Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2020

Sammendrag

Miljødirektoratet har gitt NIBIO i oppdrag å oppdatere klimatiltaket «Overgang fra rødt kjøtt til vegetabilsk og fisk». Tiltaket inngår i Regjeringens bestilling av «Klimakur 2030». Notatet er utarbeidet i henhold til oppdragsbeskrivelse og bestilling fra Miljødirektoratet. Omfang og metode for gjennomføring av oppdraget er i det alt vesentlige gitt av oppdragsgiver. Tiltaket er utredet i tråd med metodikk beskrevet i «Veileder for utredning av klimatiltak som skal brukes inn i 2030-analyser». Det er gjennomført samfunnsøkonomiske og privatøkonomiske analyser, samt identifisert barrierer og virkemidler for tiltaket. Kostholdene som ligger til grunn for analysen er utarbeidet i dialog med Miljødirektoratet, Landbruksdirektoratet og Helsedirektoratet. Den endelige utformingen av kostholdene er foretatt av forfatterne. Notatet er skrevet av Klaus Mittenzwei (prosjektleder), Finn Walland, Anna Brigitte Milford (alle NIBIO) og Arne Grønlund (pensjonist og tidligere ansatt i NIBIO). Notatet er kvalitetssikret i henhold til NIBIOs regelverk. Agnar Hegrenes har vært fagfelle for prosjektet. Geir Gustavsen, Øyvind Hoveid, Ivar Pettersen, Erik Revdal, Sjur Spildo Prestegard og Per Stålnacke har lest utkast til notatet og kommet med verdifulle innspill. I tillegg er det innhentet kommentarer fra Karine Nyborg (Universitetet i Oslo) og Sverre Kverndokk (Frischsenteret ved Universitetet i Oslo) om samfunnsøkonomisk verdsetting av helseeffekter. Gjenværende feil og mangler er forfatternes ansvar. Forfatterne understreker at noen av de metodene som ligger til grunn for oppdraget, er omdiskuterte og innebærer bruk av usikre data. Til tross for disse svakhetene mener forfatterne at det er faglig forsvarlig å bruke disse og at analysen gir verdifull, om enn ufullstendig, innsikt i effektene av en gjennomføring av dette klimatiltaket.

Sammendrag

The study aimed to extend the static concepts of multiproduct technical efficiency and determinants into a dynamic setting within the input distance function framework. The existing literature in performance analysis of the dairy farms in Norway based on static modelling and thus ignores the inter-temporal nature of production decisions. The empirical application focused on the farm-level analysis of the Norwegian dairy sector for 2000- 2018. The dynamic efficiency allows analysing the performance of dairy farms in regards of inter-temporal optimization of the investment behaviour. The analysis shows that the static model efficiency study in the previous studies underestimate the performance of the dairy farms. The marginal effects experience positively correlated with dairy farm technical efficiency whereas copped subsidy and asset debt ratio negatively correlated to the performance of the dairy farm.

Sammendrag

The term Circular Regulations (CR) is introduced to describe a broad regulatory framework, designed with a circular understanding of the economy. Central in this discussion is the transition towards bioeconomy, a term that is not always used consistently, and sometimes treated in the same way as circular economy (CE), although these terms are not necessarily equivalent. In this article we endorse a systemic interpretation of CE, where a continuum of approaches, extending from reusing/recycling/upcycling to refuse/rethink/reduce, gradually replace existing linear “end-of-life” concepts. CE is a key prerequisite for the bioeconomy shift, a transition that further builds on CE, where circular design and processes are further augmented with increased resource utilization and intensive applications of innovative science and technology. The prevailing regulatory arrangements in CE, however, remain either fragmented or largely based on pre-existing policies, drafted to address issues of the linear economy, thus presenting several limitations when dealing with the underlying paradigm shift: complex market relationships that go beyond the standard neoclassical model. CR adopts an encompassing approach to regulatory design; it is not meant to be a rigid set of rules, but rather a regulatory framework where institutions, market rules, and business practice explicitly account for environmental and socially responsible activities, while securing an enabling environment for innovation. CR directly reflects on CE, where bioeconomy growth is informed by science, enabled by technology, driven by business, and supported by relevant policies and institutional frameworks. The article presents a conceptual setting towards CR and a practical example for its development.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The morphological and productive aspects of Norwegian sheep have developed over time and adapted to the diverse environment of the country. Before 1900, native Norwegian sheep were crossed with UK breeds to attain higher body weight and reproductive efficiency. Subsequent selection programs eventually led to the creation of the heavier (adults often >90 kg) Norwegian White Sheep (NWS), today constituting 70% of the recorded ewes. The modern Norwegian (White) Spæl (NS) sheep, mostly <75 kg and accounting for 10% of the recorded ewe population, originated from the native short-tailed breeds that are smaller and are believed to prefer grazing at higher altitudes than NWS. Other registered breeds of the short-tailed spæl type account for another 12% of the recorded sheep. Rugged Norwegian terrain with rich summer pastures makes the NS a complementary breed to the NWS. Increasing demand for year-round fresh meat requires changes at the farm level. Efficient use of local feed resources by extensive feeding of smaller size ewes is an opportunity for attaining economic gains and for year-round fresh meat production. The NS has a lighter bodyweight, requiring less housing space, is efficient in grazing rangeland and local pastures, and is better suited to outdoor winter grazing in coastal and fjord areas. In this paper, we compare the farm profitability (gross margin) of two Norwegian sheep breeds (NS and NWS) using a linear programming model designed for the coastal and fjord areas. The impact of ewe body weight, housing capacity, and meat produced per unit of concentrate are discussed.