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1. Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. 2. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate assessment areas. Assessments followed the Generic Ecological Impact Assessment of Alien Species (GEIAA) protocol, which uses a fully quantitative set of criteria. 3. A total of 1519 species were risk-assessed, of which 1183 were species reproducing in mainland Norway. Among these, 9% were assessed to have a severe impact, 7% high impact, 7% potentially high impact, and 49% low impact, whereas 29% had no known impact. In Svalbard, 16 alien species were reproducing, one of which with a severe impact. 4. The impact assessments also covered 319 so-called door-knockers, i.e. species that are likely to establish in Norway within 50 years, and 12 regionally alien species. Of the door-knockers, 8% and 10% were assessed to have a severe and high impact, respectively. 5. The impact category of most species was driven by negative interactions with native species, transformation of threatened ecosystems, or genetic contamination. The proportion of alien species with high or severe impact varied significantly across the different pathways of introduction, taxonomic groups, time of introduction, and the environments colonised, but not across continents of origin. 6. Given the large number of alien species reproducing in Norway and the preponderance of species with low impact, it is neither realistic nor necessary to eradicate all of them. Our results can guide management authorities in two ways. First, the use of quantitative assessment criteria facilitates the prioritisation of management resources across species. Second, the background information collected for each species, such as introduction pathways, area of occupancy and ecosystems affected, helps designing appropriate management measures.

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Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon, 1855 is regarded as one of the 100 most invasive species in Europe. The native distribution range of this species is uncertain, but for many years, the Iberian Peninsula has been considered as the area of origin. However, recent studies indicate that A. vulgaris probably originated from France. We have investigated the genetic structure of 33 European populations (Poland, Norway, Germany, France, Denmark, Switzerland) of this slug, based on two molecular markers, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, mtDNA) and nuclear zinc finger (ZF, nDNA). Our investigation included published data from two previous studies, giving a total of 95 populations of A. vulgaris from 26 countries. This comprehensive dataset shows comparable haplotype diversity in Central, North and Western Europe, and significantly lower haplotype diversity in the East. All haplotypes observed in the East can be found in the other regions, and haplotype diversity is highest in the Central and Western region. Moreover, there is strong isolation by distance in Central and Western Europe, and only very little in the East. Furthermore, the number of unique haplotypes was highest in France. This pattern strongly suggests that A. vulgaris has originated from a region spanning from France to Western Germany; hence, the slug is probably alien/invasive in other parts of Europe, where it occurs. Our results indicate the necessity to cover as much of the distribution range of a species as possible before making conclusive assumptions about its origin and alien status.

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We present the results of an inventory and status assessment of alien species in Norway. The inventory covered all known multicellular neobiota, 2496 in total, 1039 of which were classified as naturalised. The latter constitute c. 3% of all species known to be stably reproducing in Norway. These figures are higher than expected from Norway’s latitude, which may be due a combination of climatic and historical factors, as well as sampling effort. Most of the naturalised neobiota were plants (71%),followed by animals (21%) and fungi (8%). The main habitat types colonised were open lowlands (79%), urban environments (52%) and woodlands (42%). The main areas of origin were Europe (67%), North America (15%) and Asia (13%). For most taxa, the rate of novel introductions seems to have been increasing during recent decades. Within Norway, the number of alien species recorded per county was negatively correlated with latitude and positively correlated with human population density. In the high-Arctic territories under Norwegian sovereignty, i.e. Svalbard and Jan Mayen, 104 alien species were recorded, of which 5 were naturalised.

Sammendrag

Pærevisnesjuke regnes som en av de mest alvorlige sjukdommene på pære. Pærevisnesjuke forårsakes av fytoplasma, små veggløse bakterier som lever i silvevet i planter Dette er en karanteneskadegjører i Norge som ble påvist her i landet for første gang i 2015. I 2016 og 2017 ble det gjenomført et OK-program for denne skadegjøreren. Det ble totalt analysert 853 prøver i OK-programmet i 2016. Det ble totalt påvist pærevisnesjuke i 72 av prøvene. Det ble påvist pærevisnesjuke i 10 av 44 undersøkte frukthager. I 2017 ble det undersøkt 260 prøver fra 14 lokaliteter i fire fylker. Det påvist pærevisnesjuke i 13 prøver fra to lokaliteter.I 2017 ble også innsamlede sugere testet for pærevisnesjuke. Av i alt 304 individer fra 6 lokaliteter var 21 individer fra to lokaliteter infisert.

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Angiostoma norvegicum n. sp. (Angiostomatidae) is described from the oesophagus, crop and the buccal mass of five species of slugs of the family Arionidae, Arion vulgaris (Moquin-Tandon), Arion ater (L.), Arion fasciatus (Nilsson), Arion fuscus (Müller) and Arion rufus/Arion ater hybrid), collected throughout Norway. Angiostoma norvegicum n. sp. was found parasitising arionids at seven of the 30 sample sites examined (23.3%), and 9.9% of all Arion spp. were infected with this nematode. The new species is characterised by its large size (4.0–8.6 mm long) and in having: lateral alae; 6 + 6 papillae at the cephalic end; a large circular mouth aperture; a spacious stoma; a pharyngeal basal bulb without valvular apparatus; an excretory pore near the base of bulb; a distal part of posterior ovary always outstretched; an anterior ovary distally nearly always outstretched; a vulva situated anterior to mid-body; long, nearly straight spicules and a small gubernaculum; three circumcloacal papillae and caudal genital papillae (GP) arranged in a pattern 1+2/3+3 with GP 5 and GP 8 opened on dorsal side of narrow bursa not reaching tail tip; short conical tails in both sexes with tips supplied by 4 short, unequal denticles. Morphologically, A. norvegicum n. sp. is similar to Angiostoma limacis Dujardin, 1845, which diagnostic characteristics are given based on examination of specimens from Norway and the UK. Conversely, the phylogenetic analyses based on D2D3 large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences performed in the present study did not support the morphological affinity of these two species. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that although Angiostoma spp. cluster together, A. norvegicum n. sp. forms a tight monophyletic clade with the milacid nematode parasites Angiostoma margaretae Ross, Malan & Ivanova, 2011 and Angiostoma milacis Ivanova & Wilson, 2009.

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I 2016 er det utført 6 forsøk med 8 kjemiske skadedyrmidler, 2 biologiske skadedyrmidler, 2 feromonpreparater og 5 vekstregulerende preparater. Effekten er undersøkt mot kålmøll i kål,bladlus i erter, ulike viklerarter i eple, vanlig pæresuger i pære, og for vekstregulering i sommerblomster. Preparatene hadde varierende virkning og det vurderes om forsøkene skal videreføres. Det er også et pågående forsøk mot gransnutebille i skogplanteskole fra 2015 som avsluttes og rapporteres i 2017.

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1. Fire is a widespread management practice used in the maintenance of European heathland. Frequent prescribed burns in small patches have been shown to benefit carabid communities; however, how fire favours specific life-history traits is poorly understood. 2. In this study, we identify characteristic species of the successional stages within heathlands, and find the traits which are characteristic of species in burnt areas versus areas dominated by older heath stands. 3. We identify 10 species as indicator species for heathland in the pioneer stage (0–5 years old); Amara lunicollis, Bembidion lampros, Calathus fuscipes, Carabus problematicus, Cicindela campestris, Nebria salina, Notiophilus aquaticus, Poecilus cupreus, P. lepidus and P. versicolor. Dyschirius globosus is identified as an indicator for the building stage (6–14 years old), and Carabus violaceus as an indicator for the mature stage (15–25 years old). 4. Moisture preference and diet are identified as traits that determine species response to prescribed fire. Collembolan specialists and species with no moisture preference are shown to be most abundant in burnt patches, whereas generalist predators and species with a high moisture preference are less tolerant of fire. 5. Knowledge of species sorting along a prescribed fire gradient can provide valuable information for heathland conservation.

Sammendrag

A survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs was conducted for the first time in Norway. A total of 611 terrestrial slugs were collected from 32 sample sites. Slugs were identified by means of morphological examination, dissection of genitalia and molecular analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Twelve slug species were identified, representing four different slug families. Internal nematodes were identified by means of morphological analysis and the sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Of the sample sites studied, 62.5% were found to be positive for nematode parasites, with 18.7% of all slugs discovered being infected. Five nematode species were identified in this study: Alloionema appendiculatum, Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma limacis, Angiostoma sp. and Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Of these species, only one nematode was previously undescribed (Angiostoma sp.). This is the first record of the presence of A. appendiculatum, A. flexilis and A. limacis in Norway.

WP_20190514_10_04_48_Pro

Divisjon for bioteknologi og plantehelse

Pollinering i fruktdyrking – effekter av vegetasjon og plantevernmidler på pollinerende insekter


Forskrift om plantevernmidler pålegger yrkesdyrkere å drive integrert plantevern. Dette innebærer blant annet beskyttelse og styrking av viktige nytteorganismer gjennom å vurdere behov for tiltak mot skadedyr, begrense bruk av plantevernmidler samt å tilrettelegge for leveområder. Pollinerende insekter er en svært viktig gruppe av disse, og det har de senere årene vært mye fokus på nedgang av en del arter og generelt tilstanden hos pollinerende insekter.

Aktiv Sist oppdatert: 11.05.2020
Slutt: des 2021
Start: jan 2019
WP_20190514_10_04_48_Pro

Divisjon for bioteknologi og plantehelse

Pollination in fruit orchards - effects of floral diversity and pesticides on pollinating insects


The EU directive 2009/128/EC makes integrated pest management mandatory for growers. This also includes conserving and facilitating important “beneficial organisms” by evaluating needs for actions against pests, limit the use of pesticides and facilitating habitats for these organisms. Pollinating insects is a very important group among these organisms, and in the latter years, more and more studies have shown a decline in pollinating insects.

Aktiv Sist oppdatert: 11.05.2020
Slutt: des 2021
Start: jan 2019