forages. These benefits can be partially mimicked by feeding oilseeds and here we consider the impact on milk composition in a 2 × 2 trial, feeding rapeseed to both conventional and organic cows, finding very differing lipid metabolism in the 4 experimental groups. For milk fat, benefits of organic rather than conventional management (+39% PUFA, +24% long chain omega-3 and +12% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)) appear complementary to those from feeding rape (+43% MUFA, +10% PUFA, +40% CLA), combining to produce milk 16% lower SFA and higher in MUFA (43%), PUFA (55%) and CLA (59%). Organic and rape feeding provide less omega-3 PUFA than the conventional and control diets, yet contrary to expectations, together they almost doubled (+94%) the omega-3 concentration in milk, implying a 3.8 fold increase in net transfer from diet into milk. Organic and rape feeding also gave lower trace-elements and antioxidants in milk. Greater understanding of these phenomena might enhance the sustainability of dairying.

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In this study, a brown macroalgae species, Saccharina latissima, processed to increase its protein concentration, and a red macroalgae species, Porphyra spp., were used to evaluate their in vivo digestibility, rumen fermentation and blood amino acid concentrations. Four castrated rams were used, whose diets were supplemented with a protein-rich fraction of S. latissima, a commercial Porphyra spp. and soybean meal (SBM). Our results show that the protein digestibility of a diet with S. latissima extract was lower (0.55) than those with Porphyra spp. (0.64) and SBM (0.66). In spite of the higher nitrogen (N) intake of diets containing Porphyra spp. and SBM (20.9 and 19.8 g N/day, respectively) than that with S. latissima (18.6 g N/day), the ratio of N excreted in faeces to total N intake was significantly higher in the diet with S. latissima than those with Porphyra spp. and SBM. This reflects that the utilization of protein in S. latissima was impaired, possibly due to reduced microbial activity. The latter statement is corroborated by lower volatile fatty acid composition (25.6, 54.8 and 100 mmol/l for S. latissima, Porphyra spp. and SBM, respectively) and a non-significant tendency for lower ammonia concentration observed in diets with S. latissima and Porphyra spp. compared to SBM. It is important to note that the S. latissima used in this trial was rinsed during processing to remove salt. This process potentially also removes other water-soluble compounds, such as free amino acids, and may have increased the relative fraction of protein resistant to rumen degradation and intestinal absorption. Furthermore, the phlorotannins present in macroalgae may have formed complexes with protein and fibre, further limiting their degradability in rumen and absorption in small intestines. We recommend that further studies explore the extent to which processing of macroalgae affects its nutritive properties and rumen degradability, in addition to studies to measure the intestinal absorption of these macroalgae species

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Two short-term grazing experiments were conducted with Norwegian Red cows. In Exp 1, 24 cows were randomly assigned to one of the following three pasture allocation methods (PAM): weekly pasture allowance (7RG), grazing 1/7 of 7RG each day (1SG), or grazing as 1SG but had access to grazed part of the paddock within one week (1FG). In Exp 2, 7RG was shortened to 5 days (5RG). We hypothesized that PAM will affect sward quality, quantity, intake and production differently. Pasture chemical composition changed with advancing grazing days but were not different between treatments. Pasture intake, milk yield, and methane emission were not affected by PAM. In Exp 1, 7RG cows spent less time on grazing, whereas in Exp 2, 1FG cows spent longer on grazing than others. Patterns observed in sward quality, and behavioural and physiological adaptations of cows to short-term changes in nutrient supply may explain the observed effects.

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•Blandingseng med rødkløver og gras høsta to ganger i sesongen gir lavere grovfôrkostnader sammenlignet med tre slåtter per år i blandingseng eller timoteibasert eng som høstes to eller tre ganger. •Blandingsenga slått to ganger per sesong gir også lavest total fôrkostnad (grovfôr + kraftfôr) selv om treslåttsystemene reduserte behovet for kraftfôr. • Sjøl om en kan bruke mindre og billigere kraftfôr ved tre slåtter, greier en ikke å dekke inn de høyere dyrkings- og høstekostnadene. • Femårig engomløp kommer generelt bedre ut økonomisk enn treårig, selv om avlingsnivået er litt lavere. Avlingsøkninga kompenserer ikke for de økte dyrkingskostnadene. • Blandingseng med kløver, som er moderat gjødsla og høsta to ganger per år, gir lavest kostnad, totalt for grovfôr + kraftfôr, og er mest arealeffektivt med dagens kraftfôrpris

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The objective of this paper was to examine how cutting frequency, silage fermentation patterns and clover performance in grass-clover swards influence the use of inputs and profitability in an organic dairy system. A linear programming model was developed to compare a three-cut and a two-cut system for a model farm in Central Norway, either with restricted or extensive silage fermentation at low or high red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) proportion in the sward, giving 8 different silage types in all. Input-output relations incorporated into the model were derived from a meta-analysis of organic grassland field trials in Norway as well as a silage fermentation experiment, and with feed intakes and milk yields from simulations with the ‘TINE Optifôr’ feed ration planner in the Norfor feed evaluation system. The model maximized total gross margin of farms with 260,000 l milk quota and housing capacity for 45 cows, with separate model versions for each of the 8 silage types. Farmland availability varied from 30 to 70 ha with 40 ha as the basis. Our results suggested that farmland availability and marginal return of a competing barley crop profoundly influenced the profitability of the different silage types. A high clover proportion increased dry matter (DM) yields and was far more important for profitability than the score on the other factors considered at restricted land availabilities. Profits with the three-cut systems were always greater than those with the two-cut systems, the former being associated with greater silage intakes and improved dairy cow performances but lower DM forage yields. Three-cut systems were further favoured as land availability increased and also by a lower marginal return of barley. Although use of an acidifying silage additive improved feed intakes and milk production per cow, the practice reduced total milk production and depressed profit compared to untreated, extensively fermented silage at restrictive land availabilities. With more land available, and in particular at a low marginal return of barley, use of a silage additive was profitable.

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Utilisable crude protein (uCP), methane (CH4) production and other fermentation parameters were analysed in vitro for a diet in which grass silage was replaced by different levels of seaweed protein fractions prepared from three seaweed species: Saccharina latissima, Alaria esculenta and Palmaria palmata. Ten fractions from these three species in which the protein content had been increased and the salt content reduced by simple processing were tested, with inclusion levels in the diet based on the nitrogen content of the fractions. Following an extraction procedure, four fractions from Saccharina latissima, three from Alaria esculenta and one from Palmaria palmata, were gradually included in the diet by replacing high quality silage with approximately 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 g/g DM, while two high-protein fractions of Palmaria palmata were tested at replacement levels of 0, 0.075, 0.15 and 0.225 g/g DM. To estimate fermentation parameters, 500 mg of each diet were incubated in bottles with 60 mL buffered rumen fluid. Estimated uCP increased linearly with increasing replacement rate of grass silage with seaweed protein fractions (from 158 g/kg DM to 206 g/kg DM on average for all fractions). Increasing protein fraction from the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima in the diet significantly increased true organic matter digestibility (OMD) (from on average 0.786 to 0.821). Organic matter digestibility decreased with increasing level of Alaria esculenta fractions (from on average 0.785 to 0.733), which also gave a linear decrease in CH4 production (from on average 45.3 to 38.5 mL/g organic matter). As a result of decreased CH4 production and OMD, total volatile fatty acid concentration decreased with increasing level of Alaria esculenta fractions (from on average 69.5 to 63.0 mmol/L). Thus, positive and species-specific effects of seaweed on estimated uCP and fermentation parameters were observed in vitro when protein fractions remaining after an extraction procedure on seaweed partly replaced grass silage in the feed ration.

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Red clover (Trifolium pratense) grown in mixtures with grasses often constitutes a lower proportion of total yield in spring than in summer growth. A more even red clover proportion between the harvests would benefit forage quality and management at feeding. We investigated whether inclusion of early versus late‐maturing red clover varieties could reduce this disproportionality. In a two‐year field trial harvested three times per season, each of six red clover varieties was grown in two grass mixtures. Rate of phenological development did not differ during spring growth, but did so in regrowth after first and second cuts. Here, the earliest varieties constituted the highest proportion. At all harvests, the early varieties had lower crude protein concentrations and a higher content of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and indigestible NDF than the late varieties. Clover proportion was higher in swards with a mixture of timothy and meadow fescue than in swards with perennial ryegrass during the first year and lower in the second year. It is concluded that developmental rate should be explored further as a key character for red clover competiveness in spring growth of rapidly elongating grasses.

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Large areas of farmland are abandoned in Norway, which for various reasons are regarded as undesirable. Loss of farmlandmay have negative implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function and food production potential. The objectives of this study were to assess forage mass production and utilization, botanical composition, lamb performance, and grazing distribution pattern when reintroducing livestock grazing to an abandoned grassland. The study area was located in Central Norway, unmanaged for 12 years. Sheep grazed the area for 10 weeks in 2013 and 4 weeks in spring and autumn, respectively, in 2014 and 2015. During the summer of 2014 and 2015, the area was subjected to the following replicated treatments: (1) No grazing, (2) grazing with heifers, and (3) grazing with ewes and their offspring. The stocking rate was similar in the grazed treatments. Forage biomass production and animal intake were estimated using grazing exclosure cages and botanical composition by visual assessment. Effect on lamb performance was evaluated by live weight gain and slaughter traits in sheep subjected to three treatments: (1) Common farm procedure with summer range pasturing, (2) spring grazing period extended by 1 month on the abandoned grassland before summer range pasturing, and (3) spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland. Grazing distribution patterns were studied using GPS position collars on ewes. Total annual biomass production was on average 72% higher with summer grazing than without. Annual consumption and utilization was on average 218 g DM/m2 and 70% when summer grazed, and 25 g DM/m2 and 18% without grazing, respectively. Botanical composition did not differ between treatments. Live weight gain was higher in lambs subjected to an extended spring grazing period (255 g/d) compared to common farm practice (228 g/d) and spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland (203 g/d), and carcass value was 14% higher in lambs on extended spring grazing compared to common farm practice. In autumn, sheep preferred to graze areas grazed by sheep during summer. Re-introduction of grazing stimulated forage production, and extended spring grazing improved performance in lambs. This study has quantified the value of abandoned grassland as a feed resource.

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Det er økende interesse hos forbrukere for mjølk og mjølkeprodukt som er produsert uten bruk av kraftfôr med bare beite og konservert gras i fôrrasjonen. Rørosmeieriet AS, som foredler økologisk produsert mjølk, er interessert i å etablere egen produksjonslinje for mjølkeprodukt fra kyr produsert uten kraftfôr. For mjølkeprodusenten kan det å kutte ut kraftfôr i fôrrasjonen få store konsekvenser for mjølkeytelse og dermed økonomi. Formålet med dette arbeidet var å vurdere hva en kan forvente seg av mjølkeytelse og mjølkekvalitet ved å kutte ut kraftfôr i rasjonen. Helse og fruktbarhet hos dyra, næringsstofforsyning til gården og totaløkonomien vil sannsynligvis også påvirkes, og det var et mål å beregne hva mjølkeprodusenten må ha i merpris for mjølka for å opprettholde dekningsbidraget. Arbeidet er gjennomført som en litteraturstudie og som en egen analyse der vi brukte data fra fire økologiske mjølkeproduksjonsbruk i Rørosområdet, som leverer mjølk til Rørosmeieriet. For de fire bruka gjorde vi en scenarioanalyse der vi estimerte mjølkeproduksjon og fôrforbruk uten kraftfôr i beitetida, men med kraftfôr i innefôringstida, og helt uten kraftfôr i rasjonene. Data generert fra scenarioanalysen blei sammenlignet med dagens tilstand med hensyn på mjølkeytelse, næringsstoffbalanse og økonomi. Vi tok også ut mjølkeprøver fra tanken før beiteslipp og i beitetida for å analysere kvaliteten av mjølk..............

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The effects of a commercial seaweed (SW) product and extracts collected from wild SWs in the Northern Norway on cultivable commensal intestinal bacterial groups isolated from Norwegian White sheep ewes were studied in vivo and in vitro. Bacterial counts from faeces from the ewes fed with supplement which contained SW meal throughout the entire indoor winter period had significantly lower lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts (P ≈ .05). The screening of extracts from red and brown SWs showed that a number of the organic extracts had an inhibitory effect on the growth of the two Enterococcus sp. isolates. The results indicate that Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation reduces LAB counts in the ewes and the lambs, and that extracts from this SW have an inhibitory effect on the growth of Enterococcus sp. isolates.

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The 2015-2018 PROMAC (Energy efficient Processing of Macroalgae in blue-green value chains) is financed by the Norwegian Research Council. The PROMAC consortium is led by Møreforsking AS and consists of both Norwegian (SINTEF, NIBIO, NTNU, NMBU) and European (CEVA, MATIS, SLU)research institutes, as well as industrial partners (TafjordKraftvarme, FelleskjøpetFôrutvikling, Firmenich, LegaseaBiomarine Cluster, The Northern Company, Orkla Foods, Hortimare, Marinox).An advisory panel with public authority and interest groups from the marine, energy and agricultural sectors, also oversee the 4,5Mill EUR project’s relevance in a societal context.The current approaches to meeting the demands for meat and other protein-rich food sources are often associated with damage to natural resources and negative effects on climate, air quality, soils and fresh water availability. Therefore, the PROMAC project (http://promac.no/) investigates an alternative approach for providing food and sources of proteins and energy in animal feed, and health benefits in human food through cultivation of macroalgae. The project focuses on the three macroalgaespecies Alariaesculenta, Saccharinalatissima andPalmariapalmata.The research project (i) assesses variation of raw material composition and quality from both harvested and cultured macroalgae, (ii) develops primary processing methods enhancing desired raw material properties, (iii) establishes fractionation and extraction methods best suited to enrich beneficial proteins or remove undesirable anti-nutrients and (iv) evaluates nutritional and health values of processed macroalgal ingredients for various animal groups and in relation to their distinct digestive systems.PROMAC assesses the costs and benefits of macroalgal products from a value chain perspective (from raw material to primary market) through process-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material and Energy Flow Analysis (MEFA) and business models. To reduce the substantial energy required for primary processing of macroalgae - organisms characterized by ahigh-water content - PROMAC includes a case study utilizing excess heat from a waste incinerator for primary drying and processing of macroalgae biomass. This case study is integrated into both environmental and economic models.Initialresults identifyingmacroalgae food and feed products (ingredients)and associatedprocessing methods most relevant for commercial applications, will be presented integrated across work packages and subject fields.

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Prosjektet «BeiteRessurs» har vært ledet av Norsk Institutt for Bioøkonomi (NIBIO). Norsk senter for økologisk landbruk (NORSØK) og Senter for bygdeforskning har vært samarbeidsparter. Prosjektet ble gjennomført 2013-2016. Hovedmålet var å teste mulighetene for å ta i bruk marginale jordbruksområder som har ligget brakk, til beite for sau. Denne rapporten tar for seg de økonomiske konsekvensene av å ta i bruk et nedlagt innmarksbeite til vår- og høstbeite på sauegarder i Midt-Norge. De fleste undersøkelsene i prosjektet ble gjort på et nedlagt fellesbeite på 220 daa i Møre og Romsdal. Dette arealet ble dyrket opp rundt 1980, og var i bruk som fellesbeite for melkekyr frem til sommeren 2001. I 2013 ble det ryddet en gjerdetrasé og arealet ble gjerdet inn med fire-tråders strømgjerde. Sommeren 2013 ble arealet beitet av sau og hest. I 2014 og 2015 ble det gjennomført et forsøk med en sauebesetning som ble inndelt i tre like store forsøksgrupper. Den ene gruppen ble sluppet direkte til fjells rett fra garden etter lamming. Gruppe to fikk utvidet vårbeiteperiode med fire uker på hele innmarksarealet før de ble sluppet til fjells. Den tredje gruppen fikk også utvidet vårbeiteperiode med fire uker på hele innmarksarealet før de beita resten av sommeren på ca 1/3 del av arealet. Innmarksarealet hadde fire uker uten beiting i august/september og på høsten ble hele arealet beita med sau og påsettlam i fire uker. Alle kostnader ved bruk av innmarksbeite er delt inn i etableringskostnader og driftskostnader. Disse kostandene ble brukt som grunnlag for å sammenligne dekningsbidrag for to «eksempelgarder» i Midt-Norge: En middels stor sauegard (82 vinerfôra sauer (vfs)) og en stor sauegard (175 vfs) med og utenbruk av nedlagte innmaksbeiter. Ved å ta i bruk nedlagte beiteområder frigis arealer hjemme på garden. Tilleggsarealet kan gi grunnlag for flere vfs, bedre grovfôrkvalitet ved at slåtten kan tas tidligere, redusert bruk av kraftfôr, eller salg av rundballer. I rapporten har vi beregnet dekningsbidrag ved ulike alternativer for bruk av det frigitte arealet. Rydding og inngjerding av innmarksbeite på 220 daa ga en etableringskostnad på 87 kr/løpemeter gjerde. Årlige driftskostnader ble beregnet til 14,45 kr/løpemeter gjerde. Total kostnad inkludert alt utstyr og arbeid med etablering og årlig drift ble beregnet til 20,20 kr/løpemeter gjerde eller 190 kr/daa innmarksbeite når levetid på gjerdet ble satt til 15 år. Ved levetid på 20 år var kostanden 177 kr/daa innmarksbeite. Det høyeste dekningsbidraget oppnås ved at frigjort areal hjemme brukes til å øke besetningen. Ved å øke antall vfs viste resultatene våre at ved å ta i bruk det nedlagte arealet til vårbeite før dyra dro til fjells og som høstbeite for livsauene, så økte dekningsbidraget med 26 % for gjennomsnittsgarden og 24 % for den store garden. Hvis antallet vfs ikke kan økes, er det mer lønnsomt å produsere grovfôr med god kvalitet og redusere kraftfôrandelen enn å produsere rundballer på frigitt areal. Dersom vi hadde lagt inn lengre levetid på gjerdet enn 15 år og høyere lammevekter på grunn av fire uker forlenget vårbeite ville dekningsbidraget blitt enda bedre. Tilskuddet til innmarksbeite er en viktig faktor for at det kan bli lønnsomt å ta i bruk nedlagte innmarksbeiter for å øke arealressursene på sauegarder. Prosjektet har vist at det kan være fordelaktig for sauebønder å ta i bruk nedlagte arealer til beite både med hensyn til tilgang på godt vårbeite, tilvekst på lammene, bedre grunnlag for godt vinterfôr og økonomisk resultat.

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Demand for organic meat is partially driven by consumer perceptions that organic foods are more nutritious than non-organic foods. However, there have been no systematic reviews comparing specifically the nutrient content of organic and conventionally produced meat. In this study, we report results of a meta-analysis based on sixty-seven published studies comparing the composition of organic and non-organic meat products. For many nutritionally relevant compounds (e.g. minerals, antioxidants and most individual fatty acids (FA)), the evidence base was too weak for meaningful meta-analyses. However, significant differences in FA profiles were detected when data from all livestock species were pooled. Concentrations of SFA and MUFA were similar or slightly lower, respectively, in organic compared with conventional meat. Larger differences were detected for total PUFA and n-3 PUFA, which were an estimated 23 (95 % CI 11, 35) % and 47 (95 % CI 10, 84) % higher in organic meat, respectively. However, for these and many other composition parameters, for which meta-analyses found significant differences, heterogeneity was high, and this could be explained by differences between animal species/meat types. Evidence from controlled experimental studies indicates that the high grazing/forage-based diets prescribed under organic farming standards may be the main reason for differences in FA profiles. Further studies are required to enable meta-analyses for a wider range of parameters (e.g. antioxidant, vitamin and mineral concentrations) and to improve both precision and consistency of results for FA profiles for all species. Potential impacts of composition differences on human health are discussed.

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There are differences in grass-clover proportions and chemical composition between herbage from primary growth (PG) and regrowth (RG) in grass-clover leys. Mixing silages made from PG and RG may provide a more optimal diet to dairy cows than when fed separately. We tested the hypotheses that increasing dietary proportions of grass-clover silage made from RG compared with PG would increase digestion rate of potentially degradable NDF (pdNDF), and increase ruminal accumulation of indigestible NDF (iNDF). Eight rumen cannulated Norwegian Red cows were used in two replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. Silages were prepared from PG and RG of an organically cultivated ley, where PG and RG silages were fed ad libitum in treatments with RG replacing PG in ratios of 0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1 on dry matter basis in addition to 8 kg concentrate. We evaluated the effect of the four diets with emphasis on rumen- and total tract fiber digestibility. Increasing RG proportions decreased silage intake by 7%. Omasal flow of pdNDF decreased, whereas iNDF flow increased with increasing RG proportions. Increasing RG proportions decreased rumen pool sizes of NDF and pdNDF, whereas pool sizes of iNDF and CP increased. Increasing RG proportions increased digestion rate of NDF, which resulted in greater total tract digestion of NDF. Pure PG diet had the highest calculated energy intake, but the improved rumen digestion of NDF by cows offered 0.33 and 0.67 of RG leveled out milk fat and protein yields among the three PG containing diets.

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Under Norwegian conditions, diets based on primary growth (PG) silage typically increase milk yield compared to silage prepared from the regrowth (RG). Organic PG, dominated by immature grasses, is often high in energy and low in crude protein (CP), whereas the opposite is the case for organic RG harvests, dominated by clover. Here, we tested the hypotheses that increasing proportions of RG will reduce the total supply of metabolizable energy, but increase the CP intake, and that there is a dietary optimal mix of PG and RG to meet requirements for optimal milk production. Sixteen Norwegian Red cows were used in an experiment designed with four balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods to evaluate the effect of incremental replacement of PG with RG on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production. Silages were prepared from PG and RG of an organically managed grassland. Treatments comprised silages fed ad libitum with RG replacing PG in ratios of 0, 0.33, 0.67, and 1 on dry matter (DM) basis. Additionally, concentrate was offered with 8 kg for pluriparous and 7 kg for primiparous cows. The PG had higher content metabolizable energy (ME), potentially degradable neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and water-soluble carbohydrates, while RG contained more CP and indigestible NDF. The already mentioned characteristics led to higher intakes of DM, organic matter, NDF, and ME and lower intakes of CP and indigestible NDF with increasing proportions of PG in the diet. Milk yield tended to be higher when PG and RG were offered as a mixture than when fed alone. The milk fat concentration decreased linearly with increasing proportions of RG proportion, while protein concentration was unaffected by diet. This led to a similar production of energy-corrected milk among cows fed diets containing PG while cows fed pure RG diet produced 0.9 kg less daily. Silage energy concentration and energy intake influenced milk production more than CP supply.

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Clover proportions, and thereby chemical composition of herbage, differ between primary growth (PG) and regrowth (RG) in organic managed grass-clover fields. The characteristics of PG and RG silages suggest different supplementary feeding strategies to sustain an efficient milk production in dairy cows. Silage made of the RG generally offers more crude protein (CP) in the diet than silage made of the PG because of an increasing proportion of clover later in the season. Additionally, grass and clover have different amino acid (AA) profiles. His has been suggested to be the first limiting AA in grass silage, while Met has been suggested to be the primarily limiting AA in red clover silage. Eight rumen cannulated Norwegian Red cows were used in two replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-days periods. Organic PG and RG silages were fed ad libitum in four diets with RG replacing PG silage in ratios of 0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1 on dry matter (DM) basis. Changing RG silage proportions from 0 to 1 increased daily CP intake from 2.90 to 3.08 kg and rumen NH3-concentrations from 4.9 to 8.4 mmol/L, but did not promote a better protein supply. Neither total ruminal outflow of AA nor the AA profile in the small intestine differed between dietary treatments. Met and His were probably the most limiting AA for a higher milk production. Limitations by His may be more related to diets based on PG, while production by cows fed diets based on more RG herbage were more likely limited by Met.

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Large areas of cultivated grasslands have been abandoned in Norway and are no longer used for production. Knowing that access to spring and autumn pastures is a limiting factor for sheep farmers, this study aims at testing the effect of introducing abandoned farmland into sheep production. One sheep €ock with 83(88) ewes (lambs) in 2014 and 77 (106) ewes (lambs) in 2015 was each year assigned to three treatments: (1) control; common farm procedure with a short spring grazing period before summer grazing on range pasture; (2) spring extended; a four-week extended spring grazing period on abandoned cultivated grassland before summer grazing on range pasture; (3) whole season grazing on abandoned cultivated grassland. Weight gain from spring to autumn, slaughter weight and carcass value were signicantly (P<0.05) higher in lambs assigned to treatment 2, with four weeks extended spring grazing period (255 g day-1, 15.7 kg, 699 NOK), compared to treatment 1 (229 g day-1, 14.3 kg, 615 NOK) and treatment 3 (206 g day-1, 13.2 kg, 548 NOK). !e use of abandoned cultivated grassland for extended spring grazing improved weight gain and slaughter weight, while whole season grazing on abandoned grassland was the least productive option tested.

Sammendrag

Large areas of cultivated grasslands have been abandoned in Norway and are no longer used for production. Knowing that access to spring and autumn pastures is a limiting factor for sheep farmers, this study aims at testing the effect of introducing abandoned farmland into sheep production. One sheep €ock with 83(88) ewes (lambs) in 2014 and 77 (106) ewes (lambs) in 2015 was each year assigned to three treatments: (1) control; common farm procedure with a short spring grazing period before summer grazing on range pasture; (2) spring extended; a four-week extended spring grazing period on abandoned cultivated grassland before summer grazing on range pasture; (3) whole season grazing on abandoned cultivated grassland. Weight gain from spring to autumn, slaughter weight and carcass value were signicantly (P<0.05) higher in lambs assigned to treatment 2, with four weeks extended spring grazing period (255 g day-1, 15.7 kg, 699 NOK), compared to treatment 1 (229 g day-1, 14.3 kg, 615 NOK) and treatment 3 (206 g day-1, 13.2 kg, 548 NOK). !e use of abandoned cultivated grassland for extended spring grazing improved weight gain and slaughter weight, while whole season grazing on abandoned grassland was the least productive option tested.

Sammendrag

Large areas of cultivated grasslands are annually abandoned and no longer used for production in Norway. Such areas will over time be encroached by shrubs and trees. Knowing that access to spring and autumn pastures is a limiting factor for sheep farmers, we tested the effect of grazing abandoned grassland on sheep production. We also assessed herbage production by looking at plant community development, pasture production, herbage quality and pasture utilization by sheep and heifers. The experiment was run for two consecutive years; 2014 and 2015. The sheep production was assessed by studying one sheep flock with 83(88) ewes(lambs) in 2014 and 77(106) ewes(lambs) in 2015, which was assigned each year with respect to age of ewe and number of lambs born to three treatments: 1) control; common farm procedure with short spring grazing period before summer grazing on range pasture, 2) spring extended; 4 weeks extended spring grazing period on abandoned cultivated grassland before summer grazing on range pasture, 3) whole season grazing on abandoned grassland. Assessment of herbage production was done by sheep grazing the whole area for one month in spring and autumn. During the summer, the area was assigned to three replicated treatments: a) control with no management, b) grazing heifers and c) grazing sheep with offspring. The stocking rate was 1.8 LU/ha, in both b and c, for a duration of one month. Pasture production and herbage intake was estimated using grazing exclosure cages. Weight gain from birth to autumn as well as slaughter weight were significantly (P<0.05) higher in lambs assigned to treatment 2 with four weeks extended spring grazing period (259 g/day and 15.7 kg) compared to treatment 1 (238 g/day and 14.3 kg) and treatment 3 (216 g/day and 13.2 kg). Herbage consumed during the summer period was on average 211 g DM/m2 and the pasture utilization was 55%. The annual consumption and utilization was 336 g DM/m2 and 62% in the grazed treatments and 28 g DM/m2 and 15% in the control, respectively. Total annual pasture production was on average 72% higher in the grazed treatments compared to the control. There was no difference between the grazed treatments on annual herbage production, herbage intake or pasture utilization. The use of abandoned cultivated grassland for extended spring grazing improved weight gain and slaughter weight of lambs. Further, grazing stimulated herbage production

Sammendrag

Large areas of cultivated grassland are annually abandoned and no longer used for production in Norway. Such areas will over time be encroached by shrubs and trees, which is regarded as undesirable. We assessed plant community development, pasture production, herbage quality and pasture utilization by sheep and heifers of a grassland that has been unmanaged for 12 years. e experiment was run for two consecutive years. Sheep grazed the whole area for one month in spring and autumn. During the summer, the area was assigned to three replicated treatments: (1) control with no management; (2) grazing heifers; and (3) grazing sheep with off€spring. The stocking rate was 1.8 LU ha-1, in both b and c, for a duration of one month. The area was left resting for a month aer treatment and before autumn sheep grazing. Pasture production and herbage intake was estimated using grazing exclosure cages. Herbage consumed during summer period was on average 211 g DM m-2 and the pasture utilization was 55%. The annual consumption and utilization was 336 g DM m-2 and 62% in the grazed treatments and 28 g DM m-2 and 15% in the control, respectively. Total annual pasture production was on average 72% higher in the grazed treatments compared to the control. Tere was no diff€erence between the grazed treatments on annual production, herbage intake or pasture utilization. Grazing stimulated herbage production, and such abandoned grasslands are valuable forage resources.

Sammendrag

We assessed milk production with 24 mid-lactation Norwegian Red dairy cows on a spring pasture dominated by timothy (Phleum pratense) for a period of 21 days using three pasture allocation techniques (n=8). Cows received weekly allowances at once (7 day-set-paddocking; 7SP), grazed 1/7 of 7SP allowance each day (daily-strip-grazing; 1SG), or grazed like 1SG but also had access to the previously grazed part of the paddock (daily-forward-grazing; 1FG). We hypothesized that 7SP would deteriorate sward quality and quantity over the grazing days whilst the other two treatments would provide balanced pasture quality and intake. These changes were expected to result in differences in milk yield and its components. However, changes in sward chemical composition (e.g. neutral netergent fiber, crude protein) over the grazing days in each week were not different among treatments (treatment × grazing day; P>0.05). Furthermore, no effect of treatments on milk yield and its components was observed. Nonetheless, the effects of grazing days over a week on milk yield and components were different among treatments (treatment × grazing day; P<0.05). These treatment by grazing day interaction effects, in the absence main effect of treatment, could be due to fluctuations in daily DMI among treatments over the grazing days in each week.

Sammendrag

We assessed milk production with 24 mid-lactation Norwegian Red dairy cows on a spring pasture dominated by timothy (Phleum pratense) for a period of 21 days using three pasture allocation techniques (n=8). Cows received weekly allowances at once (7 day-set-paddocking; 7SP), grazed 1/7 of 7SP allowance each day (daily-strip-grazing; 1SG), or grazed like 1SG but also had access to the previously grazed part of the paddock (daily-forward-grazing; 1FG). We hypothesized that 7SP would deteriorate sward quality and quantity over the grazing days whilst the other two treatments would provide balanced pasture quality and intake. These changes were expected to result in differences in milk yield and its components. However, changes in sward chemical composition (e.g. neutral netergent fiber, crude protein) over the grazing days in each week were not different among treatments (treatment × grazing day; P>0.05). Furthermore, no effect of treatments on milk yield and its components was observed. Nonetheless, the effects of grazing days over a week on milk yield and components were different among treatments (treatment × grazing day; P<0.05). These treatment by grazing day interaction effects, in the absence main effect of treatment, could be due to fluctuations in daily DMI among treatments over the grazing days in each week.

Sammendrag

Large areas of cultivated grassland are annually abandoned and no longer used for production in Norway. Such areas will over time be encroached by shrubs and trees, which is regarded as undesirable. We assessed plant community development, pasture production, herbage quality and pasture utilization by sheep and heifers of a grassland that has been unmanaged for 12 years. e experiment was run for two consecutive years. Sheep grazed the whole area for one month in spring and autumn. During the summer, the area was assigned to three replicated treatments: (1) control with no management; (2) grazing heifers; and (3) grazing sheep with off€spring. The stocking rate was 1.8 LU ha-1, in both b and c, for a duration of one month. The area was left resting for a month aer treatment and before autumn sheep grazing. Pasture production and herbage intake was estimated using grazing exclosure cages. Herbage consumed during summer period was on average 211 g DM m-2 and the pasture utilization was 55%. The annual consumption and utilization was 336 g DM m-2 and 62% in the grazed treatments and 28 g DM m-2 and 15% in the control, respectively. Total annual pasture production was on average 72% higher in the grazed treatments compared to the control. Tere was no diff€erence between the grazed treatments on annual production, herbage intake or pasture utilization. Grazing stimulated herbage production, and such abandoned grasslands are valuable forage resources.

Sammendrag

Grassland and the associated ruminant livestock production is the backbone of Norwegian agriculture, as ruminant products contribute nearly 50% of the gross income of the agricultural sector. About 2/3 of the agricultural area is used for temporary and permanent grassland, and a large proportion (40%) of the arable land is used for producing cereals that are included in concentrate mixtures fed to ruminants. The huge variation in climatic conditions, caused by the wide range in both latitude and altitude as well as in the distance to the coast, determines the land use and choice of species and varieties used in grassland. However, the dominating ley grassland species used in in almost all parts of the country are timothy (Phleum pratense L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). The use of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is increasing, particularly in the southwestern parts of the country. The grassland yields and forage feed quality have remained very much the same during the last decade, while the intensity in ruminant production, e.g. milk yield per cow, has increased considerably. Factors that have contributed to grassland yield stagnation are probably the increasing proportion of rented farmland by larger farm units, the increasing price ratio between livestock products and feed concentrates and the increasing cost of producing forage relative to the price of concentrates

Sammendrag

Grassland and the associated ruminant livestock production is the backbone of Norwegian agriculture, as ruminant products contribute nearly 50% of the gross income of the agricultural sector. About 2/3 of the agricultural area is used for temporary and permanent grassland, and a large proportion (40%) of the arable land is used for producing cereals that are included in concentrate mixtures fed to ruminants. The huge variation in climatic conditions, caused by the wide range in both latitude and altitude as well as in the distance to the coast, determines the land use and choice of species and varieties used in grassland. However, the dominating ley grassland species used in in almost all parts of the country are timothy (Phleum pratense L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). The use of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is increasing, particularly in the southwestern parts of the country. The grassland yields and forage feed quality have remained very much the same during the last decade, while the intensity in ruminant production, e.g. milk yield per cow, has increased considerably. Factors that have contributed to grassland yield stagnation are probably the increasing proportion of rented farmland by larger farm units, the increasing price ratio between livestock products and feed concentrates and the increasing cost of producing forage relative to the price of concentrates

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Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI −1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI −122, −20) % and 93 (95 % CI −116, −70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher α-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences.

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Effects of wilting rate and fermentation stimulators and inhibitors on protein characteristics of forages typ- ical for organic production were assessed using tradi- tional analytical methods and a gas production in vitro assay. The hypotheses were that the proportion of the crude protein (CP) fraction that was soluble would be lowest, and the protein feed value highest, under rapid wilting and restricted fermentation. The solubil- ity of the CP fraction varied according to treatments and between a first and a second cut, with moderate and high content of clover respectively. It was, how- ever, of minor importance for the protein value, both calculated as amino acids absorbed in the small intes- tine (AAT 20 ) and estimated as effective utilizable crude protein (uCP 04 ) by the in vitro assay. In ensiled her- bage, AAT 20 was highest in rapidly wilted and restrict- edly fermented silages made from a first cut dominated by highly digestible grasses. Silages from the second cut dominated by red clover were far lower in AAT 20 . The in vitro assay did not separate silages according to herbage composition or wilting rate, but ranked restrictedly fermented above extensively fer- mented with regard to protein supply. The assay might still have caught the characteristics that determine the true protein value in vivo.

Sammendrag

The effects of cutting frequency, silage fermentation pattern and legume performance in grass-clover ley on use of inputs and profitability in an organic dairy system in Mid-Norway were examined. A whole-farm linear programming model was developed to compare a three-cut and a two-cut system, either with restricted silage fermentation through acidification or untreated at low or high red clover (Trifolium pratense L) proportion in the ley. Input-output relations incorporated into the model were derived from a meta-analysis of organic grassland field trials in Norway, silage fermentation experiments, and with feed intakes and milk yields from simulations with the NorFor feed evaluation system. The model maximised total gross margin of farms with 250,000 l milk quota, and housing capacity for 45 cows. Farmland availability was allowed to vary with 40 ha as the basis. High proportion of legumes in the leys was far more important for profitability than the score on the other variables considered. With little land available, the costs of preservatives were higher than their benefits. At higher land areas applying preservatives was more profitable. Cutting systems producing silages that result in an increased intake of silage per cow, generally three-cut systems, performed relatively better at higher land availabilities.

Sammendrag

The effects of cutting frequency, silage fermentation pattern and legume performance in grass-clover ley on use of inputs and profitability in an organic dairy system in Mid-Norway were examined. A whole-farm linear programming model was developed to compare a three-cut and a two-cut system, either with restricted silage fermentation through acidification or untreated at low or high red clover (Trifolium pratense L) proportion in the ley. Input-output relations incorporated into the model were derived from a meta-analysis of organic grassland field trials in Norway, silage fermentation experiments, and with feed intakes and milk yields from simulations with the NorFor feed evaluation system. The model maximised total gross margin of farms with 250,000 l milk quota, and housing capacity for 45 cows. Farmland availability was allowed to vary with 40 ha as the basis. High proportion of legumes in the leys was far more important for profitability than the score on the other variables considered. With little land available, the costs of preservatives were higher than their benefits. At higher land areas applying preservatives was more profitable. Cutting systems producing silages that result in an increased intake of silage per cow, generally three-cut systems, performed relatively better at higher land availabilities.

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A meta-analysis based on experiments in organically cultivated grasslands in Norway was conducted to quantify the effects of management factors on herbage yield and feed quality. A dataset was collected that included 496 treatment means from experiments in five studies carried out at eight locations with the latitude range of 58.8 to 69.6 N between 1993 and 2010. We tested the effect of harvesting system (two vs. Three cuts annually), plant developmental stage at the first cut, growth period (temperature sum) and the herbage clover proportion. Plant maturity at the first cut and herbage clover proportion explained to a large extent herbage yield and quality of the first cut and annual yield. The timing of the first cut influenced also the yield and herbage quality of the second cut. The analysis confirmed the importance of legumes performance for herbage yield and quality from grasslands in organic production. Estimated annual herbage DM yield harvested at standardized plant development stage and at average clover proportion was 9%higher in the two—compared to the three-cut system. The crude protein concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility was 17 and 3 % higher and the NDF concentration 7 % lower in the annual herbage from the three-cut than from the twocut system, respectively. The empirical equations developed in this study may be applied to explore different options for grassland management as basis for ration and production planning and in scenario analysis of economic performance of individual and model farms. The equations do also reveal in numeric terms the tradeoffs in management practice between high yields, yield digestibility, NDF and crude protein content in organic forage production relying on red clover N2 fixation as the engine in the system.

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Globalt representere husdyrproduksjon 14,5 % av antropogene klimagassutslipp, mens landbruket i Norge står for tilsvarende 9 %. Innenfor husdyrproduksjon kommer den største andelen av klimagassutslippene fra metanutslipp hos melkekyr. Dette skyldes den mikrobielle fermenteringen i vomma, som medfører et overskudd av hydrogen. Metanogene bakterier bruker hydrogen som et substrat, og sluttproduktet er metan. Mengde frie hydrogenmolekyl er styrt gjennom produksjonen av eddiksyre, smørsyre og propionsyre. Hensikten med denne oppgaven var å undersøke om tre ulike beitemetoder hadde en påvirkning på metanutslipp og fôropptak hos melkekyr. Metanproduksjonen ble målt ved hjelp av SF6 metoden. Metoden går ut på at du bruker en kapsel med kjent frigjøringsrate som en referanse for å beregne metanproduksjonene. Prosjektet hadde to perioder, en om våren og en om sensommeren. Hypotesen om at stripebeiting vil føre til mindre metanutslipp ble ikke bekreftet. Selv om min studie ikke fikk påvist at ulike beitemetoder påvirker metanutslipp, kan det likevel ikke utelukkes da resultatene for beregnet metanproduksjon var varierende og upresise. Metanutslippet variert fra 263 g/dag til 315 g/dag gjennom forsøket. Melkeproduksjonen var høyest om våren og gikk ned med noen kilo til sensommeren, generelt sett fulgte også fôropptaket denne trenden. Det ble heller ikke påvist at de ulike beitemetodene hadde en effekt på melkeproduksjonen og fôropptaket. Det har i tidligere studier blitt vist at SF6 metoden gir store variasjoner i beregning av metanutslipp og at den er noe upresis, noe som denne studien også fant. Det har blitt antatt at firgjøringsrate av SF6 er konstant, men nyere studier har påvist at dette er feil.

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Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON)farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG) was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol. Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained more equol than conventionally produced milk, and milk from ORG-SG farms had more equol than milk from ORG-LG farms. Milk produced during the indoor-feeding periods had more equol than milk produced during the outdoor feeding period, because pastures contained less red clover than fields intended for silage production. Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods. There were no indications of ertility problems on ORG-SG farms who had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage. This study shows that Production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of phytoestrogens. However, compared to soy products, milk concentrations of phytoestrogens are low and future studies are required to investigate if the intake of phytoestrogens from dairy products has physiological effects in humans.

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Seaweeds have been used as supplementary feed for livestock in Norway for centuries. Research activities on the use of seaweed as feed started early last century and continued until the late 1960s. The results were elusive, partly because the design of the experiments were imperfect. However, a long term experiment in the 1960’s demonstrated 6% higher milk production by cows supplemented mineral fortified Ascophyllum nodosum meal than in cows offered standard mineral supplement. The authors suggested that seaweed compounds might have had benficial effect on the rumen microflora. Seaweeds are a rich source of Se and antioxidants such as substituted phenols, polyphenols, vitamins, and vitamin precursors. Results from research last 10-20 years suggests that dietary supplementation with A. nodosum meal has positive effects on ruminant product quality and stress tolerance. Alginates have been documented to be non-specific immunostimulants. A. nodosum is currently commersially harvested and processed and sold as a feed supplement. Winter fed sheep and cattle in Norway needs to be given extra fat soluble vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin E and Se, in order to ensure good animal health and production. Based on the aquired knowledge from international reseach on A. nodosum and its possible beneficial health effect, we tested if A. nodosum has immunestimulating effect and can be used as a substitute for synthetic vitamin E in sheep and cattle. Our hypothesis were that supplementing the diet with seaweed to sheep and lactating dairy cows would produce better adaptive immune response following immunization compared to no supplementation and similar to animals given extra vitamin E. Two feeding experiments were conducted, one continous with 40 pregnant ewes and one with 24 lactating dairy cows in a replicated Latin square design. The four supplement treatments applied were: A. Nodosum meal (SW), Natural vitamin E, Synthetic vitamin E, or Control. The average daily rate of A. Nodosum meal per ewe and cow in SW was 80 and 200 g DM, respectively. The ewes and their newborn lambs were monitored the entire indoor feeding period, from mating until pasture let out (200 d). In the ewes, supplementation with SW had no health effects compared to the other treatments, and serum IgG concentrations were reduced in the SW group.The adaptive immunity of the lambs was not affected by supplementation, and seaweed reduced the counts of different intestinal bacterial groups. However, seaweed interferred with the lambs passive immunity resulting in a mortality rate of 35 %, compared with 10% in Control. All cows responded well to immunization, but there were no significant effects of the diet on the immune response measured. The immunesupression observed in newborn lambs from ewes offered SW was likely du to impaired Ig absorption from colostrum, and we conclude that ruminants should not be supplemented with seaweed during peripartum. More research is needed on the identification of bioactive components in seaweed, their effects in animal health, the mechanisms related to their effects on the animal health and testing before seaweed should be used as a feed supplement to ruminants.

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Lønnsemd, uttrykt som dekningsbidrag per årsku, auka med årsavdråtten (kg EKM/årsku) hos økologiske mjølkeprodusentar i Trøndelag. Det var ingen samanheng mellom kraftfôrnivå (FEm/årsku) og lønnsemd, men lønnsemda auka med aukande grovfôropptak

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The spring and the summer growth of an organic grass-clover sward were preserved as extensively and restrictedly fermented silages in laboratory silos.The aim was to develop and test the hypothesis that such crops contribute complementary energy and protein qualities that can be exploited in mixed rations. The summer growth, containing 76% red clover, contributed more, and more stable crude protein than the spring growth, which was dominated by grasses. Nevertheless, when preserved as silage, summer growth supplied less metabolizable protein and net energy lactation because of its lower digestibility. Lower feed value remains to be validated in feeding experiments, and the quality of regrowth silages may also be improved by more frequent or appropriate timing of harvests. Restricted fermentation obtained by application of formic acid improved energy and protein preservation.

Sammendrag

The spring and the summer growth of an organic grass-clover sward were preserved as extensively and restrictedly fermented silages in laboratory silos.The aim was to develop and test the hypothesis that such crops contribute complementary energy and protein qualities that can be exploited in mixed rations. The summer growth, containing 76% red clover, contributed more, and more stable crude protein than the spring growth, which was dominated by grasses. Nevertheless, when preserved as silage, summer growth supplied less metabolizable protein and net energy lactation because of its lower digestibility. Lower feed value remains to be validated in feeding experiments, and the quality of regrowth silages may also be improved by more frequent or appropriate timing of harvests. Restricted fermentation obtained by application of formic acid improved energy and protein preservation.

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This study compared the forage quality of Festulolium entries of festucoid (Hykor) and loloid attributes (Felopa and Norwegian candivars) with major cultivars of the parent species perennial ryegrass and meadow fescue, and with timothy. Forage NDF, iNDF, kdNDF and DDM were analysed at vegetative stage, early heading, heading and anthesis during spring growth (SG) and two subsequent regrowths over two production years at two locations in Norway. NDF and iNDF increased and kdNDF and DDM decreased with advancing maturity, mostly expressed in SG, with negative correlations between DDM and NDF and iNDF and ADL and strong positive correlations with kdNDF. In SG, across years and locations, the content of NDF at heading stage was 30% higher and iNDF 400% higher in stems than in leaves, while stem kdNDF was about 50% of that in leaves. In general, timothy cv. Grindstad and Festulolium cv. Hykor had the highest NDF and iNDF and the lowest kdNDF values. Loloid entries of Festulolium were quite similar to perennial ryegrass, although the tetraploid entry proved better than the others with respect to forage quality. Regarding nutritive value, the festucoid and loloid types of Festulolium should be considered separate groups. The effect of year was more pronounced than that of location, for which the ranking of entries was quite similar. Loloid Festulolium is prone to winter damage and, although it has higher nutritive value than the parent species, its use will depend on the conditions for winter survival.

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Dietary phytoestrogens are metabolized or converted in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, only limited knowledge exists on the extent and location of this conversion in vivo. The objective of this study was to quantify the gastro-intestinal metabolism of phytoestrogens in lactating dairy cows fed silages with different botanical composition. Four lactating rumen cannulated Norwegian Red cattle were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square with 1 cow per treatment period of 3 wk. The 4 treatment silages were prepared from grasslands with different botanical compositions: organically managed short-term timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) ley (2 yr old: ORG-SG); organically managed long-term grassland with a high proportion of unsown species (6 yr old; ORG-LG); conventionally managed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) ley (CON-PR); and conventionally managed timothy ley (CON-TI). The herbages were cut, wilted, and preserved with additive in round bales, fed as a mix of the first and third cut at 90% of ad libitum intake, and contributed to 70% of the total dry matter intake. Milk, feed, omasal digesta, urine, and feces were collected at the end of each period and analyzed for the concentrations of phytoestrogens by using a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry technique. Concentration of total isoflavones was highest in ORG-SG and lowest in CON-TI silage, whereas the content of total lignans was highest in the grass silages. The isoflavones were extensively metabolized in the rumen on all diets, and the recovery of formononetin and daidzein in omasum, mainly as equol, averaged 0.11 mg/mg. The apparent intestinal metabolism was less severe as, on average, 0.29 mg/mg of the omasal flow was recovered in feces. The plant lignans were also strongly degraded in the rumen. However, the flow of lignans to omasum and excretion in feces were, on average, 7.2- and 5.2-fold higher, respectively, than the intake of the plant lignans matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol, known as precursors of mammalian lignans. Thus, excretion to milk could not be directly related to intake, implying that plant lignans other than matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol in forage are precursors for enterolactone production in the rumen and for its content in milk. Equol followed mainly the flow of large particles out of the rumen, whereas the mammalian lignans were distributed between phases proportional to dry matter flow. The main metabolism of phytoestrogens occurred in the rumen and the main route of excretion was through feces and urine, with only a small part being excreted in milk. The concentration of phytoestrogens in milk can be manipulated through intake but the intermediate transfer capacity to milk appears to be limited by saturation

Til dokument

Sammendrag

We report results from trials on chicory growth (experiment 1) and lamb growth on chicory (experiment 2). In experiment 1, we assessed yield and chemical composition on swards established under organic conditions as perennial ryegrass/red clover, perennial ryegrass/chicory, chicory/red clover (CHRC), pure perennial ryegrass (RG-alone) and pure chicory (CHalone) over two years. Chicory/red clover and CH-alone showed improved crude protein, Ca, Mg, P, Cu and net energy contents compared to other mixtures. However, dry matter yield was the lowest for CHRC and CH-alone compared to others. In experiment 2, 48 weaned lambs grazed swards sown as chicory alone (CHA), chicory–grass–clover mix (CGC) or grass–clover mix (GCM) for 45 days. Lamb body weight (BW) gain and final BW were higher on CHA and CGC than on GCM. The results suggest that chicory can complement conventional grass/clover swards especially in macro- and micronutrients for improved lamb growth with a proper grazing management in place