Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2022

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Sammendrag

The interest in cultivation of vegetable soybeans, also known as edamame, in the North Europe region has increased during the last years due to their high nutritional value and excellent taste properties. During the last decade the possible growing area for soybeans has expanded towards the north due to changes in climate as well as breeding efforts. In order to adopt vegetable soybean growing technology for commercial cultivation in the North Europe region, independent experiments were carried out in Latvia and Norway. This study shows that vegetable soybean is a crop with potential for successful cultivation at higher latitudes, such as the Nordic–Baltic region in North Europe, with yield levels comparable to other regions of the world. We observed that hydrothermal conditions had the most significant impact on soybean plant development. Sowing or planting as early as possible is a key to obtaining sufficient yield levels. In the study, the vegetation period needed to be at least 123 to 127 days, with growing degree days (GDD) at least 650, and hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) above 1. Under such conditions, the obtained marketable yield in Latvia ranged between 3 to 10 t ha−1 during the period of 2017–2019, and 1.2 to 10.5 t ha−1 in Norway. Planting density of 20–25 plants per m2 appeared to be optimal. The variety ‘Midori Giant’ showed the most stable yield outcome, but ‘Chiba Green’ also gave a satisfactory yield.

Sammendrag

Det er dyrket korn i Nord-Norge siden sein steinalder og kornet var en viktig del av kostholdet. Etter andre verdenskrig ble kornarealet i nord kraftig redusert. Med klimaendringer og med en økt markedsinteresse, er korndyrking igjen blitt aktuelt i nord. En av de største utfordringene er finne egnede sorter for nordlige strøk, og i dette prosjektet har vi testet de sju gjenværende nordnorske sortene for å teste hvor tilpasset de er dagens klima. Selv om resultatene er usikre, mener vi at Dønnes bygg samt at Nordlys og Bode kan være aktuelle byggsorter i Nordland. I Troms og Finnmark kan dyrking av Nordlys bygg være interessant, samt at Bode og Dønnes kan være aktuelle byggsorter. Pol havre og Vågønes vårrug er de eneste sortene av havre og rug fra Nord-Norge. Disse kan være aktuelle for dyrking i nord. Pol havre kan spesielt være interessant for dyrking til fôr i Troms og Finnmark. Videre utprøving kan gi sikrere resultat.

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Bilberry fruit is regarded as one of the best natural sources of anthocyanins and iswidely explored for its health-beneficial compounds. Besides anthocyanins, one of themajor attributes that determine the berry quality is the accumulation of sugars thatprovide sweetness and flavor to ripening fruit. In this study, we have identified 25 sugarmetabolism-related genes in bilberry, including invertases (INVs), hexokinases (HKs),fructokinases (FKs), sucrose synthases (SSs), sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs), andsucrose phosphate phosphatases (SPPs). The results indicate that isoforms of the identified genes are expressed differentially during berry development, suggesting special-ized functions. The highest sugar content was found in ripe berries, with fructose andglucose dominating accompanied by low sucrose amount. The related enzyme activi-ties during berry development and ripening were further analyzed to understand themolecular mechanism of sugar accumulation. The activity of INVs in the cell wall andvacuole increased toward ripe berries. Amylase activity involved in starch metabolismwas not detected in unripe berries but was found in ripe berries. Sucrose resynthesizing SS enzyme activity was detected upon early ripening and had the highestactivity in ripe berries. Interestingly, our transcriptome data showed that supplementalirradiation with red and blue light triggered upregulation of several sugar metabolism-related genes, including α- and β-amylases. Also, differential expression patterns inresponses to red and blue light were found across sucrose, galactose, and sugar-alcoholmetabolism. Our enzymological and transcriptional data provide new understanding ofthe bilberry fruit sugar metabolism having major effect on fruit quality (20) (PDF) Insights into sugar metabolism during bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit development.

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Floral transition in the cultivated everbearing strawberry is a hot topic because these genotypes flower perpetually and are difficult to maintain in a non-flowering state. However, it has rarely been studied using morphogenetic and molecular analyses simultaneously. We therefore examined the morphogenetic effects and the activation of genes involved in floral induction and initiation in seedlings of an everbearing F1-hybrid. Seedlings were grown at 12, 19, and 26 °C under 10 h SD and 20 h LD conditions. We observed a strong environmental influence on meristem development and a FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FaFT1)–SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (FaSOC1) pathway similar to that in the everbearing woodland strawberry. The everbearing cultivar showed typical features of a quantitative LD plant, flowering earlier under LD than SD conditions at all temperatures. We also found that floral induction is facilitated by FaFT1 upregulation under LD conditions, while FaSOC1 upregulation in the apex leads to photoperiod-independent floral initiation. Moreover, we confirmed the strawberry meristem identity gene FaFUL can also be used as an early indicator of floral initiation in EB cultivars. This study also highlights the advantages of seed-propagated F1-hybrids in genetic studies, namely that they are genetically identical and not biased by a previous flowering history.