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Since the mid-2010s, Phytophthora infestans clones that have been dominant in Western Europe from the beginning of the 21st century, for example, EU_13_A2, EU_6_A1 and EU_1_A1, are being replaced by several other emerging clones, including EU_37_A2. The objective of this study was to determine whether the main drivers for the success of EU_37_A2 in Western Europe are associated with decreased fungicide sensitivity, increased virulence and/or aggressiveness. Axenic P. infestans cultures were sampled in the 2016 and 2017 growing seasons from potato crops in France and the United Kingdom. Amongst these, four genotypes were identified: EU_37_A2, EU_13_A2, EU_1_A1 and EU_6_A1. Although a wide range of fluazinam sensitivity was found amongst individual isolates, clonal lines EU_13_A2 and EU_37_A2 showed decreased sensitivity to fluazinam. EU_37_A2 overcame the R5 differential cultivar more often than isolates of EU_1_A1 or EU_6_A1. However, this does not explain the competitive advantage of EU_37_A2 over the virulent EU_13_A2. The fittest genotype, as measured by aggressiveness under controlled conditions, was EU_6_A1, followed by EU_37_A2, EU_13_A2 and then EU_1_A1. EU_37_A2 isolates also showed a shorter latent period than either EU_6_A1 or EU_13_A2, which could favour its long-term persistence. Overall, the data suggest that the emergence of EU_37_A2 in Western Europe was driven by its resistance to a then-major fungicide and shorter generation time. This conclusion is further supported by the fact that EU_37_A2 emergence was slowed by the progressive reduction in the use of fluazinam as a single active ingredient in the years following its initial detection.


Carrot is the main field vegetable in Norway and is stored at 0-1°C for up to 8 months. In long-stored carrots, postharvest diseases are problematic. Better knowledge of the causal agents of postharvest diseases can help producers apply appropriate control measures to reduce carrot loss and waste. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of the tip rot problem and the prevalence of other storage diseases of carrots in different regions in Norway. The study was conducted from 2019 to 2021 by collecting carrots from 16 commercial cold storages, representing four regions. From each storage, representative carrots were randomly sampled, washed, and sorted into different disease categories and healthy carrots. Representative samples from each category were further analyzed in the NIBIO laboratory to identify the causal agent(s) and confirm the disease. Causal agent(s) were identified by symptom and sign description, microscopy and when necessary, DNA sequencing. One or more pathogens were identified from each symptomatic carrot. The incidence of postharvest diseases significantly varied among regions. Taking all years and regions together, only 42% of the carrots were healthy. In other words, 58% of the carrots were with one or more diseases, representing a waste due to diseases alone. Tip rot alone contributed to about 30% of the postharvest loss. Our results indicate that the burden of postharvest diseases of carrots is increasing. This includes diseases like tip rot disease complex, Cylindrocarpon root rot and cavity spot. The results are useful to direct research investigation of the most problematic diseases. Most of the post-harvest diseases of carrots are the result of latent infections that occur in the field, and stress during handling, storage, and processing operations. Hence, postharvest disease control measures should consider the pre-and postharvest predisposing factors of carrots for storage rot.