Systematisk overvåking av jordbrukslandskap

NIBIO overvåker tilstand og endring i jordbrukslandskapet på flere måter.

KONTAKTPERSON

Publikasjoner

Sammendrag

Over the past few decades, there has been increasing interest in recording landscape change. Monitoring programmes have been established to measure the scope, direction and rate of change, and assess the consequences of changes for multiple interests, such as biodiversity, cultural heritage and recreation. The results can provide feedback for multiple sectors and policy domains. Political interests may change over time, but long-term monitoring demands long-term funding. This requires that monitoring programmes remain relevant and cost-efficient. In this paper, we document experiences from 20 years of the Norwegian Monitoring Programme for Agricultural Landscapes—the ‘3Q Programme’. We explain how data availability and demands for information have changed over time, and how the monitoring programme has been adapted to remain relevant. We also discuss how methods of presentation influence the degree of knowledge transfer to stakeholders, in particular to policy makers.

Sammendrag

The decline in farmland birds observed throughout Europe during recent decades has attracted much attention. Agricultural intensification or land abandonment are commonly forwarded as key drivers. Several countries have established agri-environmental schemes (AES) to counter these negative trends among farmland birds. This paper reports a study of the relationship between land use and bird species in the agricultural landscape of Norway. The main objective was to investigate the effect of spatial heterogeneity and diversity of land use on total richness and abundance of farmland birds at a national level. Monitoring the distribution and abundance of birds is part of the Norwegian monitoring programme for agricultural landscapes. The monitoring programme is based on mapping of 1 × 1 km squares distributed across the entire agricultural landscape. Within these squares permanent observation points are established for bird monitoring. Detailed interpretation of aerial photographs provides the land classification. We tested the relationship between landscape metrics at different levels of land type detail and species richness and abundance of farmland and non-farmland birds. There was a positive relationship between species richness and abundance of farmland birds and agricultural area. For non-farmland birds the relationship was negative. Spatial heterogeneity of land use was a significant positive factor for both farmland and non-farmland species. High land type diversity was positive for farmland bird richness, but negative for abundance. Non-farmland bird richness was not affected by land type diversity, but abundance had a negative response. The results presented in this paper highlight the importance of a spatial heterogeneous landscape. However, we also found that land type diversity could negatively affect the abundance of both farmland and non-farmland birds. Our findings suggest a need for different management approaches depending on whether the aim is increased species richness or abundance. Achieving both aims with the same means might be difficult. We thus suggest a need for land use analyses before proper management strategies can be implemented.

Sammendrag

Jordbrukslandskapet er et resultat av jordbruksdrifta i dag og tidligere. Dette er også hverdagslandskapet for mange mennesker og er viktig for friluftsliv og rekreasjon. En rekke ulike arter har sine leveområder i jordbrukslandskap og det finnes også et stort antall kulturminner der. Samtidig er jordbrukslandskapet et landskap i stadig endring. For å sikre at man har informasjon om hvordan endringer påvirker disse kvalitetene er det en rekke land som overvåker status og endring i jordbrukslandskapet, så også Norge. Her beskriver vi hva som er gjeldende metode for utvalg av overvåkingsflater og hva vi registrerer på flatene.

Sammendrag

Landscapes are changing faster and more widely than ever before. Sustainable landscape management requires a sound foundation of maps and data that shows what resources are located where and how landscapes are changing over time, and that provides a basis for landscape analyses. We describe a landscape database composed of a grid of 5 x 5 km squares and a grid of 1 x 1 km squares. Each grid square is linked to many data values describing various elements and attributes that are relevant in a landscape context. The grid squares provide a neutral framework for combining a wide variety of kinds of data. The grid squares can be aggregated into regions or types for various purposes, and data can easily be supplemented and updated. This provides a flexible system for landscape analysis that complements traditional landscape maps.