Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2022

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Environmental control of flowering in everbearing strawberry is well known, while the optimal commercial raising conditions for high and continuous yield remains unsettled. We exposed freshly rooted plants of cultivars Altess, Favori and Murano to 9 °C, 15 °C, 21 °C and 27 °C, respectively, at two photoperiods for 4 weeks, and assessed flowering and yield performance. Long days at 15–21 °C enhanced flowering, while short days (SD), particularly at 27 °C, decreased flowering. Runner formation was enhanced by SD, being inversely related to flowering. Yields the next season were highest in plants exposed to 15–21 °C, whereas the seasonal harvest distribution varied. In concurrence with earlier reports, the size of the first fruit flush determined the magnitude of the second flush and the length of the off period when little fruit was produced. The large first fruiting flushes of plants exposed to 21 and 27 °C gave particularly long off periods and small second flushes. Moderate first flushes of plants from intermediate temperatures also resulted in a more evenly distributed harvest and the largest yields. Developing flowers and fruits are strong sinks for photosynthates; therefore, the size of the first fruit flush must be compromised to optimize fruit yield and seasonal crop distribution.

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Background There is limited information on the effect of environment on vegetative growth in everbearing (EB) strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and its comparison with the situation in seasonal flowering types. Methods We investigated the effects of photoperiod (daylengths of 10 and 20 h) and temperature (12, 19 and 26 ℃) on leaf growth, dry matter production and partitioning, concentrations of soluble sugars, starch, and chlorophyll in the F1 hybrid ‘Delizzimo’ grown in a single experiment in daylight phytotron compartments in Norway. Results Plants grown in the long photoperiod (LD) and higher temperatures had greater leaf growth and higher dry matter production than those under short day (SD) and low temperature conditions. Growth decreased over the 39 days of the experiment. The changes in growth in the different environments were associated with changes in relative growth rate (RGR) and these were driven by changes in net assimilation rate (NAR) and leaf area ratio (LAR). The plants directed more dry matter to the leaves and crowns under LD and high temperature conditions and less dry matter to the roots, thus increasing the plant’s shoot to root ratio. Long days decreased the concentrations of sugars and starch in most of the tissues, while the effect of temperature was more complex. Higher temperatures increased the concentrations of sugars in the leaves in LD, while starch accumulated in the roots under SD and low temperature conditions. Sucrose accumulated temporarily in the crowns at the time of flower bud formation in LD and higher temperatures. Conclusions The results of the experiment demonstrate that the effects of photoperiod and temperature on the vegetative growth of everbearing strawberry are similar to those reported for seasonal-flowering strawberry. Increases in temperature and photoperiod and the resulting enhancement of the RGR was associated with accumulation of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) in the above-ground parts of the plant, whereas low temperature and SD resulted in accumulation of starch in the roots.

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Environmental conditions during plant raising determine the yield potential of everbearing strawberries. We studied the effect of three rooting dates in the cultivars ‘Favori’ and ‘Murano’ in a greenhouse with 18 ℃ and 20-h long day and under outdoor conditions in Norway. The highest yield of 1.350 g/plant was obtained in ‘Favori’ plants rooted on 1 August and raised outdoors, being at level with ‘Favori’ plants produced in The Netherlands. High yields were mainly related to fruit size and less to fruit number, and determined by a complex three-factor interaction of rooting date, raising environment, and cultivar. The seasonal pattern of fruit flushes and off periods varied significantly between cultivars and treatments. The large first flush of high yielding ‘Favori’ plants was associated with a long off period, while the small first flush in ‘Murano’ resulted in a more even crop distribution. Earliness of ripening and berry harvest was superior in ‘Favori’, which had a larger share of its crop during the first half-season. We conclude that it is possible by choosing the right rooting date and raising environment to produce plants with the same high quality and yield potential under the cool Nordic conditions as those currently produced in Central Europe.

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Compatibility and synchrony between specialized tissues of the pistil, female gametophytes and male gametophytes, are necessary for successful pollination, fertilization, and fruit set in angiosperms. The aim of the present work was to study the development and viability of embryo sacs, as well as fertilization success, in relation to the fruit set of the cultivars ‘Mallard’, ‘Edda’, ‘Jubileum’, and ‘Reeves’, under specific Norwegian climatic conditions. Emasculated, unpollinated, and open-pollinated flowers were collected at the beginning of flowering, and on the 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th days after flowering, from all four plum cultivars over two years (2018/2019). Ovaries were dehydrated, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned, stained, and observed under a light microscope. Results showed the existence of synchronization between successive phases in the development of the embryo sac and individual phases of flowering. All plum cultivars had higher percentages of viable embryo sacs, fertilized embryo sacs, and fruit set in 2018 than in 2019. These differences may be related to the very low temperatures during the post-full-flowering period in 2019, and to the low adaptation of some studied cultivars to unfavorable conditions. In our study, the cultivar ‘Jubileum’ showed the highest percentage of viable embryo sacs, fertilized embryo sacs, and fruit set compared to other cultivars, i.e., the best low-temperature adaptation.

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The aim of this study was to examine the influence of shoot age on the biological and chemical properties of 13 black currant cultivars with different origins and ripening times. Phenological observations together with examined pomological and chemical characteristics were studied in two consecutive years at the experimental field near Belgrade, Serbia. The total content of phenols was estimated spectrophotometrically by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while quantitative analysis of anthocyanin and flavonols aglycones was performed using a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. Principal component analysis was performed to establish differences in biological and chemical properties of black currants. Three-year-old shoots had an earlier start of all examined phenological stages, better generative potential, higher yields, while clusters and berries from 2-year-old shoots had significantly higher values for physical properties, total phenols, anthocyanin and flavanols aglycones and antiradical capacity. Late ripening cultivars had higher contents of all chemical compounds. The berries on 2-year-old shoots had total phenolics that ranged between 123.0 (‘Titania’) and 298.3 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) (‘Ometa’), while total anthocyanins ranged between 398.5 (’Ojebyn’) and 1160.8 mg/kg FW (’Ometa’). According to the obtained results, cultivars ‘Ometa’, ‘Ben Lomond’, ‘Tsema’ and ‘Malling Juel’ can be recommended as the most promising for growing in the continental climate because they stood out with higher generative potential and yield, physical traits of cluster and berry, higher level of primary and secondary metabolites and DPPH activity in their berries.

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Denne rapporten omhandlar resultat frå kartlegging av næringsstatusen i norske eplehagar. Jord,- blad og fruktprøvar vart samla inn frå ulike eplehagar på Aust- og Vestlandet med variasjon i jordart, innhald og type organisk materiale i åra 2018-2020. Føremålet var å studera samanhengane mellom plantefysiologiske sider i epletreet relatert til jorda, treveksten, avling og fruktkvalitet. Resultat frå det treårige studiet om verknaden av gjødselpraksisar på opptak av mineral i blada, avling og fruktkvallitet hjå ulike eplesortar frå fire regionar er samla i denne rapporten. This report is summarizing results from a survey analyzing the nutrient levels in fruit trees and soil in four fruit growing regions in Norway during the seasons 2018-2020. The aim was to study the relationship between main plant physiological principles in the tree, related to the soil, tree growth, yield, fruit quality, and fruit storage. The results of a three-year study of apple tree fertilization practices on orchard soil fertility, leaf mineral composition, apple tree yields and fruit quality of several apple cultivars in four main apple producing regions in Norway are compiled in this report.