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NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.



It is critical to analyze the performance of enterprises to achieve sustainable agricultural development. Several studies have been conducted to assess farm performance. However, the studies have been criticized for failing to account for farm heterogeneity (which is frequently unobserved) in their evaluation of Norwegian agricultural performance. Technically, a farm is efficient if it can produce a certain amount of output with the fewest possible inputs and no input waste. In this paper, efficiency scores are calculated using a production function with both a random intercept and a random slope parameter, addressing the issue of unobserved heterogeneity in stochastic frontier analysis. Using Norwegian dairy and crop farms as a case study, we demonstrate the viability of improving the agriculture industry and reducing resource waste. The case study was established on data collected from 5884 dairy farms and 1880 crop farms from the years 2000 to 2019. According to the empirical findings of the case study, dairy and crop producers used inefficient technologies and squandered production resources. If all farmers follow a sustainable and efficient path to produce agricultural output, they could increase output by 15–18%. Farmers must follow sustainable paths, and politicians must encourage farm experience exchange so that less efficient dairy and crop-producing farms can learn from the most efficient farms to achieve sustainable development. Keywords: agriculture; performance; heterogeneity; panel data


Genetically modified maize DP41149 x MON 890349 x MON 874119 x DAS-40278-9 was developed by crossing to combine four single events: DP4114, MON 89034, MON 87411 and DAS-40278-9. DP4114 express the Cry1F protein to confer protection against certain lepidopteran pests, the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins to confer protection against certain coleopteran pests and PAT protein to confer tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium-containing herbicides. MON 89034 express the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins to confer protection against certain lepidopteran pests. MON 87411 express the Cry3Bb1 protein to confer protection against certain coleopteran larvae and the DvSnf7 dsRNA confer protection against western corn rootworm, and the CP4 EPSPS protein for tolerance to glyphosate containing herbicides. DAS-40278-9 express the AAD-1 protein to catalyse the degradation of the general class ofherbicides known as aryloxyphenoxypropionates (AOPP) and to confer tolerance to 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicides.