Sammendrag

Norway has a political goal to minimize the loss of cultural heritage due to removal, destruction or decay. On behalf of the national Directorate for Cultural Heritage, we have developed methods to monitor Cultural Heritage Environments. The complementary set of methods includes (1) landscape mapping through interpretation of aerial photographs, including field control of the map data, (2) qualitative and quantitative initial and repeat landscape photography, (3) field recording of cultural heritage objects including preparatory analysis of public statistical data, and (4) recording of stakeholder attitudes, perceptions and opinions. We applied these methods for the first time to the historical clustered farm settlement of Havrå in Hordaland County, West Norway. The methods are documented in a handbook and can be applied as a toolbox, where different monitoring methods or frequency of repeat recording may be selected, dependent on local situations, e.g., on the landscape character of the area in focus.

Sammendrag

Når fotografering på bakkenivå skal brukes i landskapsovervåking, er det viktig at relevante data om fotosted og opptakssituasjon er godt dokumentert. Standardisering gjør det lettere å gjenta fotograferingen i framtiden og få mest mulig sammenlignbare bilder. Et fredet kulturmiljø på Bygdøy ble benyttet som studieområde for å dokumentere fordeler og ulemper ved ulike tilnærminger ved førstegangs fotograferinger i overvåkingssammenheng.

Sammendrag

When ground level photography is to be used in landscape monitoring, it is important to record when, where, how and possibly even why the photographs are taken. Standardisation enables better repeat photography in the future and maximises comparability of photos over time. We used a Cultural Environment protected by law on the peninsula of Bygdøy,Oslo municipality, as a study area to document advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to the first round of landscape photography for long-term monitoring.

Sammendrag

Intensivt jordbruk eller brakklegging av jordbruksareal blir ofte omtalt som de viktigste årsakene til nedgangen i kulturlandskapsarter av fugl i Europa. Dette er arter der mer enn halvparten av hekkebestanden finnes i jordbrukslandskapet. I denne studien viser vi en positiv sammenheng mellom både artsrikdom og tetthet av fuglearter knyttet til kulturlandskapet og mengde jordbruksareal i landskapet. Variasjon er derimot viktig. Vi fant nemlig også at det er uheldig med store sammenhengende jordbruksarealer. Variasjon i arealbruk og innslag av naturlig vegetasjon i landskapet er viktig for kulturlandskapsfugler og for andre arter, slik at landskapet ikke blir for ensartet. Dette gir høyest mulig artsmangfold av fugler.

Sammendrag

The decline in farmland birds observed throughout Europe during recent decades has attracted much attention. Agricultural intensification or land abandonment are commonly forwarded as key drivers. Several countries have established agri-environmental schemes (AES) to counter these negative trends among farmland birds. This paper reports a study of the relationship between land use and bird species in the agricultural landscape of Norway. The main objective was to investigate the effect of spatial heterogeneity and diversity of land use on total richness and abundance of farmland birds at a national level. Monitoring the distribution and abundance of birds is part of the Norwegian monitoring programme for agricultural landscapes. The monitoring programme is based on mapping of 1 × 1 km squares distributed across the entire agricultural landscape. Within these squares permanent observation points are established for bird monitoring. Detailed interpretation of aerial photographs provides the land classification. We tested the relationship between landscape metrics at different levels of land type detail and species richness and abundance of farmland and non-farmland birds. There was a positive relationship between species richness and abundance of farmland birds and agricultural area. For non-farmland birds the relationship was negative. Spatial heterogeneity of land use was a significant positive factor for both farmland and non-farmland species. High land type diversity was positive for farmland bird richness, but negative for abundance. Non-farmland bird richness was not affected by land type diversity, but abundance had a negative response. The results presented in this paper highlight the importance of a spatial heterogeneous landscape. However, we also found that land type diversity could negatively affect the abundance of both farmland and non-farmland birds. Our findings suggest a need for different management approaches depending on whether the aim is increased species richness or abundance. Achieving both aims with the same means might be difficult. We thus suggest a need for land use analyses before proper management strategies can be implemented.

Sammendrag

På oppdrag fra Riksantikvaren har NIBIO gjennom flere år arbeidet med å utvikle en metode for langtidsovervåking av fredete kulturmiljøer. Metoden dokumenteres i denne veilederen. Arbeidet inkluderte en utprøving av metoden gjennom et første omdrev på Havrå kulturmiljø. Metode og resultater fra arbeidet ble presentert på et møte hos Riksantikvaren i januar 2016.

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Sammendrag

Aim: Identify where bioeconomic development would best be located to maximise both local resources and the reusable waste from potentially collaborating sectors. We seek to answer the questions like Where are the best locations for bioeconomic clusters and how should this be assessed? What are the tradeoffs, how can they be mapped and described, and are there any general major obstacles? What are the conditions that would aid in developing a smart bioeconomy and what are the spatial implications of different developments?

Sammendrag

I 1998 ble Havrå det første område i Norge fredet som kulturmiljø etter kulturminnelovens § 20. Målet med fredningen var å ta vare på et vestnorsk klyngetun med tilhørende landbrukslandskap, som en historisk referanse om levekår og driftsform knyttet til det førindustrielle landbruket. Denne rapporten presenterer metoder og resultater med å etablere en første tilstandsbeskrivelse som kan brukes i fremtidig overvåking av Havrå kulturmiljø.

Sammendrag

Vi har sammenlignet størrelsen på jordstykker basert på to ulike kartdata, det vil si basert på kartlegging av arealet på to forskjellige måter: Jordstykkestørrelse basert på arealressurskartet AR5 og jordstykkestørrelse basert på kartlegging som i landskapsovervåkingen (3Q). Sammenligningen er gjort for to svært ulike jordbruksområder.

Sammendrag

Arealressurskartet AR5 viser at det er nær 8.8 millioner dekar fulldyrka areal i Norge. Her har vi sett på hvordan disse arealene er spredd utover i landet, og hvordan konsentrasjonen av det fulldyrka arealet varierer mellom fylker. Dette er gjort ved å se på jordbruksareal innen 5 x 5 km ruter. Kartet illustrerer at fulldyrka jordbruksareal er svært ulikt fordelt, med de største konsentrasjonene ofte nær befolkningssentra.

Sammendrag

Det finnes seks bevaringsverdige storferaser i Norge: Sidet trønderfe og nordlandsfe (STN), vestlandsk fjordfe, telemarkfe, østlandsk rødkolle, vestlandsk raudkolle og dølafe. Her viser vi hvor i Norge det finnes avlskyr av disse storferasene.

Sammendrag

Landscapes are changing faster and more widely than ever before. Sustainable landscape management requires a sound foundation of maps and data that shows what resources are located where and how landscapes are changing over time, and that provides a basis for landscape analyses. We describe a landscape database composed of a grid of 5 x 5 km squares and a grid of 1 x 1 km squares. Each grid square is linked to many data values describing various elements and attributes that are relevant in a landscape context. The grid squares provide a neutral framework for combining a wide variety of kinds of data. The grid squares can be aggregated into regions or types for various purposes, and data can easily be supplemented and updated. This provides a flexible system for landscape analysis that complements traditional landscape maps.

Sammendrag

Part of the Vega archipelago in north-western Norway is a cultural landscape listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Its buffer zone comprises most of the main island of Vega, where agriculture is an important land use. The authors describe interdisciplinary research carried out in the buffer zone. The research revealed the significant role of agriculture for the maintenance of the traditional open coastal landscape. The finding was further underlined by the fact that many visitors to the site never reach the outer archipelago, which is the core of the listed site. Based on interpretations of aerial photographs, land cover maps were produced for three cross-sections in time (1965, 1986, and 2009). A further reclassification of the land cover was performed to capture the change in openness due to change in land cover. Viewshed maps of each building found on the aerial photographs were overlain with the openness classes to capture the visual consequences of the buildings due to changes in land cover. A marked decrease in open land surrounding the buildings was found in the study area, which comprised Holand and Floa-Kjul in Vega Municipality, which in turn comprises the islands of the Vega archipelago. The regrowth of the land seemed to be happening regardless of building category

Sammendrag

Background & Aim: Land-use regimes and their changes, as well as landscape heterogeneity are key determinants of the distribution and composition of species in cultural landscapes. In European agricultural landscapes, habitat loss due to both abandonment and intensification of agriculture fields are major causes for the decline of species diversity. Landscapes that are diverse in habitats and species are important to maintain basic ecosystem functions and services as, for instance, pollination or habitat preservation. In Norway, semi-natural species-rich habitats, such as agricultural grasslands, often occur in mosaics with forests and crop fields. This research studies key information for design of conservation plans focused on these habitats, addressing how landscape structure and land-use history affect the distribution, richness and composition of species in species-rich grasslands across geographical regions. Material & Methods: We recorded vegetation (species occurrence and cover) in agricultural grasslands with varying intensity and type of use from 569 plots of 8 x 8 m size systematically distributed throughout Norway (from 64 to 78 °N latitude). To identify the most important driving factors of species diversity and composition we explored the combined effects of historic and current land-use and the spatial landscape configuration of nearby land cover types (e.g. minimum distance to or area of neighbouring wetland, forest, cultivated land) taking into account the effects of grazing, elevation, and moisture conditions. Non-metrical multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was applied to identify the most important drivers of species composition. We used Generalized Additive Mixed Models to test the relationship of these drivers with patterns in species richness. Main results & Interpretations: NMDS revealed species composition to be explained most by the distance to surface cultivated land and transportation corridors (r=0.905, p<0.001 and r=-0.982, p<0.001; 1. NMDS axis) as well as shape of the patch in which the vegetation plot is embedded (patch shape) and grazing intensity (r=0.988, p<0.001 and r=-0.952, p<0.001; 2. NMDS axis). Observed patterns in species richness were statistically significantly linked to the combined effects of elevation, grazing intensity, historical land-use, patch shape, distance to transportation corridors and forest, and area of nearest wetland. Our results demonstrate the importance of a variety of factors influencing the species composition and richness in Norwegian grasslands. We found that both the landscape element harbouring the observed plot and also the surrounding landscape structure and intensity of land-use are important determinants of species diversity. The fact that distance to more intensively managed agricultural land is one of the strongest explanatory facts signals how effects of agricultural management practices reaches outside the field itself and into adjacent landscape elements. This suggests that the entire landscape needs to be taken into consideration when management of a particular habitat patch is planned.

Sammendrag

Ved fredning av kulturmiljø legges det stor vekt på helheten og en meningsfylt sammenheng i området, og hvordan dette kan bevares for ettertiden. For å sikre at forvaltningen kan fange opp og vurdere tiltak ved eventuelle endringer er det nødvendig med overvåking. Rapporten presenterer en metode egnet til å overvåke fredete kulturmiljøer, og er et resultat av et oppdrag gitt av Riksantikvaren. [...]

Sammendrag

Vidstrakte jordbruksareal eller mange små jordstykker? Det er store forskjeller i landet vårt. Det kommer av både muligheter for effektivisering av jordbruket, men også naturens fysiske avgrensninger.

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Sammendrag

The Ritland structure is a newly discovered impact structure, which is located in southwestern Norway. The structure is the remnant of a simple crater 2.5 km in diameter and 350 m deep, which was excavated in Precambrian gneissic rocks. The crater was filled by sediments in Cambrian times and covered by thrust nappes of the Caledonian orogen in the Silurian–Devonian. Several succeeding events of uplift, erosion, and finally the Pleistocene glaciations, disclosed this well-preserved structure. The erosion has exposed brecciated rocks of the original crater floor overlain by a thin layer of melt-bearing rocks and postimpact crater-filling breccias, sandstones, and shales. Quartz grains with planar deformation features occur frequently within the melt-bearing unit, confirming the impact origin of the structure. The good exposures of infilling sediments have allowed a detailed reconstruction of the original crater morphology and its infilling history based on geological field mapping.

Sammendrag

Den omfattende nedleggingen av jordbruket i deler av Nord-Norge medfører at avstanden mellom gjenværende aktive bruk øker. Konsekvensen, særlig for landsdelens mange grisgrendte områder, er at stadig flere nedlagte bruk på kort sikt vil få problem med å leie ut sitt jordareal. Dette fordi avstanden til nærmeste aktive bruk som eventuelt kan drive det, er i ferd med å bli alt for lang.

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Divisjon for kart og statistikk

Bønder og byen: Økt verdiskaping og bærekraft gjennom optimalisert ressursbruk i byer og bynære områder (URBANFARMS)


Hvordan kan gårdbrukere i byer og bynære strøk øke verdiskapingen fra sin produksjon på en bærekraftig måte ved å utnytte nettopp nærheten til byen? Prosjektet skal avdekke 1) hvor arealressurser ikke brukes optimalt, 2) finne frem til forretningsmodeller som utnytter byens marked og kjøpekraft i nærheten, 3) skaffe kunnskap for å redusere hindringer og flaskehalser langs verdiskapingskjeden fra produsent til forbruker og 4) gi råd om hvordan integrere gårdsdriften bedre i byens kretsløp av næringsstoffer og organisk materiale gjennom gjenvinning av organisk avfall og produksjon av nye varer.

Aktiv Sist oppdatert: 26.04.2019
Slutt: mars 2023
Start: apr 2019
Project image

Divisjon for kart og statistikk

Farmers and the city: enhancing added value and sustainability through optimized use of urban and peri-urban farm resources (URBANFARMS)


The project aims at elaborating effective strategies for professional farmers in cities and peri-urban areas to make use of the vicinity of the city to increase added value from their production in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable way. The project shall identify land resources that are not in optimal use, and demonstrate business models that increase the use of local nutrients and of the nearby city's market and purchasing power.

Aktiv Sist oppdatert: 26.04.2019
Slutt: mars 2023
Start: apr 2019