Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2020

Sammendrag

” Aksjon pærebrann” ble etter den første påvisning av pærebrann i Norge i 1986 opprettet som et samarbeidsprosjekt mellom Mattilsynet og NIBIO (Norsk Institutt for Bioøkonomi, Divisjon for Bioteknologi og Plantehelse). Formålet med prosjektet er å overvåke, kartlegge og bekjempe pærebrann. For å oppnå et best mulig resultat i dette arbeidet er landet blitt delt opp i tre soner..... Kommune- og fylkesinndeling er som i 2019. Fra 01.01 2020 trer det i kraft en en ny inndeling av kommuner og fylker med nye navn..

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Sammendrag

1. Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. 2. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate assessment areas. Assessments followed the Generic Ecological Impact Assessment of Alien Species (GEIAA) protocol, which uses a fully quantitative set of criteria. 3. A total of 1519 species were risk-assessed, of which 1183 were species reproducing in mainland Norway. Among these, 9% were assessed to have a severe impact, 7% high impact, 7% potentially high impact, and 49% low impact, whereas 29% had no known impact. In Svalbard, 16 alien species were reproducing, one of which with a severe impact. 4. The impact assessments also covered 319 so-called door-knockers, i.e. species that are likely to establish in Norway within 50 years, and 12 regionally alien species. Of the door-knockers, 8% and 10% were assessed to have a severe and high impact, respectively. 5. The impact category of most species was driven by negative interactions with native species, transformation of threatened ecosystems, or genetic contamination. The proportion of alien species with high or severe impact varied significantly across the different pathways of introduction, taxonomic groups, time of introduction, and the environments colonised, but not across continents of origin. 6. Given the large number of alien species reproducing in Norway and the preponderance of species with low impact, it is neither realistic nor necessary to eradicate all of them. Our results can guide management authorities in two ways. First, the use of quantitative assessment criteria facilitates the prioritisation of management resources across species. Second, the background information collected for each species, such as introduction pathways, area of occupancy and ecosystems affected, helps designing appropriate management measures.

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Sammendrag

Allelopathic potential of 10 teff varieties was assessed in laboratory experimentation (conducted in NIBIO, Norway), and determined with an agar-based bioassay using ryegrass and radish as model weeds. Field experiments were conducted in Tigray, Ethiopia during 2015 and 2016 to identify the most important agronomic traits of teff contributing to its weed competitive ability. A split plot design with three blocks was used considering hand weeding as the main plot and varieties as the subplot. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four blocks was used in the laboratory experiment. The highest potential allelopathic activity (PAA) and specific potential allelopathic activity (SPAA) were recorded from a local landrace with an average PAA value of 11.77% and SPAA value of 1.21%/mg respectively, when ryegrass was used as the model weed. ‘Boset’ had the highest average PAA value of 16.25% and an SPAA value of 1.53%/mg, when using radish as the model weed. The lowest PAA and SPAA values were recorded from ‘DZ-Cr-387′ when using ryegrass and radish as model weeds. Days to emergence, height, tiller no./plant, biomass yield, and PAA of the crop significantly contributed to the variance of the weed biomass, cover, and density. Hence, they were the most important agronomic traits enhancing the competitive ability of teff.

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Sammendrag

Wheat disease management in Europe is mainly based on the use of fungicides and the cultivation of resistant cultivars. Improving disease management implies the formal comparison of disease management methods in terms of both crop health and yield levels (attainable yield, actual yield), thus enabling an assessment of yield losses and yield gains. Such an assessment is not available for wheat in Europe. The objective of the analysis reported here is to provide an overview of wheat health and yield performance in field experiments in Europe. Data from field experiments in six European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, and Sweden) conducted between 2013 and 2017 were analysed to that aim. Relationships between multiple disease levels, yield, level of cultivar resistance, level of fungicide protection, and weather patterns were assessed. The analyses included 73 field experiments, corresponding to a total of 447 [fungicide protection level x cultivar] combinations. Analyses across the six countries led to ranking the importance of foliar wheat diseases as follows, in decreasing order: leaf blotch (septoria tritici blotch, septoria nodorum blotch, and tan spot), leaf rust, yellow rust, and powdery mildew. Fusarium head blight was observed in France and Italy, and stem rust was sporadically observed in Italy. Disease patterns, crop inputs (fertiliser, fungicides), and yields widely varied within and across countries. Disease levels were affected by the level of fungicide use, by cultivar resistance, as well as by weather patterns. While this analysis enables a better documentation of the status of wheat health in Europe, it also highlights the critical need for policies in Europe enabling a more judicious use of pesticides. First, common standards for field experiments are needed (experimental designs and protocols; disease assessment procedures and scales; references, including reference-susceptible cultivars); second, assessments in farmers’ fields – and not in research stations – are necessary; and third, there is a need to use available process-based crop models to estimate attainable yields, and so, yield losses.