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This study quantifies golf course pesticide risk in five regions across the US (Florida, East Texas, Northwest, Midwest, and Northeast) and three countries in Europe (UK, Denmark, and Norway) with the objective of determining how pesticide risk on golf courses varied as a function of climate, regulatory environment, and facility-level economic factors. The hazard quotient model was used to estimate acute pesticide risk to mammals specifically. Data from 68 golf courses are included in the study, with a minimum of at least five golf courses in each region. Though the dataset is small, it is representative of the population at confidence level of 75 % with a 15 % margin of error. Pesticide risk appeared to be similar across US regions with varied climates, and significantly lower in the UK, and lowest in Norway and Denmark. In the Southern US (East Texas and Florida), greens contribute most to total pesticide risk while in nearly all other regions fairways make the greatest contribution to overall pesticide risk. The relationship between facility-level economic factors such as maintenance budget was limited in most regions of the study, except in the Northern US (Midwest, Northwest, and Northeast) where maintenance and pesticide budget correlated to pesticide risk and use intensity. However, there was a strong relationship between regulatory environment and pesticide risk across all regions. Pesticide risk was significantly lower in Norway, Denmark, and the UK, where twenty or fewer active ingredients were available to golf course superintendents, than it was in US where depending on the state between 200 and 250 pesticide active ingredients were registered for use on golf courses.

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Høsten/vinteren 2022-2023 ble det utført et forsøk på NIBIO Landvik med ulike metoder for utvasking av frø fra bær av svartsurbær (Aronia melanocarpa), samt hvordan disse behandlingene påvirker frøets spireevne. Metodene var lett vasking (fjerning av plantesaft og mindre plantedeler) og grundig vasking (fjerning av plantesaft og det meste av fruktkjøttet), enten for hånd eller ved hjelp av en industrielt tilpassa vaskemaskin. Tidsstudier, utregnet som arbeidstid (minutter) pr kg med friske bær, viste at den totale tida til utvasking og rensing av frø av svartsurbær ble omtrent halvert når det ble vasket med maskin sammenlignet med vasking for hånd, uansett hvor nøye/grundig vaskingen ble utført. Mest effektivt var det å maskinvaske ut frøet i en grundig prosess hvor plantesaft og mesteparten av fruktkjøttet ble fjernet før frørensing (6,5 minutter pr kg bær). Under vaskeprosessen, både ved bruk av vaskemaskin og for hånd, ble det vasket ut mer frø (flotert bort sammen med fruktkjøttet) når det ble vasket grundig enn ved mer lettvint vasking. Ved maskinvasking utgjorde denne forskjellen 1 g frø pr kg bær (8%). Frøet som var igjen etter den grundige vaskingen var imidlertid tyngre og spirte bedre enn frøet som var lettere vasket. I middel for to ulike stratifiseringstider (90 og 120 dager), var spireevnen hos frø som var lett og grundig maskinvaska henholdsvis 65 og 77%. Selv om spirehastigheten (opptelling etter 7 dager) var raskere hos frø som var stratifisert i 120 dager, var det ikke nødvendig med mer enn 90 dagers stratifisering for å oppnå maksimal spireevne. I middel for 4 ulike vaskemetoder var spireevnen etter opptelling etter 35 dager 66-67 % uansett om stratifiseringslengden var 90 eller 120 dager. Ut fra en helhetsvurdering anses en forholdsvis grundig maskinvasking, med fjerning av plantesaft og mye av fruktkjøttet, som den mest effektive metoden ved utvasking av frø av svartsurbær. Noe frø vil gå tapt i en slik grundige renseprosess, men det tapte frøet er lett og har dårlig spireevne.

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"Norske blomsterenger" har nettopp kommet på markedet og flotte omtaler strømmer inn allerede! Boken skal inspirere til økt interesse for natur og viltvoksende vegetasjon og gi praktiske råd om hvordan det biologiske mangfoldet kan styrkes. Den gir «refleksjoner og forståelsen av ulike sammenhenger i naturen og hvilke muligheter vi selv har til å gjøre en innsats for miljøet». Les hele omtalen nedenfor. Boken har blitt til gjennom et samarbeid mellom følgende forfattere og fagmiljøer: Ingvild Austad og Leif Hauge (Høgskulen på Vestlandet HVL Institutt for miljø og naturvitskap), Kristina Bjureke (Naturhistorisk museum, Oslo ved Universitetet i Oslo), Line Rosef (Landskapsarkitektur NMBU Institutt for landskapsarkitektur ved NMBU) og Ellen J. Svalheim og Trygve S. Aamlid (NIBIO Norsk institutt for bioøkonomi). Vi gratulerer dem alle! Boken er finansiert av Sparebankstiftelsen DNB.

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Boken har kommet ut på Fagbokforlaget og presenterer forbildeenger i ulike regioner. Den gir også råd om hvilke arter som bør velges hvor, hvordan man best etablere en blomstereng og hvordan den skal skjøttes.

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The objective of SCANGREEN 2019-22 was to find species, varieties and seed blends/mixtures of Agrostis, Festuca, Poa and Lolium that are suited for pesticide-free management of putting greens in the two major climatic zones of the Nordic countries and in the northern USA. The four test sites in the Nordic countries were Reykjavik GC, Iceland and NIBIO Apelsvoll in the the northern zone, and NIBIO Landvik, Norway and Smørum GC, Denmark in the southern zone. The two US test sites were located at Troll Turfgrass Research Facility in Massachusetts and at University of Minnesota. The trials included 30 candidate varieties representing eight different species and subspecies from 13 different seed companies/representatives, and three seed mixtures of red fescue and colonial and creeping bentgrass, a seed mixture of creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass and a seed blend of red fescue. Monthly evaluations of overall impression, tiller density, winter hardiness, disease and weed coverage etc., were done from three weeks after sowing in June-September 2019 until October 2022. The trial at Smørum GC was established in May 2021. The trials were established according to a split-plot design with three blocks (replicates), species on main plots and varieties on subplots. The experimental greens were mown three times per week – Monday, Wednesday, and Friday and deficit-irrigated to 80% of field capacity three to four times per week in periods without sufficient natural rainfall. Fertilizer (mean N–P–K ratio, 100–22–74) was given as completely balanced compound fertilizers every second week. Each experimental green was divided in different management levels: High and low fertilizer rate and high and low mowing. The two fertilizer rates were 10 and 17 g N m−2 yr−1 and the two mowing heights were 3 and 5 mm. Mixtures were managed at both regimes. There was no use of pesticides or plant growth regulators in any of the trials.

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Vi har også lyst til å løfte fram NIBIO Landvik sitt arbeid med naturfrø i anledning dagen. De har en unik kompetanse på avl og innhøsting av frø og har mange forskere og forskningsprosjekt som jobber med dette. Arbeidet deres med de stedsegne blomsterengfrø-blandingene strekker seg mange år tilbake, og nå lages blandinger fra hele 10 ulike regioner i Norge på ‘Norsk kompetansesenter for blomstereng og naturfrø’ på NIBIO.

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The perennial forage grass timothy (Phleum pratense L.) is the most important forage crop in Norway. Future changes in the climate will affect growing conditions and hence the yield output. We used data from the Norwegian Value for Cultivation and Use testing to find a statistical prediction model for total dry matter yield (DMY) based on agro-climatic variables. The statistical model selection found that the predictors with the highest predictive power were growing degree days (GDD) in July and the number of days with rain (>1mm) in June–July. These predictors together explained 43% of the variability in total DMY. Further, the prediction model was combined with a range of climate ensembles (RCP4.5) to project DMY of timothy for the decades 2050–2059 and 2090–2099 at 8 locations in Norway. Our projections forecast that DMY of today’s timothy varieties may decrease substantially in South-Eastern Norway, but increase in Northern Norway, by the middle of the century, due to increased temperatures and changing precipitation patterns.

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Blomstereng er et artsrikt habitat med stort mangfold av insekter og planter som er gjensidig avhengige av hverandre; insektene trenger mat (nektar og pollen), mens plantene trenger hjelp til å pollineres. Mange ønsker å bytte ut plen med blomsterenger som er lettere å vedlikeholde når de først er etablert, og som dessuten hjelper pollinerende insekter.

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Desiccation with diquat about one week before seed harvest has been common practise in Norwegian clover seed production. However, after withdrawal of diquat in 2020, clover seed growers no longer have desiccators available. In 2019 and 2020, six field trials in red clover and two field trials in white clover were carried out to evaluate alternative chemical products at different rates and at two different spraying dates, either early at 50% mature seed heads and / or late at 65% mature seed heads. Products included, either for one or two years, was Spotlight Plus (carfentrazonethyl), Beloukha (pelargonic acid), Glypper (glyphosate), Gozai (Pyraflufen-ethyl), Harmonix LeafActive (acetic acid), Harmonix FoliaPlus (pelargonic acid), Flurostar (fluroxypyr) and Saltex (sodium chloride) and liquid urea-based fertilizers. In addition, swathing was examined as an alternative in two red clover trials in 2020. While none of the tested chemicals were superior to diquat, the most promising alternatives were Harmonix FoliaPlus and Harmonix LeafActive in red clover or Harmonix FoliaPlus in white clover. Although usually less effective than these products, Beloukha also had an acceptable desiccation effect, especially when sprayed early and late. Swathing before harvest, using finger bar cutters, was an effective drying method under favourable weather conditions.

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Sustainable phosphorus use is essential in golf course management to prevent eutrophication and overconsumption. The study aimed to investigate if phosphorus fertilization can be reduced without negative effects on turf quality. We compared two P fertilization recommendations based on soil analyses, one based on the annual nitrogen rate, and a zero-P control. The recommendations were the “minimum level of sustainable nutrition” (MLSN), which aims to keep treatment soil levels above 18 mg P kg–1 dry soil (Mehlich-3); the “sufficiency level of available nutrition” (SLAN), in which the threshold for excluding P fertilization is >54 mg P kg–1 dry soil (Mehlich-3); and “Scandinavian precision fertilization” (SPF), which recommends applying P at 12% of the annual N rate. The treatments were compared via monthly assessments of turf quality and the coverage of sown species and annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) from 2017 to 2020 on five golf courses from Germany, Sweden, China, Norway, and the Netherlands. MLSN and SPF significantly reduced soil P at all sites compared with SLAN recommendations. Turf quality showed no significant differences. The results from the mixed creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.)–annual bluegrass green showed a 2 to 4% increase in annual bluegrass coverage with P fertilization over the zero-P treatments. The MLSN guideline is recommended for sustainable P fertilization on established greens with low P sorption capacity under diverse climatic and management conditions. The SPF may result in application of excess P to soils with high Mehlich-3 values, as soil analyses are not considered.

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Denne rapporten gir resultater fra andre år (2021) i prosjektet"ROBO-GOLF: Bedre gresskvalitet, redusert gjødselkostnad og mindre bruk av fossil energi ved bruk av robotklippere på fairway og semi-rough". Arbeidspakke (WP1) omfatter forsøk med sammenlikning av robotklipper og manuell klipper (sylinder-klipper på fairway, 15 mm klippehøyde; rotorklipper på semirough, 35 mm klippehøyde) til ulike grasarter. Resultatene viste forskjeller mellom robotklipping og manuell klipping, som for det meste ble sett på semi-rough når det gjelder sykdommer, ugress (hvitkløver) og jordpakking. En tendens til lavere sykdomsforekomst med robotklipping ble sett spesielt på semi-rough i alle arter på sensommeren/høsten, men også i Agrostis capillaris på fairway. Mer hvitkløver på de robotklippede ruter med Lolium perenne i semi-rough resulterte i et lavere helhetsinntrykk. I arbeidspakke 2 (WP2) ble nitrogen (N) gjødseleffekten av retur av klipp med robot- vs. manuell klipping studert på fairway etablert i en blanding bestående av Poa pratensis, Agrostis capillaris og Festuca rubra. Årlige N-rater på 0, 30, 60, 90 og 120 kg/ha/år, hver delt inn i 6 like tilførsler, ble brukt over sesongen. Innsamling av klipp én gang per måned viste at tilbakeføring av klipp både for manuell og robotklipping økte gressveksten sammenlignet med når klippet ble fjernet. Samtidig var N-konsentrasjonen i klippet høyere om våren og forsommeren, men ikke på sensommeren og høsten. Helhetsinntrykket av gresset viste samme høye vurdering for robot- og manuell klipp. I WP3 ble demonstrasjonsforsøk med robotklippere sammenlignet med sylinderklippere på fairway og rotorklippere på semi-rough videreført fra 2020 på fem golfbaner i Norden. Helhetsinntrykk, dekning av ugress og sykdommer og energibruk ble registrert månedlig fra mai til september. Helhetsinntrykk i robotklippede ruter var stort sett lik manuelt klippede ruter på fairway og semi-rough. På noen datoer resulterte robotklipping i signifikant høyere helhetsinntrykk enn manuell klipping.

Sammendrag

Since 2020, the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy (NIBIO) Turfgrass Research Group has been studying agronomic, environmental, and economic consequences of switching to light-weight robotic mowers on golf course fairways and semiroughs. Preliminary results from field trials in 2020 and 2021 at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center Landvik, Norway, and demonstration trials on one golf course in each of the five Nordic countries, showed that turfgrass quality with robotic mowing was similar to manual mowing. At Landvik, robotic mowing resulted in less disease in both fairway and semirough but more infestation of white clover than manual mowing in the semirough. A survey of players’ attitudes to robotic mowers conducted on the five golf courses showed that about 90% of the players were positive or neutral to the new technology. However, respondents asked for better adaptation of the local rules on the golf course and even the international rules of golf to robotic mowing.

Sammendrag

Foreliggende rapport gir et inntrykk fra befaringa 14.oktober og råd om videre framdrift i prosjektet. På grunn av den korte tidsfristen må rapporten anses som foreløpig. Hovedproblemet på fairwayene på Tromsø Golfbane vurderes å være hardpakka og dårlig drenert silt/finsand som hindrer plantenes etablering, rotutvikling og vekst. Her bør det for den enkelte fairway lages en konkret plan for grøfting, gjerne også med grubbing eller slissedrenering på tvers av grøftene på fairwayene der problemene er størst.

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Soil surfactants are applied to alleviate soil water repellency (SWR). The ability of surfactants to improve turfgrass quality under dry conditions is well documented, but less information exists about their role in situations with water surplus. Our objective was to study responses to monthly application of the surfactant Qualibra (20 L ha–1) under dry and wet conditions on a sand-based green covered with creeping bentgrass. Dry conditions implied irrigation to field capacity (FC) once a week (FC1) in 2014 (a year with warm and dry weather from May through July) and deficit irrigation to 60% of FC once a week (DEF1) in 2015 (May through July cool and wet). Wet conditions implied excessive irrigation twice a week (EX2) with 50% more water than needed to replenish FC. The surfactant decreased the average soil water content of the surface 7.5 cm of the root zone from 0.193 to 0.168 m3 m–3 in 2014 and from 0.191 to 0.171 m3 m–3 in 2015. In 2015, the reduction in SWC was stronger with EX2 than with DEF1 irrigation, and this was accompanied by less organic matter accumulation on plots receiving EX2 irrigation. The surfactant reduced the water drop penetration time (WDPT) regardless of irrigation treatments, but improved turfgrass quality only with DEF1 irrigation in 2015. A harder playing surface due to Qualibra was not observed in 2014 and only at one out of six observations with EX2 irrigation in 2015. We conclude that surfactants imply various benefits depending on water supply.

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Hvis du ikke er avhengig av å ha plen på hytta, så anlegg en blomstereng. Det er rådet fra Norsk institutt for bioøkonomi (NIBIO). De mener hyttefolket har et felles ansvar for å ivareta naturmangfoldet i hyttefelt.

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Vi opplever en kraftig økning i interessen for å etablere blomsterenger. Ikke bare er blomsterenga vakker å se på, den er også viktig for det biologiske artsmangfoldet og bidrar til å ivareta de pollinerende insektene. Insekter er avhengige av blomsterplanter for å finne nektar og pollen, og blomsterplanter er avhengige av insekter for å formere seg. Blomsterenga er også viktig for bevaring av populasjoner og for å skape et sammenhengende nettverk av levesteder for mange arter. Fra et praktisk perspektiv er blomsterenga også mindre arbeidskrevende enn en plen fordi den normalt bare skal slåes en gang i sesongen. Dette er en kort innføring i hvordan man kan etablere sin egen blomstereng i nord.

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Dollar spot, caused by at least five Clarireedia species (formerly Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F. T. Benn.), is one of the economically most important turfgrass diseases worldwide. The disease was detected for the first time in Scandinavia in 2013. There is no available information from Scandinavian variety trials on resistance to dollar spot in turfgrass species and cultivars (http://www.scanturf.org/). Our in vitro screening (in glass vials) of nine turfgrass species comprising a total of 20 cultivars showed that on average for ten Clarireedia isolates of different origin, the ranking for dollar spot resistance in turfgrass species commonly found on Scandinavian golf courses was as follows: perennial ryegrass = slender creeping red fescue > strong creeping red fescue > Kentucky bluegrass = velvet bentgrass > colonial bentgrass = Chewings fescue ≥ creeping bentgrass = annual bluegrass. Significant differences in aggressiveness among Clarireedia isolates of different origin were found in all turfgrass species except annual bluegrass (cv. Two Putt). The U.S. C. jacksonii isolate MB-01 and Canadian isolate SH44 were more aggressive than C. jacksonii isolates from Denmark and Sweden (14.10.DK, 14.15.SE, and 14.16.SE) in velvet bentgrass and creeping bentgrass. The Swedish isolate 14.112.SE was generally more aggressive than 14.12.NO despite the fact that they most likely belong to the same Clarireedia sp. The U.S. C. monteithiana isolate RB-19 had similar aggressiveness as the Scandinavian C. jacksonii isolates, but was less aggressive than two U.S. C. jacksonii isolates MB-01 and SH44. Thus, aggressiveness of Clarireedia isolates was more impacted by their geographic origin and less by species of the isolate and/or the host turfgrass species.

Sammendrag

Many greenkeepers and authorities are concerned about the environmental risks resulting from pesticide use on golf courses. We studied leaching and surface runoff of fungicides and metabolites during two winter seasons after fall application of boscalid, pyraclostrobin, prothioconazole, trifloxystrobin and fludioxonil in field lysimeters at NIBIO Landvik, Norway. The applications were made on creeping bentgrass greens (5% slope) that had been established from seed or sod (26 mm mat) on USGA‐spec. root zones amended with Sphagnum peat or garden compost, both with 0.3‐0.4% organic carbon in the root zone. The proportions of the winter precipitation recovered as surface and drainage water varied from 3 and 91% in 2016‐17 to 33 and 55% in 2017‐18 due to differences in soil freezing, rainfall intensity and snow and ice cover. Detections of fungicides and their metabolites in drainage water were mostly within the Environmental Risk Limits (ERLs) for aquatic organisms. In contrast, concentrations in surface runoff exceeded ERLs by up to 1000 times. Greens established from sod usually had higher fungicide losses in surface runoff but lower losses in drainage water than greens established from seed. Presumably because of higher microbial activity and a higher pH that made prothioconazole‐desthio more polar, fungicide and metabolite losses in drainage water were usually higher from greens containing compost that from greens containing peat. Leaching of fungicides and metabolites occurred even from frozen greens. The results are discussed in a practical context aiming for reduced environmental risks from spraying fungicides against turfgrass winter diseases.

Sammendrag

In 2018–2019, establishment problems were encountered, after reseeding creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) on a sand-based putting green after ice encasement at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center, Norway. Seeds germinated, but the seedlings attained a purple color and died in large patches. Replacement of the top 3 cm layer with new sand amended with Sphagnum peat or garden compost did not solve the problem. To explain this phenomenon, we (1) analyzed the original substrate for nematodes in patches with and without reestablishment failure; and (2) conducted a factorial pot trial with creeping bentgrass and Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. commutata) seeded on different substrates, some of them in layers, and with and without phosphorus (P) fertilization. The nematode counts showed six times more stubby-root nematodes and two times more spiral nematodes and needle nematodes in the patches with dead seedlings than in the patches with healthy seedings. In the pot trial, the fastest and slowest reestablishment was observed with new sand amended with garden compost and in the two treatments that included the original substrate, respectively. Replacement of the top 3 cm of the old substrate with new garden compost resulted in stagnation of bentgrass seedlings from four weeks after seeding, while fescue seedlings were unaffected. We conclude that the failure to reestablish creeping bentgrass was primarily due to nematodes, which are likely to be more critical for seedlings than for established turf. The green was later reestablished successfully with a 100 % red fescue seed blend.

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Seed mixtures with a nurse grass that germinates quickly at low soil temperatures can be an option for faster establishment of Agrostis stolonifera (AS) putting greens after winter damage. From 2015 to 2018 Poa trivialis (PT) ‘Dark Horse’ and Lolium perenne (LP) ‘Chardin’ were evaluated as nurse grasses in comparison with pure AS ‘Independence’ at two experimental sites in each of the two major climatic zones of the Nordic countries. Poa annua (PA) ‘Two‐Putt’ was also included as a nurse grass in the northern zone. As an overall trend, establishment was faster with AS+LP than with AS+PT and AS+PA, which in turn had faster establishment than pure AS. In the northern zone, AS+PT produced better turf quality than pure AS in the seeding year and year after and tended to be superior even on average for the entire trial period (mean value 6.0 vs. 5.8 for pure AS, 5.3 for AS+LP, and 4.6 for AS+PA; scale 1–9 where 9 is the highest quality). In the same zone, AS+PT also suffered less overall winter damage than the other combinations and was less infected with microdochium patch than pure AS. In the southern zone, PT and especially LP were far more persistent than in the northern zone and compromised turfgrass quality compared with pure AS. In conclusion, we recommend PT as a nurse grass for faster establishment of AS putting in the northern zone, but not in the southern zone where AS should rather be seeded in a pure stand.