Sammendrag

Vi lever i et samfunn som har kommet langt i likestilling mellom kjønn. Likevel opplever mange daglig tilfeller av hersketeknikk og forskjellsbehandling, også innen forskermiljø. Men kvinner kan gjøre mye selv for å ta kontroll over disse forskjellene. Gjennom å sikte høyt og gi litt faen, stole på seg selv, sin kompetanse og magefølelsen. Og må du rope litt høyere for å bli hørt? Ja, så rop!

Sammendrag

En økning i karbonlagring i landbruksjord er angitt som et viktig klimatiltak både internasjonalt og i Norge. Tiltaket er godt begrunnet: Jorden inneholder to til tre ganger så mye karbon som atmosfæren, noe som innebærer at relative små endringer i innhold av karbon i jord kan ha betydelige effekter på CO2-innholdet i atmosfæren og det globale klimaet. Det er godt dokumentert at intensive jordbruksmetoder har ført til en reduksjon i jordkarbon og derfor ønskes det en reversering av denne trenden (dvs. økt karbonbinding i jord), som tiltak både for klima og matproduksjon. I denne rapporten er det gjort vurderinger av hvordan dette kan gjøres i Norge og hvilken klimaeffekt som kan oppnås...

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Sammendrag

Multilocation testing remains the main tool for understanding varietal responses to the environment. Here, Latvian and Norwegian hull-less and hulled barley varieties were tested in field experiments in Latvia and Norway in order to assess the varieties adaptability across environments (sites). Two Latvian (cv Irbe and cv Kornelija) and one Norwegian hull-less barley variety (cv Pihl) were tested along with one Latvian (cv Rubiola) and one Norwegian hulled barley variety (cv Tyra) under conventional and organic management systems. The grain yield, together with physical and chemical grain parameters were compared, and variety yield and protein stability detemined. Overall, grain yield of hull-less barley varieties was significantly lower than for hulled barley varieties regardless of climatic conditions and management system. However, in the organic farming systems this difference between barley types was less pronounced. The hull-less barley varieties cv Pihl and cv Irbe, along with both hulled varieties, had good yield stability across environments and were well adapted to both cropping systems. Hull-less barley varieties tended to contain more protein and β -glucans than hulled barley varieties. Despite being bred for local conditions in Norway and Latvia, our study shows that all the varieties used may be successfully transferred across countries.

Sammendrag

Slåttemark har status som trua naturtype jfr. naturmangfoldloven. Restaurering og skjøtsel av resterende artsrike slåttemarker er tids- og ressurskrevende siden de er ofte små, bratte eller grunnlendte. Samtidig har det blitt anbefalt å etterligne mest mulig det tradisjonelle bruksregimet som inkluderer ljåslått (eller tohjulstraktor), bakketørking/hesjing og fjerning av graset for å sikre det biologiske mangfoldet. Tilskuddsordningen for trua naturtyper skal stimulere til å restaurere og holde verdifulle slåttemarkene i hevd ved å gi tilskudd til den arbeidskrevende slåtten. For å få flest mulige lokaliteter bevart for framtiden er det viktig at arbeidsmengden og krav om utstyr og håndtering av graset under restaurering og skjøtsel er overkommelig uten at det går på bekostning av artsmangfoldet. Hovedmålsettingen med prosjektet var å undersøke hva slags effekt økt mekanisering av slått har på artsmangfoldet i verdifull slåttemark ved å erstatte bruk av ljå og tohjulstraktor med ryddesag eller beitepusser......

Sammendrag

I vinter har snøen lavet ned rundt om i landet. Og snøen er bra for mer enn skiføret. Den ligger som et teppe over landskapet og beskytter plantene mot kulda. Men hva betyr ulike snøforhold for landbruket?

Sammendrag

Sammendrag: Denne rapporten gir en oppdatert oversikt over tiltakspotensiale for tiltak som jordbruket kan iverksette for å redusere klimagassutslipp. Det er tiltak innen dagens produksjonsystemer og struktur som er vektlagt. Det er sammenlignet med vurderinger gjort i rapporten «Landbruk og klimaendringer» fra 2016. Effekt av tiltak, gjennomføringsgrad og forutsetninger for gjennomføring til 2030 er prioritert.

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Aims: Evaluate biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and its contribution to total N yield in different grass-clover mixtures under a boreal coastal climate and assess how winter conditions affect the survival of clover and its capability to fix nitrogen (N). Methods: Grass-clover mixtures sown with 0, 15 and 30% red and white clover were subjected to two N rates and three levels of tractor trafficking over four years. BNF was estimated by N-difference for each of the two harvests per year, whereas the first harvest was used to estimate the fraction of N derived from the atmosphere (NdfA) and its transfer to grasses by 15N natural abundance. Results: Biological N fixation, mainly by red clover, contributed substantially to total N yield, which was up to 75% greater in grass-clover mixtures than in pure grass stands in the second production year. However, the number of red clover plants and associated BNF decreased dramatically in the third and fourth production year, with N fertilization rate having a more detrimental effect than soil trafficking. Conversely, the amount of biologically fixed N transferred to grass, increased with time, evidencing that some of the biologically fixed N is retained in the system. In the first harvests, NdfA values were generally between 80 and 100%, irrespective of preceding winter conditions. Conclusions: BNF in high latitude grass-clover mixtures can be substantial but is limited by the poor survival of red clover. Variable winter conditions had no measurable effect on winter survival nor on the sward’s capacity to fix nitrogen in spring.

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The aim of the study was to investigate changes of physical, microbiological, and sensory properties of muesli with germinated fakes during storage. Germinated fakes were made from conventionally grown grains: hullless barley, hull-less oat, rye, wheat, and triticale in various proportions. Breakfast cereals samples were packaged in Doypack (stand up pouches) made from Pap50g/Alu7/ Pe60 (Pap/Alu/PE) and stand up pouches Fibrecote® HB MG 40/60 (PE/EvOH/Pap) and stored for 6 months at temperature t=35±2°C and relative air humidity φ=55±3%, to provide accelerated shelf-life testing. The main quality parameters such as total plate count, yeasts and mould, water activity, moisture content, water absorption and sensory properties—taste, aroma, consistency, and appearance were analysed using the standard methods. The results of the present experiments demonstrate that the best quality of dried breakfast cereals after storage in terms of sensory quality, microbiological stability, moisture migration, and water absorption were achieved in the Fibrecote® HB MG 40/60 pouches. This study revealed that breakfast cereals made from rye, triticale germinated triticale, germinated hull-less oat, germinated hull-less barley fakes; as well breakfast cereals made from triticale, oat, germinated wheat, germinated triticale, and germinated hull-less barley fakes packaged in Fibrecote® HB MG 40/60 can be stored for 12 months at temperature 23±2°C; but breakfast cereals made from wheat, rye, triticale, germinated hull-less oat, germinated hull-less barley, germinated rye fakes and package in same packaging material can be stored for 10 months at temperature 23±2°C.

Sammendrag

Vekta på traktorar og utstyr har auka mykje sidan eldre feltforsøk med jordpakking i eng vart utført i Noreg. Vi har undersøkt korleis køyring med dagens traktorar påverkar jordfysiske forhold, avling, plantesetnad og fôrkvalitet av rein graseng og kløverblanda eng i ein forsøksserie på tre einingar i NIBIO, på Tjøtta i Nordland, på Fureneset i Sunnfjord og på Løken i Valdres. Traktorkøyring gav stor avlingsnedgang (20 %) på siltjord i Valdres, medan nedgangen var meir moderat (6 %) på siltig sandjord på Fureneset og det var ingen avlingseffekt på sandjord med god luftveksling på Tjøtta. Det var små forskjellar mellom bruk av lett eller tung traktor, og resultata viser at ein i størst mogleg grad bør unngå køyring under våte forhold på jord som er utsett for pakkingsskade. Køyring på siltjord førte til endringar i den botaniske samansetnaden i enga ved at raudkløver og tofrøblada ugras gjekk tilbake og kvitkløver og grasugras gjekk fram. Køyring på siltjord reduserte også opptak og fiksering av nitrogen. Bruk av kløver i frøblandinga gav stor positiv effekt på avling, protein- og mineralinnhald og gav lågare fiberinnhald i fôret. Bruk av 6 kg N i mineralgjødsel etter førsteslått gav god avlingseffekt, men reduserte kløverinnhald og biologisk nitrogenfiksering. Sterkare nitrogengjødsling og bruk av kløver endra grasbestanden i enga i retning av meir timotei og mindre engsvingel. Auke i såmengda av kløver frå 15 % til 30 % på vektbasis gav små utslag på avling og botanisk samansetjing, men auka Nfikseringa med 0,5 kg per dekar og år.

Sammendrag

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is normally a short-lived perennial with no vegetative propagation and the number of plants in the field declines rapidly. In organic farming, the amount of clover in the field is decisive for the N2 fixation and yield, the protein content and quality of the forage produced. In Nordland County (66.27°N), there is a farm with some red clover plants in more than 15 years old grassland. In the presented study we examined grassland botanical content and attempted to recognise age of red clover plants. Our hypotheses was 1) that extensive grassland management promotes self-seeding of red clover 2) self-seeding maintaining a desired content of red clover over time. In addition, we tested two harvesting regimes of the first cut for seed maturation and seed quality at two locations in Norway. Red clover plants in old swards showed very high age and a branched root system. Only very few seedlings were found in old sward suggesting that self-seeding was insignificant. Experiments with leaving the grassland after the first cut for seed production of clover failed due to poor seed maturation. Surface seeding of red clover in pure grass plots gave good results, especially with early spring seeding.

Sammendrag

A future wetter climate in Northern Europe may increase soil compaction from traffic of heavy machinery. This study investigated the impact of tractor traffic on grassland yield, soil physical properties and penetration resistance in three experimental field trials in Norway; on medium sand at Tjøtta, Nordland, on silty medium sand at Fureneset, Sogn og Fjordane and on silt at Løken, Oppland. The experiments were conducted in a split-plot design with three levels of two wheel-by-wheel passes with tractor traffic after each cut: no traffic, light tractor or heavy tractor on large plots, and three different seed mixtures on small plots. The yield reduction by tractor traffic was 26% at Løken, 4% at Fureneset and 1% at Tjøtta. There was a positive correlation between soil moisture content and yield reduction by traffic. Tractor traffic reduced pore volume and air capacity and increased bulk density, compaction degree and penetration resistance with the largest effect at Løken and the smallest at Tjøtta. There were no statistically significant differences in yield or soil physical properties between light and heavy tractor. The study shows that soil texture and soil moisture content are major factors explaining traffic effects on soil physical properties and grassland yield.

Sammendrag

In order to detect the efficiency of the nitrogen (N2) fixation in clover-grass leys in northern climate conditions, we studied how soil compaction affects growth and N2 -fixation of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under contrasting growth conditions. A pot experiment was carried out under controlled climatic conditions in the phytotron at Holt (Tromsø). Sandy soil was compacted to two levels, 60% and 85% of the standard degree of compactness (SDC). Four seedlings of white clover plants or timothy (Phleum pratense L.) were carefully planted in each pot. Timothy was used as reference plant. The plants were placed at 15 ºC for twelve weeks and subjected to 18 or 24 h daylight. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to assess N2 -fixation. Results suggest that 24 h daylight increased white clover biomass production as compared to 18 h daylight and favoured leaf and stolon production significantly more at 85% of SDC than at 60% of SDC. However, for white clover plants grown at 18 h day length higher compactness reduced the root development. On average, white clover derived 44-58% of its total N from N2 -fixation grown at 60% of SDC and 46-47% at 85% of SDC, regardless of light conditions. The N2 -fixation was somewhat higher at 24 h day length only under the low soil compaction level.

Sammendrag

Luserne (Medicago sativa L.) er ein fôrvekst med stort avlingspotensial, og tilpassa sortar greier seg godt i låglandet i Sør-Norge. Luserne krev god jordstruktur og høg pH i jorda for å trivast, og frøet må smittast med rett type bakteriekultur før såing. Nitrogenfikseringa kan bli høg der arten trivst. Fôrverdien er høgast på ungt stadium, og energiverdien går raskt ned med aukande stengelutvikling. Proteinverdien er generelt høg. Norsk foredlingsmateriale er meir hardført enn utanlandsk plantemateriale, og nye foredlingslinjer (LøLu9822, LøLu9823) har gjort det betre i forsøk enn sorten "Live". Linja LøLu9821 ser ut til å vera mest hardfør. I forskingsrådprosjektet "Engbelgvekstar - dyrking - klima" blir ulike lusernelinjer prøvt i utkanten av mulig dyrkingsområde, og dyrkingsteknikk til luserne blir nærmare undersøkt på Bioforsk-stasjonane Apelsvoll, Løken og Tjøtta.

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Sammendrag

For å undersøke langtidsvirkning av ensidig grovfôrproduksjon ved langvarig eng i ulikt omløp, ble det anlagt feltforsøk på tre steder; Særheim (1968), Fureneset (1974) og Svanhovd (1969). Målet var å sammenligne ulike driftssystemer (beiting/slått og langvarig eng/eng i omløp) med hensyn til avling, kvalitet, botanisk sammensetning og jordtilstand. Forsøkene har vært gjennomført helt fram til i dag. Et utvalg har vurdert hvordan det foreliggende datamateriale kan publiseres, og om forsøksserien bør videreføres. Utvalget har estimert ressursbehovet for avsluttende publisering og for nødvendige tilleggsundersøkelser.

Sammendrag

Sturite et al. (2007) investigated growth and death of the major parts of white clover (Trifolium repens L. cv. "Snowy") plants in pure stand and in mixture with meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L. cv. "Fure") in a combined plot and root window experiment in Norway (60°42"N, 10º51"E). Leaves, stolons and roots were tagged and their lifespan was monitored in harvested and non-harvested stands during two experimental years. The longevity of leaves and petioles ranged from 21 to 86 d (mean = 59 d). About 60% of the leaves produced during the growing season turned over before the autumn. Of the remaining leaves, 70-80 % were dead or had disappeared by the subsequent spring. The lifespan of sections of the main stolons ranged from 111 to over 677 d (mean = 411 d). In particular, stolon sections close to the parent fragment of undisturbed plants were long lived, while sections towards the terminal bud overwintered more poorly and had a much shorter lifespan. The longevity of roots was from 27 to 621 d (mean = 290 d) and was higher for roots appearing in spring and autumn than in summer. Harvesting significantly reduced the longevity of stolons and caused an increased fragmentation of the white clover plant but did not decrease leaf/petiole or root lifespan.

Sammendrag

Growth, death and N dynamics of leaves, stolons and roots of harvested and unharvested white clover (cv.""Snowy"") were studied in a pot (Sturite et al., 2006) and a combined plot and root window experiment in southeast Norway (Sturite et al., 2007). Leaves of undisturbed plants contained 1.5 g N pot-1 or 6 g N m-2 in late autumn (roughly assuming 4 plants m-2). About 60% of the leaves turned over within the growing season. Thus, in an established, undisturbed white clover stand, leaf turnover would contribute 9 g N m-2 during the growing season. For stolon and root segments tagged during the first growing season, 100% and 91%, respectively, were still present in late autumn. By the end of the second growing season, the corresponding values were 77% and 46%. Thus, dead stolons and roots contributed substantially more to N deposition in the soil in the second than in the first growing season. If taking the turnover of all plant organs into account, the gross N input to the soil-plant system during the two growing seasons would amount to 63 g N m-2. This corresponded to a 2.5-fold increase over the total N in the shoots harvested during the same period.

Sammendrag

In Norway, the goal of 15% organic food production within 2015 is too ambitious if the current growth rate of organic farmland is continued. Hence, a study of bottlenecks within organic farming systems in Northern Norway, and farmer"s preconditions to convert was conducted in spring 2007. A questionnaire was sent to certified and former certified organic farmers, and a control group of conventional farmers. For organic farmers the most important bottlenecks were public regulations and organic price premiums. Conventional farmers feared yield decrease, restricted forage availability and extra work. In 2008, interviews with selected farmers and officials in local municipalities were conducted to explore the reasons for large differences between certified organic farmland.

Sammendrag

Nitrogen (N) er kvantitativt det viktigste næringsstoff for vekst og reproduksjon. Nitrogenfikserende planter er avgjørende for å forsyne andre planter med N og for at fôr skal bli en bedre proteinkilde. Hvilke faktorer påvirker potensialet for biologisk nitrogenfiksering og hvordan overlever kløveren den lange nordnorske vinteren?

Sammendrag

Nitrogen (N) er kvantitativt det viktigste næringsstoff for vekst og reproduksjon. Nitrogenfikserende planter er avgjørende for å forsyne andre planter med N og for at fôr skal bli en bedre proteinkilde. Hvilke faktorer påvirker potensialet for biologisk nitrogenfiksering og hvordan overlever kløveren den lange nordnorske vinteren?

Sammendrag

Omlagt areal i 2008 (inkludert areal i karens) varierte fra 0 % til 24 % mellom de ulike kommunene i Nordland fylke. Derfor ble det undersøkt hvilke faktorer som ligger bak og som kan bidra til å forklare disse ulikhetene. Det ble valgt ut kommuner med lite (< 2.5 %) eller mye (> 10 %) omlagt økologisk areal og gjennomført telefonintervju med to til tre informanter fra hver kommune. De viktigste sammenhenger synes å være mellom omlagt areal og kommunal innsats; og øko-miljø i kommunen (smitteeffekt/naboeffekt); og holdning/interesse for økologisk landbruk blant bønder, lokale organisasjoner og myndigheter; og tilgang til ledig areal i kommunen.

Sammendrag

In order to improve the basis for utilizing white clover (Trifolium repens L) in northern agriculture, we studied the effects of defoliation intensity on spring growth in a sub-arctic climate in relation to carbohydrate and nodule status. White clover plants (cv Snowy) were studied in a pot experiment in the field on the coast of northern Norway from spring 2001 until spring 2002. The experiment was repeated with some modifications from spring 2002 until spring 2003. During the growing season from summer to autumn, the plants were totally stripped of leaves down to the stolon, cut at four or seven cm height or left undisturbed. The plants were sampled destructively in autumn, early spring and late spring and sorted into leaves, stolons and roots. The plant material was weighed and analysed for carbohydrate reserves and nodule number. Defoliation during the growing season resulted in reduced concentration of reserve carbohydrates in autumn and reduced winter survival of the stolons. The most severe defoliation treatment reduced the herbage growth in spring. In contrast, the two milder defoliation treatments had no effect on herbage growth during spring or on total plant dry matter and nodule status in late spring. In conclusion, moderate defoliation during the growing season had no effect on herbage growth the following spring nor on carbohydrate, nodule or dry matter status of the plant in late spring. Moderate defoliation increased spring growth and thereby also the nitrogen demand of the plants. This probably enhanced nodule formation and development of inactive to active nodules.

Sammendrag

Bruk av gras som fangvekster er en effektiv metode for å redusere tap av nitrogen fra kornareal enten det pløyes høst eller vår. Når graset får stå upløyd over vinteren dør en del før våren kommer, men nitrogen fra dette ser ikke ut til å nå vannveiene. Resultatene spriker litt mer når det gjelder hvorvidt bruk av fangvekster bidrar til redusert avrenning av fosfor.

Sammendrag

I denne artikkelen ser vi tilbake på noen nylig avsluttede prosjekt verdrørende bruk av fangvekster i korndyrkinga. Vi trekker konklusjoner basert på resultatene og vi viser til spørsmål som bør utredes nærmere. I tillegg presenterer vi nye data fra et forsøk i et lysimeteranlegg på Ås. Hensikten med dette forsøket var å evaluere i hvilken grad tidspunkt for nedpløying av fangvekster påvirker evnen til å holde nitrogen på jordet fra en vekstsesong til den neste.

Sammendrag

In order to improve the basis for utilising nitrogen (N) fixed by white clover (Trifolium repens L.) in northern agriculture, we studied how defoliation stress affected the N contents of major plant organs in late autumn, N losses during the winter and N accumulation in the following spring. Plants were established from stolon cuttings and transplanted to pots that were dug into the field at Apelsvoll Research Centre (60 degrees 42'N, 10 degrees 51' E) and at Holt Research Centre (69 degrees 40' N, 18 degrees 56' E) in spring 2001 and 2002. During the first growing season, the plants were totally stripped of leaves down to the stolon basis, cut at 4 cm height or left undisturbed. The plants were sampled destructively in late autumn, early spring the second year and after 6 weeks of new spring growth. The plant material was sorted into leaves, stolons and roots. Defoliation regime did not influence the total amount of leaf N harvested during and at the end of the first growing season. However, for intensively defoliated plants, the repeated leaf removal and subsequent regrowth occurred at the expense of stolon and root development and resulted in a 61-85% reduction in the total plant N present in late autumn and a 21-59% reduction in total accumulation of plant N (plant N present in autumn + previously harvested leaf N). During the winter, the net N loss from leaf tissue (N not recovered in living nor dead leaves in the spring) ranged from 57% to 74% of the N present in living leaves in the autumn, while N stored in stolons and roots was much better conserved. However, the winter loss of stolon N from severely defoliated plants (19%) was significantly larger than from leniently defoliated (12%) and non-defoliated plants (6%). Moreover, the fraction of stolon N determined as dead in the spring was 63% for severely defoliated as compared to 14% for non-defoliated plants. Accumulation in absolute terms of new leaf N during the spring was highly correlated to total plant N in early spring (R-2 = 0.86), but the growth rates relative to plant N present in early spring were not and, consequently, were similar for all treatments. The amount of inorganic N in the soil after snowmelt and the N uptake in plant root simulator probes (PRS (TM)) during the spring were small, suggesting that microbial immobilisation, leaching and gas emissions may have been important pathways for N lost from plant tissue.

Sammendrag

Intensive harvesting, as compared to no harvesting, favoured N transfer to the leaves on the expense of stolon and root biomass production. Independently of treatment, about 75 % of the N present in leaves in the autumn was lost, while N stored in stolons and, particularly, in roots was conserved much better. However, the stolons of intensively harvested plants seemed to be less winter hardy and lost more N (55%) than did undisturbed (21%) and less intensively harvested plants (13%). Relative plant growth and N uptake rate in spring were almost equal for all treatments. The amount of inorganic N in soil after snowmelt and mineralization of white clover-derived N during the spring was small, suggesting that leaching and gas emissions may have been important N pathways.

Sammendrag

To better understand N cycling in white clover (Trifolium repens L) stands under northern climate conditions, we studied how harvesting regime affects plant longevity and N content in late autumn, ability to conserve N during winter and the fate of the lost N. Several field experiments were performed throughout four consecutive years using white clover plants (cv "Snowy") that were established from stolon cuttings or seeds. During the growing season, plants were treated and sampled destructively in late autumn, early spring the second year and after six weeks of new spring growth. Dry weight and N concentration were measured on all fractions. On additional experiments the longevity of main plant organs were monitored during two years and seepage water percolating throughout the above ground plant biomass was collected during four years. For harvested plants the repeated leaf removal and subsequent regrowth came at the expense of stolon- and root development and resulted in a reduced total plant N content in late autumn. During winter, root N was quite stable, as certain root dormancy occured, while approximately 80 % of the N present in leaves in autumn was lost - independent of treatment. Short leaf lifespan (less than 100 days) indicated that leaves are not genetically programmed to survive winter. Losses of N from stolons were lower, however, harvesting regime affected both the longevity and N losses. The amount of inorganic N in soil after snowmelt and mineralization of white clover-derived N through spring was low indicating that leaching and gas emissions might be important N pathways. The 26 % of lost N was found in seepage water.

Sammendrag

I dette arbeidet, bruk av kvitkløver under nordlige klimaforhold har det blitt sett fra produksjons- og miljø perspektiver. De viktigste mål var å vurdere 1) på hvilket tidspunkt blader, stoloner og røtter dukker opp og omsettes; 2) i hvilken grad disse planteorganer taper N gjennom vinteren og hvor mye N gjenfinnes i sigevannet; 3) hvordan høsting påvirker både levetid av plantedeler og N dynamikken.

Sammendrag

Det er utviklet en ny analysemetode. Den er basert på bruk av 2, 3, 5 " trifenyltetrazolium klorid som farger metabolsk aktive celler, og bruk av bildebehandlings-programmet "WinRHIZO" for automatisk kvantifisering av aktive og inaktive deler av røttene.

Sammendrag

In a recently started research project with field experiments conducted under different climatic conditions, winter survival, spring growth and nitrogen dynamics of white clover are studied in relation to its physiological condition. Belowground biomass and the functioning and longevity of roots and nodules are especially focused. The physiological condition of the plants is manipulated by the use of different defoliation regimes during the growing season. The field experiments are situated at two locations; at Apelsvoll at 61°N, and in Tromsø, 69°N. The results show that the defoliation regimes affected the strategy of DM allocation in the white clover plants. The more frequent defoliation regime lead to increased allocation of photosynthates to leaves at the expense of roots and stolons. The defoliation regimes thus created a gradient in physiological condition of the plants