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The circular economy concept promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of cattle horn shavings on apple tree nitrogen nutrition. Ligol apple trees on P 60 rootstock were the object of the study. The experiment was conducted in the experimental orchard of the Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, from 2015 to 2018. Two fertiliser rates were tested: 50 and 100 kg/ha N. Horn shavings (14.1% N) were applied at the end of autumn or at the beginning of vegetation in the spring and in one treatment 100 kg/ha N rate was divided into two equal parts and applied both in autumn and spring. The effects of the horn shavings were compared with the effects of ammonium nitrate (34.4% N) and the unfertilised treatment. The lowest mineral nitrogen content was found in the unfertilised orchard soil and the soil fertilised with horn shavings in the spring at 50 kg/ha N equivalent. In all other cases, the fertilisers increased the soil’s mineral nitrogen content. The lowest leaf nitrogen content was found in apple trees that grew in the unfertilised orchard soil or soil fertilised in the spring with 50 kg/ha N of horn shavings (1.58–2.13%). In other cases, leaf nitrogen content was higher (1.77–2.17%). The apple trees with the lowest leaf nitrogen content produced the smallest average yield (34.5–36.6 t/ha). The highest yield was recorded from fruit trees fertilised with 50 kg/ha N of ammonium nitrate applied in spring or horn shavings applied in autumn (42.4 and 41.4 t/ha, respectively). The influence of horn shavings on the other studied parameters was similar to that of ammonium nitrate. Horn shavings, like nitrogen fertiliser, could facilitate nitrogen nutrition management in apple trees, especially in organic orchards, where the use of synthetic fertilisers is prohibited.

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Winter hardiness is the main factor limiting pear growing and the use of quince rootstocks under northeastern European climate conditions. Therefore, several cultivar and rootstock trials were performed from 1997 until 2015 at the Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. Investigations of pear cultivars were conducted in 2005-2015. Twelve cultivars on QS1 rootstock were tested with the goal of finding an optimal replacement for cultivar ‘Conference’, which is not sufficiently winter hardy in the Baltic countries. The cultivar ‘Mramornaja’ showed desirable characteristics based on winter hardiness, productivity and fruit quality. Rootstock breeding was based on a winter hardy Cydonia × oblonga population and resulted in 3 registered rootstocks of K series in Lithuania. K series rootstocks were compared with QMA, QMC, Sydo, QS1, and Pyrus × communis. According to tree growth control and productivity only K11 was equal to QMA and the same as QS1. Other rootstock testing included Cydonia and Pyrus clonal and seedling rootstocks. ‘Pyrodwarf’ and OH×F333 rootstocks were too vigorous. QMC, Sydo and BA29 exhibited poor winter hardiness. The search for both pear cultivars and rootstocks adapted to northeastern European climatic conditions must be continued.

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Lonicera caerulea L. is an early fruit-bearing plant that originates from harsh environments. Raw materials contain a body of different phenolic origin compounds that determine the multidirectional antioxidant and pharmacological activities. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant capacities, vegetative, pomological, and sensory properties and their interrelations of selected L. caerulea cultivars, namely ‘Amphora’, ‘Wojtek’, ‘Iga’, ’Leningradskij Velikan’, ‘Nimfa’, ‘Indigo Gem’, ‘Tundra’, ‘Tola’, and fruit powders. Combined chromatographic systems were applied for the qualitative and quantitative profiling of 23 constituents belonging to the classes of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavones, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. The determined markers of phytochemical profiles were cyanidin-3-glucoside, rutin, chlorogenic, and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Anthocyanins and the predominant compound, cyanidin-3-glucoside, were the determinants of antioxidant activity. Cultivars ‘Amphora’, ‘Indigo Gem’, and ‘Tundra’ contained the greatest total amounts of identified phenolic compounds. Phenotypic characterization revealed the superiority of cultivars ‘Wojtek’ and ’Tundra’ compared to other cultivars, although ’Wojtek’ had low phenolic content and antioxidant activity and ’Tundra’ got lower sensory evaluation scores. Coupling the results of phenotypic and phytochemical characterization, cultivar ‘Tundra’ could be suitable for commercial plantations.

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The interest in old cultivars of apple trees, their fruit and processed products is growing worldwide. Studies on the qualitative and quantitative composition of biological compounds are important for the evaluation of the quality and nutritional properties of apple fruit. A variation in the qualitative and quantitative composition of triterpenic compounds was found in the fruit of apple cultivars included in the collection of National Plant Genetic Resources. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the fruit of the cultivar ‘Birutės pepinas’ had the highest total amount (5.17 ± 0.86 mg g-1) of triterpenic compounds. Higher total amounts of triterpenic compounds were also found in the fruit of apple cultivars ‘Tabokinė’ and ‘Panemunės baltasis’ (3.72 ± 0.57 and 4.25 ± 0.17 mg g-1, respectively). By the quantitative composition, triterpenic compounds in apple fruit were ranked in the following order: ursolic acid > oleanolic acid > corosolic acid > betulinic acid. The old apple cultivars ‘Birutės pepinas’, ‘Panemunės baltasis’ and ‘Tabokinė’ included in the collection of National Plant Genetic Resources have a potential for cultivation in industrial orchards and for the use of their apples, and processed apple products as natural functional foods rich in triterpenic compounds and adapted for medical purposes, including the prevention of various diseases. Key words: apple, old cultivars, triterpenic compounds.

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NIBIO Ullensvang har i perioden 2012-2019 gjennomført rettleiingsprøving av samla 11 eplesortar og -seleksjonar. Føremålet var å skaffa norske fruktdyrkarar sortar som gjev stor avling med kvalitetsfrukt og er tilpassa det norske klimaet. Sortane vart poda på den svaktveksande grunnstamma M9. Pomologiske karakterar og fruktkvalitet vart vurderte og detaljert informasjon om dei ulike sortane er gjeve i denne rapporten. Sortane Asfari og Elstar Boerekamp Excellent- Star® vert tilrådde til kommersiell fruktdyrking. Sorten Tiara kan dyrkast til jus og som dekorasjonsfrukt sidan den har raudt fruktkjøt. Sorten Pinova bør prøvast vidare. På grunn av svak fruktkvalitet og sein modning er fylgjande sortar og utval ikkje tilrådde for dyrking under norske tilhøve: 1/05, 58/06, A 75, Galmac, Jugala, Crimson Crisp og Elshof.

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Nibio Ullensvang har i perioden 2008-2017 gjennomført rettleiingsprøving av samla 20 eplesortar og -seleksjonar. Føremålet var å skaffa norske fruktdyrkarar sortar som gjev stor avling med kvalitetsfrukt og er tilpassa det norske klimaet. Sortane vart poda på den svaktveksande grunnstamma M9. Pomologiske karakterar og fruktkvalitet vart vurderte og detaljert informasjon om dei ulike sortane er gjeve i denne rapporten. Sortane Rubinstep, Your Choice og Aroma ‘Fagravoll’ vert tilrådde til kommersiell fruktdyrking. Sorten Blyberg er tilrådd for småhagebruket medan sortane Lotos og Wellant bør prøvast vidare. På grunn av svak fruktkvalitet og sein modning er fylgjande sortar og utval ikkje tilrådde for dyrking under norske tilhøve: L II 3/05-09, Sonja, L II 1/08-09, NA 42-51, MA982 06059, Ritt Bjerregaard, Dalili Ambassy, Initial, Gala Must, Topas, Greenstar og Kanzi.

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The effect of tree growth-control technologies on apple tree vegetative development, productivity and fruit quality was investigated with apple cultivar ‘Rubin’ on dwarf rootstock P 60 at the Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Re-search Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2015–2018. Eight treatments were established combining tree trunk incision by chainsaw before flowering, application of prohexadione-calcium in different dose and time, summer pruning in August and root pruning before flowering. Root pruning from both sides of the tree significantly reduced tree trunk diameter, shoot length and pruning weights but at the same time reduced fruit weight. It increased tree productivity and enhanced fruit colouring. Two applications of prohexadione-calcium significantly reduced mean shoot length and increased average fruit weight. Summer pruning had a positive impact on fruit colouring. Trunk incisions enhanced leaf P, K and Fe content. Pro-Ca increased leaf Ca content. Trees root pruned from both sides had one of the lowest contents of all tested minerals. All tree growth-control technologies had a positive impact on tree productivity , fruit quality and bearing stability comparing with control treatment.

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Nibio Ullensvang har i perioden 2010-2016 gjennomført rettleiingsprøving av samla 14 sortar og seleksjonar av søtkirsebær frå foredlingsprogrammet ved forskingsstasjonen Summerland i Canada. Føremålet var å skaffa norske fruktdyrkarar sortar som gjev stor avling med kvalitetsfrukt og er tilpassa det norske klimaet. Sortane vart poda på den svaktveksande grunnstamma Gisela 5 og vart planta i ein plasttunnel. Pomologiske karakterar og fruktkvalitet vart vurderte og detaljert informasjon om dei ulike sortane er gjeve i denne rapporten. Sorten Starblush og seleksjonen SPC 108 er tilrådd for dyrking under norske tilhøve i tillegg til hovudsorten Lapins. Seleksjonen SPC 107 høver godt i småhagar.

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One of the most important factors affecting photosynthesis and metabolism is light absorbance by leaves and penetration through the canopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of planting density and tree development stages on photosynthetic activity, photosynthetic pigments, and carbohydrates in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees in a combined way. The apple tree, Auksis, was grafted on dwarfing rootstock P 22. Space between rows was 3 m, trees were planted in 2001 in four distances: 0.25 m, 0.50 m, 0.75 m, and 1.00 m. Measurements and leaf samples were taken in the end of May (leaves fully expanded BBCH 20–25), in the middle of July (beginning of apple maturity BBCH 73–75) and at the end of August (harvest time BBCH 87–88) according BBCH—growth stages. Photosynthetic rate was significantly the lowest in the spring and tended to rise until fruit ripening, when it increased up to 19.4% compared to spring. Significantly the highest chlorophyll b and carotene α and β contents were found at the BBCH 73–75. The lowest levels of fructose and sorbitol in leaves were found at BBCH 73–75. The amount of starch accumulated in the leaves increased three times in summer compared to spring. Reduced distance between trees to four times (from 1 m to 0.25 m) showed clear competitive stress, as the decrease of photosynthetic rate (up to 36.4–38.6%) and total starch (up to 37–53%) was observed. The photosynthetic behaviour of apple trees was significantly affected by the development stage during the particular season which is related with physiological changes of metabolites transport and their distribution during fruit ripening and leaf senescence.

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A study on the influence of planting distances on the growth, productivity and fruit quality of dwarf apple trees in a 15- to 18-year-old orchard was carried out at the Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. Trees of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh) cultivar ‘Auksis’ on rootstock P 60 were planted at distances of 3 × 1.5, 3 × 1.25, 3 × 1.00 m and 3 × 0.75 m. With increasing density of fruit trees, single-tree growth, generative development and yield were significantly reduced. The opposite results were obtained when these parameters were evaluated per unit area. Yield and fruit quality measurements were made at two canopy heights: 0–1.5 and 1.5–2.5 m. In the upper part of the fruit tree canopy, fruit average weight and diameter were higher, while the colour was more intense and less dependent on the planting density of fruit trees. In the lower part of the canopy, fruit quality was inferior and with increasing fruit tree density it further deteriorated. Planting distances had a significant effect on the accumulation of sugar, soluble solids and dry matter content: greater planting distances resulted in increased sugar content from 10.97% to 11.90%, soluble solids – from 12.30% to 13.17% and dry matter content – from 13.80% to 14.80%. Conversely, higher accumulation of phenolic and triterpenic compounds in apple fruits was found with decreasing planting distances. A significant increase of phenolic compounds from 2.91 up to 4.03 mg g-1 DW (dry weight) was recorded at the upper part of the canopy, while an increase of triterpens from 12.9 up to 16.07 mg g-1 DW – at the lower part of the canopy. The best productivity and fruit quality of ‘Auksis’ apple trees on P 60 rootstock at the full bearing stage were obtained, when fruit trees had been spaced at 3 × 1.25 m. Key words: fruit biochemical composition, fruit colour, Malus × domestica, planting system.

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Adjustable crop load primarily involves bud manipulation, and usually switches from vegetative to reproductive buds. While this switch is not fully understood, it is still controlled by the ratio of hormones, which promote or inhibit bud formation. To determine the reasons for biennial bearing, the effect of apple rootstock, scion cultivar, crop load, as well as metabolic changes of endogenous phytohormones [zeatin, jasmonic acid, indole-3 acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins 1, 3, and 7 (GAs)], and soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, and sorbitol) were evaluated, and their connections with return bloom and yield of apple tree buds were analyzed. Cultivars “Ligol” and “Auksis” were tested on five rootstocks contrasting in induced vigor: semi-dwarfing M.26; dwarfing M.9, B.396, and P 67; and super-dwarfing P 22. Crop load levels were adjusted before flowering, leaving 75, 113, and 150 fruits per tree. Principal component analysis (PCA) scatter plot of the metabolic response of phytohormones and sugars indicated that the effect of the semi-dwarfing M.26 rootstock was significantly different from that of the dwarfing M.9 and P 67, as well as the super-dwarfing P 22 rootstocks in both varieties. The most intensive crop load (150 fruits per tree) produced a significantly different response compared to less intensive crop loads (113 and 75) in both varieties. In contrast to soluble sugar accumulation, increased crop load resulted in an increased accumulation of phytohormones, except for ABA. Dwarfing rootstocks M.9, B.396, and P 67, as well as super-dwarf P 22 produced an altered accumulation of promoter phytohormones, while the more vigorous semi-dwarfing M.26 rootstock induced a higher content of glucose and inhibitory phytohormones, by increasing content of IAA, ABA, and GAs. The most significant decrease in return bloom resulted from the highest crop load in “Auksis” grafted on M.9 and P 22 rootstocks. Average difference in flower number between crop loads of 75 and 150 fruits per tree in “Ligol” was 68%, while this difference reached ~ 90% for P 22, and ~ 75% for M.9 and M.26 rootstocks. Return bloom was dependent on the previous year’s crop load, cultivar, and rootstock.

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As the interest in heirloom cultivars of apple trees, their fruit, and processed products is growing worldwide, studies of the qualitative and quantitative composition of biological compounds are important for the evaluation of the quality and nutritional properties of the apples. Studies on the variations in the chemical composition of phenolic compounds characterized by a versatile biological effect are important when researching the genetic heritage of the heirloom cultivars in order to increase the cultivation of such cultivars in orchards. A variation in the qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds was found in apple samples of cultivars included in the Lithuanian collection of genetic resources. By the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method flavan-3-ols (procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C2, (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin), flavonols (rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, reynoutrin and avicularin), chlorogenic acids and phloridzin were identified and quantified in fruit samples of heirloom apple cultivars grown in Lithuania. The highest sum of the identified phenolic compounds (3.82 ± 0.53 mg/g) was found in apple fruit samples of the ‘Koštelė’ cultivar

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The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in extracts of plum fruit. Fruit of 17 plum cultivars were analyzed. Fruit samples were collected in 2019 from fruit trees with “Myrobalan” (P. cerasifera Ehrh.) and “Wangenheim Prune” (P. domestica L.) rootstocks. The following glycosides of the flavonol group were identified: avicularin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and an aglycone quercetin. Compounds of the flavan-3-ol group were identified, such as (+)-catechin, procyanidin C1, and procyanidin A2, along with chlorogenic acid attributed to phenolic acids and a non-phenolic cyclitol–quinic acid. Of all the analytes identified in plum fruit samples, quinic acid predominated, while chlorogenic acid predominated among all the identified phenolic compounds, and rutin predominated in the flavonol group. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that fruit samples of “Kubanskaya Kometa”, “Zarechnaya Raniaya”, “Duke of Edinburgh”, “Jubileum”, and “Favorita del Sultano” cultivars had different quantitative content of phenolic compounds from that observed in other samples. The highest total amount of phenolic compounds was found in the European plum samples of the “Zarechnaya Rannyaya” cultivar, while the amount of quinic acid was the highest in plum fruit samples of the “Jubileum” cultivar.

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Divisjon for matproduksjon og samfunn

Sustainable growth of the Norwegian Horticulture Food System – GreenRoad GS35 (“GrøntStrategi mot 2035)


The main aim of GreenRoad is to deliver knowledge and solutions for increased value creation and sustainability in the horticultural food system in Norway. The project will define and prioritize areas and regions suitable for production of selected horticultural crops, assessing environmental, climatic, topographic, economic, social, legal and political constraints and opportunities for increased horticultural production, also in new regions (WP1). The environmental, economic and social sustainability of different strategies for increased horticultural production will be assessed, and new assessment methodologies developed (WP2). GreenRoad will also generate new biological and technical knowledge on methods for increased, improved, sustainable production of high quality horticultural products, taking into account provision of ecosystem services (biodiversity and pollinating activities), circularity of organic resources and the use of waste heat (WP3). The project will assess sustainable value creation barriers and opportunities at all stages in the supply chain, with a focus on seasonal labour supply, retail market structure and labelling strategies, and with Finland as a contrasting case. Business and policy measures to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables will be identified (WP4). Partners and stakeholders will be involved throughout the project in focus groups and other forms of participatory research, and their feedback will contribute to develop innovation platforms and pathways towards GS35 (WP5). A case study on apples binds the different WPs together with a “farm to fork” perspective. The project involves a variety of different disciplines (biology, geography, economy, sociology…) who will collaborate in different WPs. There is a strong involvement of business and national and international research partners.

Active Updated: 13.10.2021
End: des 2024
Start: jan 2021