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Rubus idaeus L. (red raspberry), is a perennial woody plant species of the Rosaceae family that is widely cultivated in the temperate regions of world and is thus an economically important soft fruit species. It is prized for its flavour and aroma, as well as a high content of healthful compounds such as vitamins and antioxidants. Breeding programs exist globally for red raspberry, but variety development is a long and challenging process. Genomic and molecular tools for red raspberry are valuable resources for breeding. Here, a chromosome-length genome sequence assembly and related gene predictions for the red raspberry cultivar ‘Anitra’ are presented, comprising PacBio long read sequencing scaffolded using Hi-C sequence data. The assembled genome sequence totalled 291.7 Mbp, with 247.5 Mbp (84.8%) incorporated into seven sequencing scaffolds with an average length of 35.4 Mbp. A total of 39,448 protein-coding genes were predicted, 75% of which were functionally annotated. The seven chromosome scaffolds were anchored to a previously published genetic linkage map with a high degree of synteny and comparisons to genomes of closely related species within the Rosoideae revealed chromosome-scale rearrangements that have occurred over relatively short evolutionary periods. A chromosome-level genomic sequence of R. idaeus will be a valuable resource for the knowledge of its genome structure and function in red raspberry and will be a useful and important resource for researchers and plant breeders.


Management of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Norway requires a forest growth and yield model suitable for describing stand dynamics of even-aged forests under contemporary climatic conditions with and without the effects of silvicultural thinning. A system of equations forming such a stand-level growth and yield model fitted to long-term experimental data is presented here. The growth and yield model consists of component equations for (i) dominant height, (ii) stem density (number of stems per hectare), (iii) total basal area, (iv) and total stem volume fitted simultaneously using seemingly unrelated regression. The component equations for stem density, basal area, and volume include a thinning modifier to forecast stand dynamics in thinned stands. It was shown that thinning significantly increased basal area and volume growth while reducing competition related mortality. No significant effect of thinning was found on dominant height. Model examination by means of various fit statistics indicated no obvious bias and improvement in prediction accuracy in comparison to existing models in general. An application of the developed stand-level model comparing different management scenarios exhibited plausible long-term behavior and we propose this is therefore suitable for national deployment.


The Copernicus high-resolution layer imperviousness density (HRL IMD) for 2018 is a 10 m resolution raster showing the degree of soil sealing across Europe. The imperviousness gradation (0–100%) per pixel is determined by semi-automated classification of remote sensing imagery and based on calibrated NDVI. The product was assessed using a within-pixel point sample of ground truth examined on very high-resolution orthophoto for the section of the product covering Norway. The results show a high overall accuracy, due to the large tracts of natural surfaces correctly portrayed as permeable (0% imperviousness). The total sealed area in Norway is underestimated by approximately 33% by HRL IMD. Point sampling within pixels was found to be suitable for verification of remote sensing products where the measurement is a binomial proportion (e.g., soil sealing or canopy coverage) when high-resolution aerial imagery is available as ground truth. The method is, however, vulnerable to inaccuracies due to geometrical inconsistency, sampling errors and mistaken interpretation of the ground truth. Systematic sampling inside each pixel is easy to work with and is known to produce more accurate estimates than a simple random sample when spatial autocorrelation is present, but this improvement goes unnoticed unless the status and location of each sample point inside the pixel is recorded and an appropriate method is applied to estimate the within-pixel sampling accuracy.