Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2020

Sammendrag

I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra biologisk veiledningsprøving av soppmidler i bygg, hvete, setteløk, gulrot og solbær. Det er også presentert et forsøk med skadedyrmidler mot kålmøll i kinakål. I tillegg er det rapportert et forsøk mot bringebærbarkgallmygg og ferskenbladlus, et forsøk med kairomonfeller mot skadedyr i eple, og et forsøk med vekstregulering av juletrær.

Sammendrag

Soppen Diplodia sapinea er en nylig oppdaget skadegjører på furu i Norge og andre nordiske land. Soppen kan skade både frø, småplanter og større trær. Soppen er relativt varmekjær og har tidligere stort sett gjort skade på furu lenger sør i Europa, samt på andre kontinenter. Her i nord ser oppblomstringen av soppen ut til å sammenfalle med de pågående klimaendringene.

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Sammendrag

Seedling blight caused by Sirococcus conigenus was recently reported on Norway spruce (Picea abies) from Norwegian forest nurseries. The inoculum source was found to be infected seeds. In a Petri dish assay, the fungicide fludioxonil + difenoconazole was, among other fungicides, found to inhibit mycelial growth of S. conigenus. This fungicide is formulated as a seed treatment and registered for cereals in Norway, and was chosen for an experiment to control S. conigenus on Norway spruce seeds. Samples from two naturally infected seed lots were treated with half, normal and double dose of the recommended rate for cereals. Together with untreated control samples, treated seeds were tested in the laboratory for efficacy against S. conigenus on potato dextrose agar (PDA) in Petri dishes and for germination potential on filter paper. We also recorded seed emergence in soil of one of the seed lots in a growth chamber and in a forest nursery. On agar, the fungus was not detected after seed treatment with fludioxonil + difenoconazole at any of the three dosages, but it was present in the control. Germination on filter paper and emergence in soil was high in both treated and untreated control seeds with no signs of detrimental effects from any of the three fungicide doses.

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Sammendrag

This study aims to understand the environmental factors, focusing on rain and fungal infection, affecting the assembly of glutenin polymers during grain maturation. Spring wheat was grown in the field and grains were sampled from 50% grain moisture until maturity. Grain moisture content, protein content, size of glutenin polymers, the presence of proteases, and the amount of DNA from common wheat pathogenic fungi were analysed. Rain influenced the rate of grain desiccation that occurred parallel to the rate of glutenin polymer assembly. Rapid desiccation contributed to faster glutenin polymer assembly than gradual desiccation. Severe reduction in the glutenin polymer size coincided with increased grain moisture due to rain. Furthermore, increased fungal DNA followed by presence of gluten-degrading proteases was observed in the grain after humid conditions. The presence of gluten-degrading proteases was presumably involved in reducing the size of glutenin polymers in grain. Our study gave new insight into how environmental conditions could be associated with the assembly of glutenin polymers during grain maturation. The results suggest that rain and/or fungal proteases play an important role in reducing the molecular size of glutenin polymers.

Sammendrag

In a survey in the vally of Sørkedalen in Oslo in 2019, four Phytophthora species were detected from water/mud/leaves in the main waterways; P. gonapodyides, P. lacustris, P. plurivora and Phytophthora taxon raspberry. The three former species were also detected in the same valley in 2018 and they have all been found earlier in Norway. However, Phytophthora taxon raspberry was new to Norway. No Phytophthora species were isolated from diseased trees, but typical Phytophthora symptoms were observed on several locations of grey alder (Alnus incana). Phytophthora lacustris was also confirmed from water reservoirs in a fish hatchery.

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Sammendrag

Determining the impacts of invasive pathogens on tree mortality and growth is a difficult task, in particular in the case of species occurring naturally at low frequencies in mixed stands. In this study, we quantify such effects by comparing national forest inventory data collected before and after pathogen invasion. In Norway, Fraxinus excelsior is a minor species representing less than 1% of the trees in the forests and being attacked by the invasive pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus since 2006. By studying deviations between inventories, we estimated a 74% higher-than-expected average ash mortality and a 13% slower-than-expected growth of the surviving ash trees, indicating a lack of compensation by the remaining ash. We could confidently assign mortality and growth losses to ash dieback as no mortality or growth shifts were observed for co-occurring tree species in the same plots. The mortality comparisons also show regional patterns with higher mortality in areas with the longest disease history in Norway. Considering that ash is currently mostly growing in mixed forests and that no signs of compensation were observed by the surviving ash trees, a significant habitat loss and niche replacement could be anticipated in the mid-term.