Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2021

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Abstract

Transport cost calculations are fundamental for most types of transport research. Applications can range from estimating the cost benefits of developing transport technologies (e.g. increased truck GVWs) to comparing profitability between alternative infrastructure investments (e.g. rail or sea terminals). Most stakeholders rely on a favourite spreadsheet, however these vary considerably with respect to functionality, resolution and transparency. During 2019 and 2020 the NB Nord Road and Transport group has worked towards a common Nordic-Baltic costing framework for road, rail and sea transport. The goal has been to propose a general model per transport method which is user-friendly, while retaining the necessary resolution and functionality to model actual costs for specific transport orders or contracts. The handbook provides: a) complete explanation of its formulas, b) calculation examples and c) a corresponding Excel spreadsheet...

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Abstract

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Abstract

Previous application of the stochastic frontier model and subsequent measurement of the performance of the crop sector can be criticized for the estimated production function relying on the assumption that the underlying technology is the same for different agricultural systems. This paper contributes to estimating regional efficiency and the technological gap in Norwegian grain farms using the stochastic metafrontier approach. For this study, we classified the country into regions with district level of development and, hence, production technologies. The dataset used is farm-level balanced panel data for 19 years (1996–2014) with 1463 observations from 196 family farms specialized in grain production. The study used the true random effect model and stochastic metafrontier analysis to estimate region-level technical efficiency (TE) and technology gap ratio (TGR) in the two main grain-producing regions of Norway. The result of the analysis shows that farmers differ in performance and technology use. Consequently, the paper gives some regionally and farming system-based policy insights to increase grain production in the country to achieve self-sufficiency and small-scale farming in all regions.

Abstract

Denne publikasjonen presenterer en ny metodikk for estimering av endringer i lageret av jordkarbon som følge av arealbruksendringer på mineraljord. Metodikken er utviklet for bruk i den nasjonale rapporteringen av arealbrukssektoren under FNs klimakonvensjon. Metodikken baserer seg på den enkleste tilnærming i følge IPCC sine retningslinjer, en såkaldt Tier 1. Tier 1 metodikken baseres i stor grad på standardverdier fra retningslinjene (IPCC default), men trenger en kopling mot nasjonal arealinformasjon. Denne koplingen beskrives i rapporten. Metodikken tar utgangspunkt i standardverdier for lageret av jordkarbon (SOCREF). Disse er basert på jordtype-grupperinger og klimasone som stammer fra en verdensdekkende jorddatabase. Endringer i jordkarbon etter arealbruksendring estimeres ved hjelp av SOCREF i kombinasjon med et sett faktorer (også standardverdier) som er arealbruksavhengige. Metodikken legger til grunn at endringer i jordkarbon skjer lineært over 20 år (ifølge 2006 IPCC Guidelines). Grunnleggende informasjon for å kunne kople standardverdier mot arealer på en konsistent måte er stort sett manglende for Norge på nasjonal skala. Rapporten gir derfor detaljert informasjon om de datakildene som har vært brukt til å kunne definere hvilke standariserte verdier som tilhører et bestemt areal i overgang....

Abstract

Agroforestry can be defined as sustainable and multifunctional land-use systems where trees are managed together with agricultural crops or livestock on the same piece of land. This definition fits with how the outfield has been managed in generations in Norway. The Norwegian outfields are a multifunctional land-use system. In the northern periphery area, agroforestry has a long history with woodland grazing, reindeer husbandry and gathering of different non-wood forest resources as herbs, mushrooms, and berries. Traditional agroforestry has gradually disappeared during the 20th century with the intensification of agriculture and forestry. Currently agroforestry systems are gaining new interest, not only from farmers but also from politicians, as this practice can possibly contribute to a more sustainable way of agricultural production. In the northern periphery area, the benefits of agroforestry practices can be manifold not only promoting traditional practices, but also novel systems with the use of new technology. In addition, agroforestry has environmental benefits as a method for conservation and enhancement of biodiversity, improved nutrient cycling, and water quality. Soil humus layer will also increase with several agroforestry systems leading to carbon sequestration. The Norwegian population of 5.3 mill populate an area of 323805 km2. The mainland of Norway is 323805 km2 while Svalbard and Jan Mayen represent 61022 and 377 km2, respectively. Number of persons per km2 are 14, however, as much as 82% of the Norwegian population inhabits cities/densely populated areas. These figures tell us that Norway have a large outfield with forests and mountains. The biggest owner of Norwegian outfield1 is the Norwegian state by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food. The state-owned enterprise Statskog SF is set to administer the property, that alone consist of about 23% of the total outfield-area of Norway. Almost 80% of the state-owned property is above the treeline and covers mountains and alpine grassland who are valuable grazing resources for reindeer herders and local farmers. Most of the forests are also used as grazing areas for local farmers and reindeer herders. The state-owned property in the southern Norway are managed as commons, where locals have rights in commons, typically this is right to graze, hunt and fish on the state ground. In the northern part of Norway, the grazing-rights are defined as user-rights and technically not rights in commons while the right to hunt, fish and gathering of berries and herbs etc. is an “all-mans-right”.