Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2022

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Sammendrag

The variability in the emergence process of different populations was confirmed for two Echinochloa crus-galli populations, one from Italy (IT) and the second from Norway (NO). Seeds were sown in 12 localities over Europe and the Middle East, and the emergence patterns of IT and NO were compared with those of several local populations at each location. Seeds of each population were sown in pots buried to the ground level. The base temperature (Tb) for emergence was estimated by (1) analysing logistic models applied to the field emergence of IT and NO, and (2) a germination assay set in winter 2020 at constant temperatures (8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 26, 29°C) with newly collected seeds in 2019 from the same fields where IT and NO had previously been harvested in 2015. The logistic models developed for IT and NO in each location showed that the emergence pattern of IT was similar to that of the local populations in Poland, Italy, Spain, Turkey South and Iran, while NO fitted better to those in Sweden and Latvia. No germination was obtained for IT in a germination chamber, but the estimated Tb with the logistic model was 11.2°C. For NO, the estimated Tb was 8.8°C in the germination chamber and 8.1°C in the field. Results suggest that adaptation to local environmental conditions has led to inter-population differences in Tb and parameter estimates of thermal-time models to predict the emergence of E. crus-galli should only be used for populations with similar climatic and habitat conditions.

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Sammendrag

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. is one of the most important weeds. It is distributed worldwide and has adapted to diverse habitats and climatic conditions. This study aimed to compare the emergence patterns of two populations of E. crus-galli from different environments at 11 locations across Europe and the Middle East. Seeds of the two populations were collected from maize in Italy and from spring barley in Norway and were then buried in soil in autumn 2015. In the spring of 2016, the soil was disturbed around the usual seedbed preparation date in each location and emergence was recorded. The soil was again disturbed a year later and emergence was recorded for a second season. Total emergence, the times of onset, end and to 50% emergence and the period between 25% and 75% of emergence were analysed by two-way ANOVA and principal components analysis. The Italian population showed a higher emergence than the Norwegian population in Southern locations, while the ranking was reversed in Northern locations. In almost all locations, a tendency to emerge earlier was recorded for the Norwegian population, but the periods from 25% to 75% emergence were similar for both populations. Total emergence, and the times of onset and end of emergence seemed to be mainly under genotypic (plus maternal) control, suggesting there were different temperature thresholds for seedling emergence in each population. Conversely, the duration of emergence seemed to be mainly under environmental control. This research confirms the high variability between populations and suggests the need to continue identifying key characteristics for the development of efficient models for seedling emergence in specific climates and/or latitudes.

Sammendrag

The worldwide decline in bees and other pollinating insects is a threat to biodiversity and food security, and urgent action must be taken to stop and then reverse this decline. An established cause of the insect decline is the use of harmful pesticides in agriculture. This case study focuses on the use of pesticides in Norwegian apple production and considers who among farmers, consumers and public authorities is most responsible for protecting bees against harmful pesticides. The extent to which these three different groups consider themselves responsible and the degree to which they are trusted by each of the other groups are also studied. This empirical study involves both qualitative interviews with Norwegian apple farmers, consumers and public authorities and survey data from consumers and farmers. The results show that consumers consider public authorities and farmers equally responsible for protecting bees, while farmers are inclined to consider themselves more responsible. Farmers, consumers and public authorities do not consider consumers significantly responsible for protecting bees, and consumers have a high level of trust in both farmers and public authorities regarding this matter. This study also finds that a low level of consumer trust in farmers or public authorities increases consumers’ propensity to purchase organic food, suggesting that those who do not trust that enough action is adopted to protect the environment take on more individual responsibility. This paper adds to the existing literature concerning the allocation of responsibility for environmental outcomes, with empirical evidence focusing specifically on pesticides and bees.

Sammendrag

I samarbeid med Statens vegvesen har NIBIO sammenstilt kunnskap og aktuell forskningslitteratur om effektene kunstig belysning langs vegene har på insekter og deres leveområder. Ved hjelp av geografiske analyser har vi sett på hvilke naturtyper som blir berørt av eksisterende lysarmaturer langs vegnettet i Norge og hvordan vegetasjon og terreng påvirker synbarheten til lysmaster i landskapet. Om hvordan insekter påvirkes av kunstig belysning finner vi i forskningslitteraturen mest informasjon for akvatiske insekter, pollinerende insekter og nattaktive sommerfugler. Rapporten gir også anbefalinger for videre analyser og kartleggingsmetodikk, samt relevante problemstillinger for framtidig forskingsarbeid.