Vitenskapelig – A comparison of two methods of data collection for modelling productivity of harvesters: manual time study and follow-up study using on-board-computer stem records
Julia Brewer, Bruce Talbot, Helmer Belbo, ...
Productivity of a mechanized P. patula cut-to-length harvesting operation was estimated and modelled using two methods of data collection: manual time study and follow-up study using StanForD stem files. The objective of the study was to compare the productivity models derived using these two methods to test for equivalence. Manual time studies were completed on four different machines and their operators. Two Ponsse Bear harvesters fitted with H8 heads, and two Ponsse Beaver harvesters, fitted with H6 heads, were included. All machines were equipped with Ponsse Opti2 information system. All four operators had approximately 1 year of experience working with their respective machines. The four machines worked in separate four-tree-wide harvesting corridors, and they each harvested 200 trees. Individual tree diameter at breast height (DBH), and height measurements were made manually. Subsequently, data on the trees in each study were extracted from the StanForD stem reports from each of the harvesters. Cycle times in the stem reports were determined based on the difference between consecutive harvest timestamps. The two methods were compared in terms of their abilities to estimate equivalent measures for tree DBH, volume, and productivity. In all four cases, significant differences were found between the DBH and volume measures derived using the two methods. Subsequently, the volume measures from the manual methods were used as the basis for productivity calculations. Results of the productivity comparisons found no significant differences between the models developed from the two methods. These results suggest that equivalent productivity models can be developed in terms of time using either method, however volume discrepancies indicate a need to reconcile bark and volume functions with the high variability experienced in the country.
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Vitenskapelig – A mathematical model for infrastructure investments in the forest sector of coastal Norway
Truls Flatberg, Vibeke Stærkebye Nørstebø, Knut Bjørkelo, ...
Forestry in coastal Norway has traditionally been a marginal activity with a low annual harvest rate. However, the region is now faced with large areas of spruce plantations that will reach harvest maturity within the next 25 years. Due to the poor infrastructure in the region, the current challenge is to harvest the maturing spruce plantations at an acceptable cost. Hence, there is considerable interest both from the forest sector and politicians to invest in infrastructure that can provide the basis for profitable forest sector development in coastal Norway. This paper presents a mathematical optimization model for timber transportation from stump to industry. The main decision variables are location of quays, upgrade of public road links, the length of new forest roads, and when the investments should happen. The main objective is to provide decision support for prioritization of infrastructure investments. The optimization model is combined with a dynamical forest resource model, providing details on available volumes and costs. A case study for coastal Norway is presented and solved to optimality. The instance includes 10 counties comprising more than 200 municipalities with forest resources, 53 possible new quays for timber export and 916 public road links that also can be upgraded. Compared with a no investment case, the optimal solution improved the objective by 23%. The study shows that consistent, informative and good analyses can be performed to evaluate trade-offs, prioritization, time and order of investment, and cost saving potentials of infrastructure investments in the forest industry. The solution seems reasonable based on present infrastructure and state of the forest.
Foredrag – A model for water flow in macroporous soils under freezing and thawing conditions
Mats Larsbo, Roger Holten, Ole Martin Eklo, ...
Freezing and thawing have large effects on water flow in soils since ice may block a large part of the pore space and thereby prevent infiltration and flow through the soil. This, in turn, may have consequences for contaminant transport. For example, transport of solutes contained at or close to the soil surface can be rapidly transported through frozen soils in large pores that were air filled at the time of freezing. Accounting for freezing and thawing could potentially improve model predictions used for risk assessment of contaminant leaching. A few numerical models of water flow through soil accounts for freezing by coupling Richards’ equation and the heat flow equation using of the generalized Clapeyron equation, which relates the capillary pressure to temperature during phase change. However, these models are not applicable to macroporous soils. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a dual-permeability approach for simulating water flow in soil under freezing and thawing conditions. To achieve this we extended the widely used MACRO-model for water flow and solute transport in macroporous soil. Richards’ equation and the heat flow equation were loosely coupled using the Clapeyron equation for the soil micropore domain. In accordance with the original MACRO model, capillary forces were neglected for the macropore domain and conductive heat flow in the macropores was not accounted for. Freezing and thawing of macropore water, hence, were solely governed by heat exchange between the pore domains. This exchange included a first-order heat conduction term depending on the temperature difference between domains and the diffusion pathlength (a proxy variable related to the distance between macropores) and convective heat flow. As far as we know, there are no analytical solutions available for water flow during freezing and thawing and laboratory data is limited for evaluation of water flow through macropores. In order to evaluate the new model approach we therefore first compared simulation results of water flows during freezing for the micropore domain to existing literature data. Our model was shown to give similar results as other available models. We then compared the first-order conductive heat exchange during freezing to a full numerical solution of heat conduction. Finally, simulations were run for water flow through frozen soil with initially air-filled macropores for different boundary conditions. Simulation results were sensitive to parameters governing the heat exchange between pore domains for both test cases.
Vitenskapelig – A new approach with DTM-independent metrics for forest growing stock prediction using UAV photogrammetric data
Francesca Giannetti, Gherardo Chirici, Terje Gobakken, ...
Vitenskapelig – A Phalarodon fraasi (Ichthyosauria: Mixosauridae) from the Middle Triassic of Svalbard
Inghild Økland, Lene Liebe Delsett, Aubrey Jane Roberts, ...
Vitenskapelig – A preliminary study on the genetic structure of Northern European pinus sylvestris L. by means of neutral nuclear microsatellite markers
Katrin Zimmer, Jørn Henrik Sønstebø
This paper aimed to investigate the genetic structure (GS) of Scots pine in the northern area of its distribution range by means of seven neutral nuclear microsatellite markers. In particular, the postglacial recolonization of these areas and possible different adaptation patterns in distinct refugia were studied. The GS and diversity were assessed with seven pairs of neutral nuclear microsatellite primers. A high genetic diversity was found in the Scots pine material tested, along with a shallow GS. This pattern is typical for recolonized areas and species with large population sizes, which are connected by pollen-mediated gene flow. A STRUCTURE analysis found two genetic groups to be the most likely, one south-eastern and one north-western group that meet in Fennoscandia. This indicates that Scots pine recolonization of Fennoscandia might have taken place from two different directions (south-west and north-east). Scots pine that recolonized the area originated in at least two different refugia during the last glacial maximum. The glacial survival in distinct refugia can have led to different adaptation patterns and growth optima in the different groups as reflected in the formation of latewood content, where lineage was a significant influencing factor.
Vitenskapelig – A probability model for root and butt rot in Picea abies derived from Norwegian national forest inventory data
Gro Hylen, Aksel Granhus
Root rot in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) causes substantial economic losses to the forestry sector. In this study, we developed a probability model for decay at breast height utilizing 18,141 increment cores sampled on temporary plots of the Norwegian National Forest Inventory. The final model showed a good fit to the data and retained significant relationships between decay and a suite of tree, stand and site variables, including diameter at breast height, stand age, altitude, growing season temperature sum (threshold 5°C), and vegetation type. By comparing model predictions with recorded decay at stump height in an independent data set, we estimated a proportionality function to adjust for the inherent underestimation of total rot that will be obtained by applying a probability model derived from increment cores sampled at breast height. We conclude that the developed model is appropriate for national and regional scenario analyses in Norway, and could also be useful as a tool for operational forestry planning. This would however require further testing on independent data, to assess how well the new model predicts decay at local scales.
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Vitenskapelig – A review of regulations and guidelines related to winter manure application
Jian Liu, Peter J. A. Kleinman, Helena Aronsson, ...
Winter manure application elevates nutrient losses and impairment of water quality as compared to manure applications in other seasons. In conjunction with reviewing global distribution of animal densities, we reviewed worldwide mandatory regulations and voluntary guidelines on efforts to reduce off-site nutrient losses associated with winter manure applications. Most of the developed countries implement regulations or guidelines to restrict winter manure application, which range from a regulative ban to guidelines based upon weather and field management conditions. In contrast, developing countries lack such official directives, despite an increasing animal production industry and concern over water quality. An analysis of five case studies reveals that directives are derived from a common rationale to reduce off-site manure nutrient losses, but they are also affected by local socioeconomic and biophysical considerations. Successful programs combine site-specific management strategies along with expansion of manure storage to offer farmers greater flexibility in winter manure management.