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Sweet cherry production worldwide is grown in the open land. Production technique is more or less similar with scions grafted on dwarfing and semi-dwarfing rootstock and trees arranged in single rows. Sweet cherries can be grown in Norway in areas with suitable local climatic conditions up to 60°N. All orchards have high-density planting systems and are rain covered. Rain-induced fruit cracking in cherries remains a problem at an international level. The most common systems in Norway are multibay high tunnel systems and retractable rain covers. Covered orchard tunnel systems offer not only the advantage of rain exclusion but also allow additional manipulation of the environment, tree growth and fruiting. In general, sweet cherry high tunnel production gives increased yields of larger fruit than in the open land, but investment costs are higher. One more advanced way of producing sweet cherries is to grow the trees in small pots in greenhouses. A greenhouse gives opportunity to control the temperature regime and in that way program the maturity of the fruits. Research is conducted to test different cultivars, rootstocks, training methods in high-density production systems (1 tree m-2) with different fertigation levels. Preliminary results show that the yield potential is much higher than in the open land with larger fruits. Challenges are to optimize the water and nutrition supply and adjust the temperatures to obtain large yields of high quality fruits during different periods of the season.


Kuldetolerante grønnsaker er planter som har utviklet beskyttelse av vekstpunktet mot kulde og frost. Selv med noen frostnetter er, fortsetter disse plantene å vokse når temperatur og lys om dagen, tillater det. Det gir unike muligheter til å utvide grønnsakssesongen, og gi en «skuldersesong» fra sensommer til tidlig vinter. Egnede planter står ute på feltet gjennom vinteren, for å gi produksjon tidlig neste vår. Fordelene med produksjon av kuldetolerante grønnsaker, er innføring av en ny «skuldersesong», redusert næringstap fra jorda, lite utfordringer med skadedyr, gi et større mangfold innen nyhøstete vintergrønnsaker til forbruker, øke verdigrunnlaget for dyrkere og øke regionale muligheter for sysselsetting. Det er utført vekstforsøk på tre utvalgte steder i landet med ulike årsvariasjoner, med hensyn til daglengde og temperatur. Grønnsakssorter ble valgt ut etter evne til å tolerere kulde i tillegg til rask utviklingstid. Mange av disse grønnsakene har en stor utfordring med stokkrenning, men løsningen ble sen såing, fra slutten av juli til begynnelsen av august. Det blir tidligere lave temperaturer i Nord-Norge og og til dels på Østlandet, slik at den optimale vekstperioden er noe kortere enn på Sørlandet. Det ble testet om forkultivering inne av småplanter for utsetting på felt, kunne bidra til å gi større planter før høsting. I våre forsøk etablerte de direktesådde grønnsakene seg raskest og fikk størst avling. Grønnsakene fikk også en mildere og søtere smak om de ble høstet etter en liten kuldeperiode.

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Introduction Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) is an excellent example of a “super fruit” with potential health benefits. Both genotype and cultivation environment are known to affect the chemical composition of blackcurrant, especially ascorbic acid and various phenolic compounds. Environmental conditions, like temperature, solar radiation and precipitation can also have significant impact on fruit chemical composition. The relevance of the study is further accentuated by the predicted and ongoing changes in global climate. Objectives The aim of the present study was to provide new knowledge and a deeper understanding of the effects of post flowering environmental conditions, namely temperature and day length, on fruit quality and chemical composition of blackcurrant using an untargeted high performance liquid chromatography–photo diode array–mass spectrometry (HPLC– PDA–MS) metabolomics approach. Methods A phytotron experiment with cultivation of single-stemmed potted plants of blackcurrant cv. Narve Viking was conducted using constant temperatures of 12, 18 or 24 °C and three different photoperiods (short day, short day with night interruption, and natural summer daylight conditions). Plants were also grown under ambient outdoor conditions. Ripe berries were analysed using an untargeted HPLC–PDA–MS metabolomics approach to detect the presence and concentration of molecules as affected by controlled climatic factors. Results The untargeted metabolomics dataset contained a total of 7274 deconvolved retention time-m/z pairs across both electrospray ionisation (ESI) positive and negative polarities, from which 549 metabolites were identified or minimally annotated based upon accurate mass MS. Conventional principal component analysis (PCA) in combination with the Friedman significance test were applied to first identify which metabolites responded to temperature in a linear fashion. Multi-block hierarchical PCA in combination with the Friedman significance test was secondly applied to identify metabolites that were responsive to different day length conditions. Temperature had significant effect on a total of 365 metabolites representing a diverse range of chemical classes. It was observed that ripening of the blackcurrant berries under ambient conditions, compared to controlled conditions, resulted in an increased accumulation of 34 annotated metabolites, mainly anthocyanins and flavonoids. 18 metabolites were found to be regulated differentially under the different daylength conditions. Moreover, based upon the most abundant anthocyanins, a comparison between targeted and untargeted analyses, revealed a close convergence of the two analytical methods. Therefore, the study not just illustrates the value of non-targeted metabolomics approaches with respect to the huge diversity and numbers of significantly changed metabolites detected (and which would be missed by conventional targeted analyses), but also shows the validity of the non-targeted approach with respect to its precision compared to targeted analyses. Conclusions Blackcurrant maturation under controlled ambient conditions revealed a number of insightful relationships between environment and chemical composition of the fruit. A prominent reduction of the most abundant anthocyanins under the highest temperature treatments indicated that blackcurrant berries in general may accumulate lower total anthocyanins in years with extreme hot summer conditions. HPLC–PDA–MS metabolomics is an excellent method for broad analysis of chemical composition of berries rich in phenolic compounds. Moreover, the experiment in controlled phytotron conditions provided additional knowledge concerning plant interactions with the environment.