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We present the results of an inventory and status assessment of alien species in Norway. The inventory covered all known multicellular neobiota, 2496 in total, 1039 of which were classified as naturalised. The latter constitute c. 3% of all species known to be stably reproducing in Norway. These figures are higher than expected from Norway’s latitude, which may be due a combination of climatic and historical factors, as well as sampling effort. Most of the naturalised neobiota were plants (71%),followed by animals (21%) and fungi (8%). The main habitat types colonised were open lowlands (79%), urban environments (52%) and woodlands (42%). The main areas of origin were Europe (67%), North America (15%) and Asia (13%). For most taxa, the rate of novel introductions seems to have been increasing during recent decades. Within Norway, the number of alien species recorded per county was negatively correlated with latitude and positively correlated with human population density. In the high-Arctic territories under Norwegian sovereignty, i.e. Svalbard and Jan Mayen, 104 alien species were recorded, of which 5 were naturalised.


Occasionally, high mycotoxin levels are observed in Norwegian oat grain lots. The development of moderate resistant oat cultivars is therefore highly valued in order to increase the share of high quality grain into the food and feed industry. The Norwegian SafeOats project (2016-2020) aims to develop resistance screening methods to facilitate the phase-out of Fusarium-susceptible oat germplasm. Furthermore, SafeOats will give new insight into the biology of F. langsethiae and HT2+T2 accumulation in oats. The relative ranking of oat varieties according to F. graminearum/DON versus F. langsethiae/HT2+T2 content has been explored in naturally infested as well as in inoculated field trials. Routine testing of the resistance to F. graminearum in oat cultivars and breeding lines has been conducted in Norway since 2007. We are currently working on ways to scale up the inoculum production and fine tune the methodology of F. langsethiae inoculation of field trials to be routinely applied in breeding programs. Through greenhouse studies, we have analysed the content of Fusarium DNA and mycotoxins in grains of selected oat varieties inoculated at different development stages. Furthermore, we are studying the transcriptome during F. langsethiae and F. graminearum infestation of oats. The project also focus on the occurrence of F. langsethiae in oat seeds and possible influence of the fungus on seedling development in a selection of oat varieties. On average, the fungus was observed on 5% of the kernels in 168 seed lots tested during 2016-2018. No indication of transmission of F. langsethiae from germinating seed to seedlings was found in a study with germination of naturally infected seeds. So far, the studies have shown that the ranking of oat varieties according to HT2+T2 content in non-inoculated field trials resembles the ranking observed in inoculated field trials. The ranking of oat varieties according to DON content is similar in non-inoculated and F. graminearum inoculated field trials. However, the ranking of oat varieties according to DON content does not resemble the ranking for HT2+T2. The results from SafeOats will benefit consumers nationally and internationally by providing tools to increase the share of high quality grain into the food and feed industry. The project is financed by The Foundation for Research Levy on Agricultural Products/Agricultural Agreement Research Fund/Research Council of Norway with support from the industry partners Graminor, Lantmännen, Felleskjøpet Agri, Felleskjøpet Rogaland & Agder, Fiskå Mølle Moss, Norgesmøllene, Strand Unikorn/Norgesfôr and Kimen Seed Laboratory.