Abstract

Denne rapporten gir resultater fra andre år (2021) i prosjektet"ROBO-GOLF: Bedre gresskvalitet, redusert gjødselkostnad og mindre bruk av fossil energi ved bruk av robotklippere på fairway og semi-rough". Arbeidspakke (WP1) omfatter forsøk med sammenlikning av robotklipper og manuell klipper (sylinder-klipper på fairway, 15 mm klippehøyde; rotorklipper på semirough, 35 mm klippehøyde) til ulike grasarter. Resultatene viste forskjeller mellom robotklipping og manuell klipping, som for det meste ble sett på semi-rough når det gjelder sykdommer, ugress (hvitkløver) og jordpakking. En tendens til lavere sykdomsforekomst med robotklipping ble sett spesielt på semi-rough i alle arter på sensommeren/høsten, men også i Agrostis capillaris på fairway. Mer hvitkløver på de robotklippede ruter med Lolium perenne i semi-rough resulterte i et lavere helhetsinntrykk. I arbeidspakke 2 (WP2) ble nitrogen (N) gjødseleffekten av retur av klipp med robot- vs. manuell klipping studert på fairway etablert i en blanding bestående av Poa pratensis, Agrostis capillaris og Festuca rubra. Årlige N-rater på 0, 30, 60, 90 og 120 kg/ha/år, hver delt inn i 6 like tilførsler, ble brukt over sesongen. Innsamling av klipp én gang per måned viste at tilbakeføring av klipp både for manuell og robotklipping økte gressveksten sammenlignet med når klippet ble fjernet. Samtidig var N-konsentrasjonen i klippet høyere om våren og forsommeren, men ikke på sensommeren og høsten. Helhetsinntrykket av gresset viste samme høye vurdering for robot- og manuell klipp. I WP3 ble demonstrasjonsforsøk med robotklippere sammenlignet med sylinderklippere på fairway og rotorklippere på semi-rough videreført fra 2020 på fem golfbaner i Norden. Helhetsinntrykk, dekning av ugress og sykdommer og energibruk ble registrert månedlig fra mai til september. Helhetsinntrykk i robotklippede ruter var stort sett lik manuelt klippede ruter på fairway og semi-rough. På noen datoer resulterte robotklipping i signifikant høyere helhetsinntrykk enn manuell klipping.

Abstract

Soil surfactants are applied to alleviate soil water repellency (SWR). The ability of surfactants to improve turfgrass quality under dry conditions is well documented, but less information exists about their role in situations with water surplus. Our objective was to study responses to monthly application of the surfactant Qualibra (20 L ha–1) under dry and wet conditions on a sand-based green covered with creeping bentgrass. Dry conditions implied irrigation to field capacity (FC) once a week (FC1) in 2014 (a year with warm and dry weather from May through July) and deficit irrigation to 60% of FC once a week (DEF1) in 2015 (May through July cool and wet). Wet conditions implied excessive irrigation twice a week (EX2) with 50% more water than needed to replenish FC. The surfactant decreased the average soil water content of the surface 7.5 cm of the root zone from 0.193 to 0.168 m3 m–3 in 2014 and from 0.191 to 0.171 m3 m–3 in 2015. In 2015, the reduction in SWC was stronger with EX2 than with DEF1 irrigation, and this was accompanied by less organic matter accumulation on plots receiving EX2 irrigation. The surfactant reduced the water drop penetration time (WDPT) regardless of irrigation treatments, but improved turfgrass quality only with DEF1 irrigation in 2015. A harder playing surface due to Qualibra was not observed in 2014 and only at one out of six observations with EX2 irrigation in 2015. We conclude that surfactants imply various benefits depending on water supply.

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Abstract

Dollar spot, caused by at least five Clarireedia species (formerly Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F. T. Benn.), is one of the economically most important turfgrass diseases worldwide. The disease was detected for the first time in Scandinavia in 2013. There is no available information from Scandinavian variety trials on resistance to dollar spot in turfgrass species and cultivars (http://www.scanturf.org/). Our in vitro screening (in glass vials) of nine turfgrass species comprising a total of 20 cultivars showed that on average for ten Clarireedia isolates of different origin, the ranking for dollar spot resistance in turfgrass species commonly found on Scandinavian golf courses was as follows: perennial ryegrass = slender creeping red fescue > strong creeping red fescue > Kentucky bluegrass = velvet bentgrass > colonial bentgrass = Chewings fescue ≥ creeping bentgrass = annual bluegrass. Significant differences in aggressiveness among Clarireedia isolates of different origin were found in all turfgrass species except annual bluegrass (cv. Two Putt). The U.S. C. jacksonii isolate MB-01 and Canadian isolate SH44 were more aggressive than C. jacksonii isolates from Denmark and Sweden (14.10.DK, 14.15.SE, and 14.16.SE) in velvet bentgrass and creeping bentgrass. The Swedish isolate 14.112.SE was generally more aggressive than 14.12.NO despite the fact that they most likely belong to the same Clarireedia sp. The U.S. C. monteithiana isolate RB-19 had similar aggressiveness as the Scandinavian C. jacksonii isolates, but was less aggressive than two U.S. C. jacksonii isolates MB-01 and SH44. Thus, aggressiveness of Clarireedia isolates was more impacted by their geographic origin and less by species of the isolate and/or the host turfgrass species.

Abstract

Many greenkeepers and authorities are concerned about the environmental risks resulting from pesticide use on golf courses. We studied leaching and surface runoff of fungicides and metabolites during two winter seasons after fall application of boscalid, pyraclostrobin, prothioconazole, trifloxystrobin and fludioxonil in field lysimeters at NIBIO Landvik, Norway. The applications were made on creeping bentgrass greens (5% slope) that had been established from seed or sod (26 mm mat) on USGA‐spec. root zones amended with Sphagnum peat or garden compost, both with 0.3‐0.4% organic carbon in the root zone. The proportions of the winter precipitation recovered as surface and drainage water varied from 3 and 91% in 2016‐17 to 33 and 55% in 2017‐18 due to differences in soil freezing, rainfall intensity and snow and ice cover. Detections of fungicides and their metabolites in drainage water were mostly within the Environmental Risk Limits (ERLs) for aquatic organisms. In contrast, concentrations in surface runoff exceeded ERLs by up to 1000 times. Greens established from sod usually had higher fungicide losses in surface runoff but lower losses in drainage water than greens established from seed. Presumably because of higher microbial activity and a higher pH that made prothioconazole‐desthio more polar, fungicide and metabolite losses in drainage water were usually higher from greens containing compost that from greens containing peat. Leaching of fungicides and metabolites occurred even from frozen greens. The results are discussed in a practical context aiming for reduced environmental risks from spraying fungicides against turfgrass winter diseases.

Abstract

In 2018–2019, establishment problems were encountered, after reseeding creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) on a sand-based putting green after ice encasement at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center, Norway. Seeds germinated, but the seedlings attained a purple color and died in large patches. Replacement of the top 3 cm layer with new sand amended with Sphagnum peat or garden compost did not solve the problem. To explain this phenomenon, we (1) analyzed the original substrate for nematodes in patches with and without reestablishment failure; and (2) conducted a factorial pot trial with creeping bentgrass and Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. commutata) seeded on different substrates, some of them in layers, and with and without phosphorus (P) fertilization. The nematode counts showed six times more stubby-root nematodes and two times more spiral nematodes and needle nematodes in the patches with dead seedlings than in the patches with healthy seedings. In the pot trial, the fastest and slowest reestablishment was observed with new sand amended with garden compost and in the two treatments that included the original substrate, respectively. Replacement of the top 3 cm of the old substrate with new garden compost resulted in stagnation of bentgrass seedlings from four weeks after seeding, while fescue seedlings were unaffected. We conclude that the failure to reestablish creeping bentgrass was primarily due to nematodes, which are likely to be more critical for seedlings than for established turf. The green was later reestablished successfully with a 100 % red fescue seed blend.

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Abstract

Seed mixtures with a nurse grass that germinates quickly at low soil temperatures can be an option for faster establishment of Agrostis stolonifera (AS) putting greens after winter damage. From 2015 to 2018 Poa trivialis (PT) ‘Dark Horse’ and Lolium perenne (LP) ‘Chardin’ were evaluated as nurse grasses in comparison with pure AS ‘Independence’ at two experimental sites in each of the two major climatic zones of the Nordic countries. Poa annua (PA) ‘Two‐Putt’ was also included as a nurse grass in the northern zone. As an overall trend, establishment was faster with AS+LP than with AS+PT and AS+PA, which in turn had faster establishment than pure AS. In the northern zone, AS+PT produced better turf quality than pure AS in the seeding year and year after and tended to be superior even on average for the entire trial period (mean value 6.0 vs. 5.8 for pure AS, 5.3 for AS+LP, and 4.6 for AS+PA; scale 1–9 where 9 is the highest quality). In the same zone, AS+PT also suffered less overall winter damage than the other combinations and was less infected with microdochium patch than pure AS. In the southern zone, PT and especially LP were far more persistent than in the northern zone and compromised turfgrass quality compared with pure AS. In conclusion, we recommend PT as a nurse grass for faster establishment of AS putting in the northern zone, but not in the southern zone where AS should rather be seeded in a pure stand.

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Abstract

Dead greens in spring due to winterkill is common on Nordic golf courses. The objective of this research was to evaluate drop seeding, spike seeding and slit seeding of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.‘007’) and rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.) in comparison with an unseeded control treatment for reestablishment of annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) putting greens after winterkill. Three trials were conducted on golf courses in Central Sweden (60–61° N, 15–16° E 70–170 m a.s.l.); two in 2017 with soil temperatures varying from 6 to 16 °C during the trial period, and one in 2018 with temperatures varying from 13 to 26 °C. On average for the three trials, turfgrass coverage 4 and 6 wk after seeding was better with spike seeding or slit seeding than with drop seeding which was not different from the unseeded control. Creeping bent grass and rough bluegrass coverage did not differ on average for three trials but slit seeded rough bluegrass had better coverage after 4 wk than any of the other treatments on average for the two trials in 2017. Together with the evaluation of seed mixtures in the SCANGREEN program, this research shows that slit seeding of rough bluegrass can be recommended for faster recovery of winterkilled annual bluegrass greens in central and northern parts of the Nordic countries. Rough bluegrass can either be seeded alone to enable faster golf course opening, or it can be seeded in mixture with creeping bentgrass as part of a long-term strategy to replace annual bluegrass with creeping bentgrass.

Abstract

Denne rapporten gir resultater fra første år i prosjektet ‘ROBO-GOLF: Bedre gresskvalitet, redusert gjødselkostnad og mindre bruk av fossil energi ved bruk av robotklipper på fairway og semi-rough’ I arbeidspakke (WP) 1 ble forsøk med sammenlikning av robotklipper og manuell klipper (sylinder-klipper på fairway, 15 mm klippehøyde; rotorklipper på semi-rough, 35 mm klippehøyde) til ulike grasarter anlagt på NIBIO Landvik i 2020. Foreløpige resultater fra perioden 11.august - 30.oktober 2020 (etter at grasdekket var etablert) viste bedre helhetsinntrykk med robotklipping enn med manuell klipping på fairway, spesielt i engkvein (Agrostis capillaris) som ble mindre angrepet av mikrodochiumflekk. På semi-rough var derimot skuddtettheten mindre og bladbredden større, og engrapp (Poa pratensis) ble mer invadert av tunrapp og mer angrepet av rust ved robotklipping enn ved manuell klipping.

Abstract

This research aimed to determine if creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) can be used as an alternative to colonial bentgrass (Agrostis capillaris L.) in a mixture with red fescue [equal rates of Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. commutata Gaud.) and slender creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. littoralis [G. Mey.] Auquier)] on Nordic golf greens managed without pesticides. The two mixtures were compared in two experiments: Experiment 1 under the creeping bentgrass management regime (mowing height, 3 mm; fertilization, 15 g N m−2 yr−1) and Experiment 2 under the red fescue management regime (5 mm and 10 g N m−2 yr−1) at three sites during 2015–2018. A seed mixture of red fescue and velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.) was included in Experiment 2 only. The results showed that red fescue plus creeping bentgrass produced greens of equal turfgrass quality and with less Microdochium patch than red fescue plus colonial bentgrass under both regimes. In Experiment 2, red fescue plus velvet bentgrass resulted in higher turfgrass quality than the other mixtures but was more susceptible to Microdochium patch than red fescue plus creeping bentgrass. Tiller counts in the mixed plots at Landvik showed that red fescue was not outcompeted by bentgrass in any of the mixtures and that it was easier to manipulate the balance between red fescue and bentgrass in the mixture with creeping bentgrass than that with colonial bentgrass. More research should be put into optimal management, especially irrigation and thatch control, of mixed red fescue–bentgrass greens.

Abstract

This is a report on the potential of NanoPro™ to reduce the rate of two commonly used fungicides for control of Microdochium patch (Microdochium nivale), the economically most important turfgrass disease in Scandinavia. The experiment was conducted from 14 Sept. 2018 to 1 May 2019 on an annual bluegrass golf green at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center Landvik. Use of NanoPro™ at a rate of 292 ml/ha in tank mixture with the systemic fungicide Delaro® SC 325 or/and the contact fungicide Medallion® TL produced the same level of disease control with a 30-60% reduction in fungicide dosage as with full fungicide dosage without additive. NanoPro™ was more effective with Medallion® TL than with Delaro® SC 325. We conclude that NanoPro™ may have a big potential in Scandinavia and other countries where authorities require reduced fungicide use. The experiment should be repeated one more year before giving final recommendations.

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Abstract

SCANTURF is a joint Nordic programme for turfgrass variety testing, set up in 2005 and funded by variety entrance fees only. It replaced and simplified the former government‐funded national evaluation programmes in Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The programme includes testing of all cool‐season grasses on lawn/fairways at 15–20 mm mowing height (“lawn trials”) and optional testing of Poa pratensis L. and Lolium perenne L. on simulated football pitches with wear, mowed at 30 mm (“wear trials”). Since 2013, the program has regarded the Nordic countries as one trial zone with three test sites: Tystofte Denmark (55°15′ N, 11°20′ E), Landvik, Norway (58°21’ N, 8°32’ E) and Ylistaro, Finland (62°57′ N, 22°31’ E). Wear trials are carried out at the intermediate location Landvik only. Candidate varieties are tested against two reference varieties of the same species or subspecies. In the lawn trials, candidate varieties are evaluated for visual merit (overall turfgrass quality), winter damage, winter color, diseases and daily height growth at all three locations and for tiller density, fineness of leaves, in‐season (genetic) color, at Landvik only. Based on the results from the SCANTURF trials in 2014–2016 and 2016–2018, the candidate varieties Fabian, Tetrastar, Annecy, and Monroe (Lolium perenne), Becca, Harmonie, Traction, and Markus (Poa pratensis) and Lystig, Greenmile, and Humboldt (Festuca rubra ssp. commutata) were recommended for lawns in the Nordic countries, while Eurocordus, Columbine, Monroe, and Annecy (Lolium perenne) and Harmonie (Poa pratensis) were recommended for sports grounds. More use of the recommended varieties will have a positive effect on quality of lawns and sport grounds in the Nordic countries. Less winter injury and increasing relative performance with increasing latitude of the tetraploid perennial ryegrass variety Fabian in the lawn trials may possibly lead to more use of perennial ryegrass in the northern and more continental parts of the region.

Abstract

Phosphorus is an essential plant nutrient, but primary resources are limited and overfertilization may cause eutrophication of freshwater. Our objectives were to examine temperature effects on (a) optimal P rate for turfgrass establishment, and (b) increasing rates of foliar vs. granular P for early spring growth of established greens. Two trials, both on USGA root zones and replicated in April−May over 2 yr, were conducted in daylight phytotrons at 7, 12 and 17 °C. Experiment 1 compared 5 P rates from 0 to 0.48 g P m−2 wk−1 for creeping bentgrass establishment on a sand containing 13 mg P kg−1 (Mehlich‐3). Results showed no temperature effect on the optimal P rate. Bentgrass coverage and clipping yield increased up to 0.12 and 0.24 g P m−2 wk−1, corresponding to 6 and 12% of the N input, respectively. The concentration of P in clippings was higher at 7 than at 17 °C indicating that temperature was more limiting to shoot growth than to P uptake. A higher root/top ratio showed that plants invested more in roots under P deficiency. Experiment 2 was conducted using intact cores from a 4‐yr‐old creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) green with a Mehlich‐3 P level of 34 mg P kg−1. Results showed increased clipping yields up to 0.18 g P m−2 wk−1 and higher P uptake with granular than with foliar application, but there was no effect on turfgrass color and no interaction with temperature. Low temperatures did not justify higher P applications.

Abstract

Dette er den første rapporten om potensialet for additivet NanoPro til å redusere doseringen av de to mest brukte fungicider for bekjemping av mikrodochium flekk (Microdochium nivale), den økonomisk viktigste sykdommen på golfbaner i Skandinavia. Forsøket ble gjennomført fra 14.sept. 2018 til 1.mai 2019 på en tunrappgreen ved NIBIO Turfgrass Research Centre Landvik. Bruk av NanoPro 292 ml/ha i tankblanding, først med det systemiske fungicidet Delaro® SC 325 den 19.sept.18 og deretter med kontakt fungicidet Medallion® TL den 15.nov.18 gjorde det mulig å oppnå samme sykdomskontoll med 30-60 % mindre dose av fungicid. Virkningen av NanoPro var bedre med Medallion® TL enn med Delaro® SC 325. Våre foreløpige data tyder på at NanoPro kan være et viktig hjelpemiddel for å redusere forbruket av soppmidler på golfbaner. Forsøket bør gjentas ett år for å dokumentere effekten av NanoPro igjennom en artikkel i et vitenskapelig tidsskrift.

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Abstract

The study intended to compare repellency of three insecticides on bumble bees and honey bees in Norwegian red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) seed crops, and to examine effects of thiacloprid on bumble bee colony development in the field. The repellency study was carried out in a largescale field trial in SE Norway in 2013. On average for observations during the first week after spraying, 17 and 40% less honey bees (P = .03) and 26 and 20% less bumble bees (P = .36) were observed on plots sprayed with the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin and alpha-cypermethrin, respectively, than on unsprayed control plots. No pollinator repellency was found on plots sprayed with the neonicotinoid thiacloprid. Compared with unsprayed control the seed yield increases were 22% on plots sprayed with thiacloprid vs. 12–13% on plots sprayed with pyrethroids (P = .10). Follow-up studies in 2014–2016 focused on the effect of thiacloprid on bumble bee colony development in commercially reared nests of Bombus terrestris placed into red clover seed crops at the start of flowering. Unsprayed control crops were compared with crops sprayed either at the bud stage or when 18–44% of flower heads were in full bloom. Chemical analyses of adult bumble bees showed that thiacloprid was taken up in bees when crops were sprayed during flowering, but not detected when crops were sprayed at the bud stage. The bumble bees in late-sprayed crops also developed weaker colonies than in unsprayed crops. Dead bees with a high internal concentration of thiacloprid were found in one crop sprayed during the night at 35% flowering. This shows that thiacloprid is not bee-safe if sprayed after anthesis and that spraying has to be conducted at the bud stage to reduce its contamination of nectar and pollen.

Abstract

This a first report from testing of NanoGro on established fairway. The aim of the trial was to investigate the potential of NanoGro to improve turfgrass quality and reduce fertilizer cost on established turf at fairway mowing height in a Scandinavian environment.The experiment was conducted in May-October 2019 at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center Landvik. NanoGro improved turf quality when no fertilizer was applied. However, NanoGro had no effect when combined with turfgrass fertilizers.

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Abstract

In recent years, rising competition for water coupled with new environmental regulations has exerted pressure on water allocations for turfgrass irrigation. In this article, we reviewed published scientific and industry evidence on the agronomic and environmental impacts of turfgrass irrigation using a robust systematic review methodology. Our focus was on the links between (i) irrigation management (amount and frequency), (ii) agronomic responses to irrigation (turf quality, growth rates and rooting) and (iii) environmental impacts (nitrogen leaching). Based on an initial screening of 653 studies and data extracted from 83 papers, our results show that in most cases, under moderate levels of deficit irrigation (50%–60% of actual evapotranspiration), turf quality can be maintained at an acceptable level but with lower water consumption compared to irrigating back to field capacity. Irrigation beyond field capacity was found to increase the risk of nutrient leaching. However, evidence also showed that the concentration and total loss of urn:x-wiley:09312250:media:jac12265:jac12265-math-0001 in leachate were influenced more by nitrogen (N) rates, soil characteristics, turfgrass species and turfgrass growth rates than by irrigation practices. Our analyses suggest that turfgrass irrigation should be scheduled to apply water at moderate levels of deficit irrigation, sufficient to maintain turfgrass quality but limited to promote a deep and extensive rooting system. The findings provide new insights and valuable evidence for both scientists and practitioners involved in turfgrass research and management.

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Abstract

Greenkeepers are looking for alternatives to fungicides for control of turfgrass diseases. Our objective was to evaluate a petroleum- derived spray oil with a blue-green pigment for control of Microdochium patch/pink snow mold (Microdochium nivale) on golf course putting greens with various durations of snow cover. The spray oil was applied at rates 27 or 54 L ha–1 every third week from late August or September to December, either alone, in tank mixture with potassium phosphite (3 kg PO3 ha–1) or in tank mixture with half rate of fungicides approved for turf, in five 1-yr trials in the Nordic countries. The oil was as effective or more effective than fungicides and gave, on average, 94 and 98% disease control at rates 27 and 54 L ha–1, respectively. Tank mixtures with half rate of prochloraz + propioconazole and fludioxonil did not increase disease suppression in a trial with 79 d snow cover. Phosphite reduced disease severity in one trial only and did not improve disease control or turfgrass quality when tank-mixed with the oil. The pigment in the spray oil was highly persistent and improved turfgrass greenness except in a trial where the combination of oil and ice cover gave a transitory black color at ice melt. Another trial with long snow cover showed a drop in turfgrass quality in spring as the spray oil prevented normal green-up. In conclusion, this research shows that a spray oil has the potential to reduce fungicide use on Nordic golf courses.

Abstract

A number of factors such as low soil temperature, desiccation and thatch can be serious limiting factors for the successful reestablishment of golf greens following winter damages. The rate of germination and seedling root growth have important implications for competition between species on a golf green. This research project has shown that P. annua is a very competitive species, due to quicker germination at lower temperatures, especially compared to A. stolonifera and F. rubra ssp communtata. Root growth of P.annua was also significantly quicker than of the Agrostis species tested. Seedlings of Agrostis species and F.rubra ssp commutata that germinate in close proximity to P. annua seedlings stand a large chance of being choked out. In order to reduce competition with P.annua, early seeding should be avoided. In this study, no difference in turfgrass establishment wasobserved when seedlings were grown using soil water extracts or soil from an ice-encased green,compared to a control. However, further investigations regarding reestablishment following iceencasement are warrant, and should be investigated on older greens with a higher organic mattercontent. The results from the demonstration trials emphasize the importance of using a sowingtechnique that ensures proper seed – soil contact. This is of particular importance for theestablishment of turfgrass species on golf greens, due to the high risk of desiccation.

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Abstract

Seed crops of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) are usually established with a cover crop. Provided sufficient light, white clover may compensate for low plant density by stoloniferous growth. Our objectives were (1) to compare spring barley or spring wheat used as cover crops for white clover and (2) to find the optimal seeding rate/row distance for white clover. Seven field trials were conducted in Southeast Norway from 2000 to 2003. Barley was seeded at 360 and 240 seeds m−2 and wheat at 525 and 350 seeds m−2. White clover was seeded perpendicularly to the cover crop at 400 seeds m−2/13 cm row distance or 200 seeds m−2/26 cm. Results showed that light penetration in spring and early summer was better in wheat than in barley. On average for seven trials, this resulted in 11% higher seed yield after establishment in wheat than in barley. The 33% reduction in cover crop seeding rate had no effect on white clover seed yield for any of the cover crops. Reducing the seeding rate/doubling the row distance of white clover had no effect on seed yield but resulted in slightly earlier maturation of the seed crop.

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Abstract

Invasion of annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a major concern on red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) putting greens. Our objective was to determine the effect of three seasonal fertilizer distribution treatments on red fescue turf quality and annual bluegrass encroachment. The experiment was conducted over 2 yr on a USGA-specified putting green at NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center Landvik, Norway (58° N). A complete liquid fertilizer was applied weekly for an annual nitrogen input of 11 g m−2 in all treatments. In the FLAT rate treatment, the weekly fertilizer rate was 0.45 g N m−2 wk−1 from 5 May to 28 September. The FALL+ treatment received 0.68 g N m−2 wk−1 from 11 August to 28 September and 0.23 g N m−2 wk−1 from 5 May to 21 June, whereas the SPRING+ treatment was the opposite. The SPRING+ fertilization resulted in significantly better turf quality and significantly less annual bluegrass than the two other treatments in the second year of the study. The FALL+ fertilization gave higher quality ratings in the fall and early spring, but this effect came at the expense of more annual bluegrass. In conclusion, we recommend a fertilizer regime with the highest input from early May until midsummer to produce red fescue putting greens with the highest possible turfgrass quality and minimal encroachment by annual bluegrass.

Abstract

Turfgrass grow-in on sand-based putting greens usually incurs a high risk for nitrogen (N) leakage. Our objective was to evaluate how substitution of a standard mineral fertilizer with an amino-acid-based fertilizer affects creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) establishment rate and the concentration of nitrate and total N in drainage water. The experiment was conducted from 19 May to 26 July 2016 in the United States Golf Association green field lysimeter facility at Landvik, Norway. The liquid fertilizers arGrow Turf (70% of N as arginine and 30% as lysine) and Wallco (60% of N as nitrate and 40% as ammonium) were applied at ∼2-wk intervals at the two rates of 1.5 or 3.0 g N m−2 application−1. Results showed significantly faster grow-in on plots receiving amino-acid-based fertilizer than on plots receiving mineral fertilizers; the average turfgrass coverage 26 d after the first fertilization was 75 and 36%, respectively. In parallel with this, the average concentration of nitrate and total N in drainage water, as well as the total N loss, were all reduced by 40 to 45%. Arginine and lysine at 1.5 g N m−2 gave faster grow-in than Wallco at 3.0 g N m−2 and was the only treatment in which the drainage water complied with EU’s requirements for maximum concentration of nitrate in drinking water.

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Abstract

Research concerning the cultural practice of golf course fairways is important because legislation on pesticide reduction in Europe and North America may potentially cause serious weed problems. Establishing a strong, competitive turfgrass sward may aid in reducing the invasion of broadleaved weeds and Poa annua L. The objective of this research was to determine changes in the grass species composition and weed occurrence of in-use fairway turfs after repeated overseeding of three grass species separately: Lolium perenne L., Festuca rubra L., and Poa pratensis L., all at rates 300 kg ha−1. Overseeding was conducted with a disc seeder, alone or in combination with extra fertilizer (50 kg N + 34 kg P ha−1) in either May or September on three Danish golf courses from 2011 to 2013. Results showed no increase in the population of F. rubra or P. pratensis after 3 yr of overseeding. Lolium perenne was successfully introduced when seeded in autumn and when extra fertilizer was added immediately after overseeding. None of the overseeding treatments reduced the occurrence of P. annua, Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg., Bellis perennis L., or Trifolium repens L. The results are discussed in relation to the fact that the fairways were unirrigated and that they were open to play after overseeding.

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Abstract

Growing substrates, fertilizer inputs, and irrigation are important factors for grow-in of sand-based putting greens. The research reported here was triggered by grow-in problems encountered in 2015 after replacing garden compost with Sphagnum peat in the rootzone on a sand-based green at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center, Norway. A pot trial was conducted with the same type of sand amended with: (i) 20% (v/v) garden compost, (ii) 10% (v/v) Sphagnum peat, (iii) equal volumes of (i) and (ii), (iv) 10% (v/v) Sphagnum peat plus lime (200 g CaCO3 m−2), and (v) 10% (v/v) Sphagnum peat plus phosphoric acid, 5 g P m−2. The amendments were tested with or without preplant application of chicken manure (5 g N and 2.5 g P m−2) and at the two irrigation rates: 3 and 12 mm d−1. The pots were seeded with creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), and turfgrass coverage and clipping yields were recorded for 5 wk after seeding. Turfgrass coverage developed significantly faster and clipping yields were significantly higher after amendment with compost than after amendment with peat or peat plus lime. Incorporation of chicken manure did not enhance grow-in on substrates containing full or half rates of compost but improved grow-in on peat, especially when combined with phosphoric acid. Excessive irrigation had no impact on turfgrass coverage but reduced clipping yields on substrates containing compost, compost plus peat, or peat plus phosphoric acid. We conclude that the grow-in problems encountered in 2015 were most likely due to inadequate quality of the Sphagnum peat.

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Abstract

Conversion from annual bluegrass or bentgrasses to red fescue could be an efficient way to minimise water use on golf greens. Our objective was to investigate the influ- ences of four irrigation strategies on red fescue water use efficiency, turf quality, growth rate and resistance to annual bluegrass and moss invasion. The trial was car- ried out from August 2013 to August 2015 on a green established according to USGA recommendations under a rainout shelter at Landvik, Norway (58 ° N). On average for 2 years, irrigation to field capacity once per week (FC 1) and deficit irrigation to 60% of FC three times per week (DEF 3) reduced the water consumption by 49% and 72% relative to irrigation to FC three times per week (FC 3). Both DEF 3 and FC 1 retained acceptable turf quality and reduced annual bluegrass in the second year by about one-third. Better control of annual bluegrass was obtained with deficit irrigation to 60% of FC once per week (DEF 1), but this treatment did not produce acceptable turf quality. Compared with FC 3, DEF 3, FC 1 and DEF 1 gave harder surfaces and reduced the moss invasion in the second year by 66%, 90% and 93%, respectively. Irrigation effects on root development and thatch organic matter after 2 years were not significant, although the thatch layer depth was 3 – 4 mm greater in FC 1 than in the other treatments. In conclusion, DEF 3 and FC 1 are both effective irrigation strategies for managing red fescue greens with less water use.

Abstract

Ice encasement (IE) is the most economically important winter stress in Scandinavia; however, little is known about the IE tolerance of different turfgrass species and subspecies except that creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is more tolerant than annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of IE and two protective covers (plastic and plastic over a 10-mm woven mat) on the winter survival of six cool-season turfgrasses commonly used on golf greens. The experiment was conducted on a sand-based green at Apelsvoll, Norway (60°42′ N, 10°51′ E) during the winters of 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Turfgrass samples (8 cm in diameter, 10 cm deep) were removed from the plots at the time of cover installation and throughout the winter. The samples were potted and percent live turfgrass cover assessed after 21 d of regrowth in a growth chamber. Percent turfgrass cover, percent disease, and turfgrass quality were also registered in the field plots in spring. Results indicated that velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.) had superior tolerance to IE, surviving for 98 and 119 d of IE during the winters of 2011–2012 and 2012–2013, respectively. The order of IE tolerance in 2012–2013 was: velvet bentgrass > creeping bentgrass > Chewing’s fescue (Festuca. rubra L. ssp. commutata), slender creeping red fescue (F. rubra L. ssp. litoralis) ≥ colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris) > annual bluegrass. Colonial bentgrass responded negatively to both protective covers in 2012 due to the development of Microdocium nivale. None of the species benefited from the plastic cover alone, compared with natural snow conditions. Annual bluegrass was the only species that benefited from plastic over a woven mat.

Abstract

Ice encasement (IE) is the most economically important winter stress in Scandinavia; however, little is known about the IE tolerance of different turfgrass species and subspecies except that creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is more tolerant than annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of IE and two protective covers (plastic and plastic over a 10-mm woven mat) on the winter survival of six cool-season turfgrasses commonly used on golf greens. The experiment was conducted on a sand-based green at Apelsvoll, Norway (60°42′ N, 10°51′ E) during the winters of 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Turfgrass samples (8 cm in diameter, 10 cm deep) were removed from the plots at the time of cover installation and throughout the winter. The samples were potted and percent live turfgrass cover assessed after 21 d of regrowth in a growth chamber. Percent turfgrass cover, percent disease, and turfgrass quality were also registered in the field plots in spring. Results indicated that velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.) had superior tolerance to IE, surviving for 98 and 119 d of IE during the winters of 2011–2012 and 2012–2013, respectively. The order of IE tolerance in 2012–2013 was: velvet bentgrass > creeping bentgrass > Chewing’s fescue (Festuca. rubra L. ssp. commutata), slender creeping red fescue (F. rubra L. ssp. litoralis) ≥ colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris) > annual bluegrass. Colonial bentgrass responded negatively to both protective covers in 2012 due to the development of Microdocium nivale. None of the species benefited from the plastic cover alone, compared with natural snow conditions. Annual bluegrass was the only species that benefited from plastic over a woven mat.

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Abstract

There has long been a claim that winter injuries of grass are a significant economic burden for golf courses in the Nordic countries. To confirm this claim, in 2015 the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research and the Norwegian Golf Federation, with support of the Scandinavian Turfgrass and Environment Research Foundation, conducted a net-based survey about winter injury in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). This comprehensive survey showed that total costs of repair of winter-injured greens and fairways together with lost revenue on golf courses in the Nordic countries can be at least €14 million. In a year with significant winter injuries, the average cost to repair the turf was between €3000 and €12,000 on 88% of the courses. The revenue loss after a winter with considerable injuries was less than €6000 at 50% of the courses, and 25% of the courses reported a loss between €6000 and €12,000 for these years. The causes of winter injuries varied depending on geography and grass species used on the greens. Biotic factors played a major role in the southern part of Scandinavia, and ice and water injuries were most devastating north of 60°N. This paper summarizes some of the answers from the respondents, including information about the dominating grass species on Nordic golf greens.

Abstract

Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett is an important turfgrass pathogen on golf courses. Our objective was to evaluate Gliocladium catenulatum Gilman & Abbott and/or Streptomyces species for biological control of M. nivale on golf greens. The microbial agents were tested relative to fungicides and an untreated control in vitro and in five field trials from 2011 to 2014. G. catenulatum (Turf G+/WPG, Verdera OY, Finland) was applied from October to December and in March–April, while Streptomyces species (Turf S+/WPS, same manufacturer) was applied from May to October, both at four week intervals. In vitro, Streptomyces species suppressed the growth of M. nivale at 6 and 16°C, while G. catenulatum suppressed growth of M. nivale at 16°C only. In contrast, neither product, nor their combination, had any consistent effect in the field trials. A statistically significant reduction in Microdochium patch (from 3 to 2% of plot area) was seen in a trial on a green dominated by Festuca rubra L., but this reduction was deemed to be of little practical interest to the greenkeeper. Despite multiple applications over 3 yr to build up an antagonistic microflora, only fungicides reduced M. nivale significantly on greens dominated by Poa annua L. or Agrostis capillaris L., which generally had more disease. In conclusion, this research showed no potential of G. catenulatum or Streptomyces species to replace fungicides for control of M. nivale on northern-latitude golf greens.

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Abstract

Red fescue (RF, Festuca rubra L.) is used on golf putting greens in the Nordic region due to its high disease resistance and low requirements for nitrogen (N) and water, but low density and growth rate makes RF susceptible to annual bluegrass (AB, Poa annua L.) invasion. Putting greens seeded with RF + bentgrass (Agrostis sp.) may be more competitive with AB but also have different playing characteristics. Our objective was to compare RF, RF + colonial bentgrass (CB, Agrostis capillaris L.), and RF + velvet bentgrass (VB, Agrostis canina L.) putting greens at two mowing heights (4.0 or 5.5 mm), three N rates (5, 10, or 15 g N m−2 yr−1), and three phosphorus (P)–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi treatments (0 and 1.8 g P m−2yr−1 without inoculation and 0 g P m−2yr−1 with inoculation). The four-factorial experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at Landvik, Norway. Red fescue provided lower visual quality and density and less competition against AB than RF + bentgrass combinations. Increasing the N rate from 5 to 15 g N m−2yr−1 increased the proportion of bentgrass tillers from 53 to 64% in RF + CB and from 86 to 92% in RF + VB. Surface hardness increased in the order RF + VB < RF + CB < RF turfs. Ballroll distance decreased with increasing N rate and was longer with RF and RF + VB than with RF + CB. The main effects of N and mowing height on AB invasion were not significant, but lower mowing increased AB competition in RF. Mycorrhiza colonization of roots was not significantly affected by any practice, and neither P nor arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influenced the competition against AB.

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Abstract

Satisfactory seed yield of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) cultivars is crucial for the availability of seeds on the market. Many breeders and researchers have used seed yield components to measure, compare, and explain differences in seed yield between diploid and tetraploid red clover cultivars and populations; however, the relative importance of each component varies between studies. In 2011 and 2012, single-plant trials with several tetraploid and one diploid red clover cultivar were established at the Norwegian plant breeding station at Bjørke. The goal was to study the impact of different seed-yield components on the seed yield of tetraploid plants. Seed weight per flower head was the seed-yield component that correlated best with the seed yield plant−1 (r = 0.91 and r = 0.68 in 2011 and 2012, respectively). Path coefficient analysis has also shown that the seed weight per flower head had the highest direct impact on seed yield plant−1 (direct path coefficients were 0.867 and 0.783 in 2011 and 2012, respectively). In comparison, the direct path coefficients for calculated number of flower heads, which was previously highlighted as the most important seed-yield component, were lower and more variable (0.739 and 0.392 in 2011 and 2012, respectively). Since previously seed yield per flower head was also identified as the most important seed-yield component in dense plant canopy, this component might have the potential to select for improved seed yield of new cultivars based on single plants. However, further studies are required to confirm this conclusion.

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Abstract

While tetraploid plants of red clover are taller, have thicker stems, and have broader leaves that altogether result in a higher forage yield compared to diploids, they generally have substantially lower seed yields than diploid plants. Tetraploid red clover can be induced chemically by colchicine or nitrous oxide (N2O) and sexually by union of unreduced gametes. The average seed yield of tetraploid red clover in Norway is 60% of the diploid yield, while in Sweden it is 75%. One objective of this paper was to examine whether there is a difference in seed yield among chromosome doubled tetraploids and crossed tetraploids. A second objective was to investigate differences in seed yield and seed yield components in Norwegian and Swedish tetraploid populations. The third objective was to study which yield component most correlates with the seed yield per hectare. Seed production experiments were established at Landvik and Bjørke in Norway and Svalöv and Lännäs in Sweden. Populations made by crossings of tetraploids gave significantly greater yield (p < 0.001) compared to populations that were made by chromosome doubling. On average, Norwegian and Swedish varieties had equal yields in both experimental years. Norwegian and Swedish varieties differed mostly in earliness traits. Swedish populations began flowering on average 4 d earlier than Norwegian populations. Genotypic correlations showed that seed yield per flower head was the component with the highest correlation (r = 0.956 and r = 0.977) with yield per hectare in both experimental fields. Results from the second experimental year indicate a trend towards improved seed yield after several cycles of recurrent selection for higher seed yield per flower head.

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Abstract

This report presents results from a project testing Turf G+/WPG (fungal products containing Gliocladium catenulatum) and Turf S+/WPS (bacterial products containing Streptomyces spp.), both from Interagro BIOS AB, and Vacciplant (seaweed product containing laminarine) from Nordisk Alkali AB, for the control of Microdochium nivale and other diseases on golf greens. Five field trials were carried out in Denmark, Sweden and Norway from October 2011 to September 2014, and Turf G+/WPG and Turf S+ were tested also in vitro. None of the test-products gave any consistent disease control in the field trials. A significant reduction in Microdochium nivale from 3 % of plot area on untreated plots to 2 % on treated plots was seen in one trial, but this was considered to be of little practical relevance. In all other trials with more severe attacks of Microdochium nivale, only the fungicide control treatment showed a significant reduction in disease compared with the untreated control. On average for all field trials over three years, the higher rate of Vacciplant, the combination of Turf G+/WPG and Turf S+/WPS, and the fungicide treatment gave, in turn, 22, 24 and 87 % less microdochium patch in the fall, but among these, only the effect of fungicide was significant. The effects of the biological products on pink or gray (Typhula incarnata) snow mold after snow melt were even smaller. In the in vitro trials, Turf S+ provided good control of Microdochium nivale at 6 and 16 ̊C, but Turf G+/WPG was effective only at the higher temperature. However, since these results could not be repeated under field conditions, we have to conclude that none of the test products represent any real alternative to fungicides for control of M. nivale or other diseases on Scandinavian golf courses.

Abstract

Syngenta’s GREENCAST model was used to predict timing of fungicide application against microdochium patch and pink snow mold caused by Microdochium nivale on an experimental golf green with annual bluegrass (Poa annua) at Bioforsk Landvik, Southern Norway from 5 Oct. 2012 until 1 June 2013. From 5 Oct. until snow covered the green on 2 Dec. 2012, application of the fungicides Headway (azoxystrobin + propiconazole) or Medallion (fludioxonil) only at GREENCAST high risk warnings resulted in equal control of microdohium patch with one less fungicide application than prophylactic application every third week, application at first sign of disease or application at GREENCAST medium risk warnings. The consequences for pinks snow mold in spring could not be evaluated as the turf was killed by the combination of ice encasement and low freezing temperatures during winter.

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Abstract

This progress report presents preliminary results from a project providing data for potential registration of Turf S+ (bacterial product containing Streptomyces) and Turf G+/WPG (fungal product containing Gliocladium catenulatum), both from Interagro BIOS AB, and Vacciplant (seaweed product containing laminarine) from Nordisk Alkali AB, for the control of Microdochium nivale and other diseases on golf greens. Field trials with all three products are carried out on greens in Denmark, Sweden and Norway from 2011 to 2014, and Turf S+ og Turf G+/WPG are also tested in vitro. Half way through the project, none of the test-products have shown any consistent control of M. nivale or any other disease. In the trials at Bioforsk Landvik and Arendal GK, Norway, there was little attack of M. nivale and no significant effect of any treatment, while in the trials at Rungsted GC, Denmark and Kävlinge GC, Sweden, there were massive attacks, but a significant reduction in disease only in the fungicide control treatments. The fifth trial, at Sydsjælland GC, Denmark, had more healthy turf just before snow cover in late November 2012 on plots that had been sprayed the test products, especially with Turf S+ or Vacciplant than on unsprayed control plots, although the turf quality was not as good as in the fungicide control treatment. The first in vitro trial with the microbial agents suggested better effect of both G. catenulatum and Streptomyces sp. on M. nivale at 16 than at 6°C. Possible implications of this for the protocol will be discussed with the manufacturer. The experimental work continues until the summer of 2014.

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Abstract

Field trials at two locations in Norway previously demonstrated differences in winter survival between two Agrostis species used for turf, velvet bentgrass (VB; A. canina L.) and creeping bentgrass (CB; A. stolonifera L.). The objectives of this study were to compare freezing tolerance and crowncarbohydrate composition of VB and CB. We also compared a direct and two indirect methods of measurements of freezing tolerance. Treatments consisted of: (i) nonacclimated (NA); (ii) acclimation at 2°C for 2 wk (A2); (iii) acclimation at 2°C for 4 wk (A4); and (iv) acclimation at 2°C for 4 wk plussubzero acclimation at –2°C for 2 wk (A4+SZA2). Crowns were harvested for determination of carbohydrates and freezing tolerance. Freezing tolerance (lethal temperature for 50% of the test population [LT50]) was based on whole plant survival (WPS), 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC)reduction, and electrolyte leakage (EL). There were no significant difference in freezing tolerance between VB and CB. The LT50 based on WPS was significantly lower for plants exposed to A2 (–12.7°C), A4 (–14.5°C), and A4+SZA2 (–14.6°C) compared to the NA control treatment (–8.4°C). The concentrations of fructans and sucrose were significantly higher in A2 compared to NA plants of both species, but only fructans continued to increase at A4. The LT50 based on TTC reduction showed better correlation with LT50 based on WPS compared to LT50 values based on EL.

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Abstract

Experiments were set up over two winter seasons on golf greens i the Nordic countries. Two mowing heights in the autumn and one late application of 0.2 kg N /100 m2 were examined for effects on winter survival and turf performance in the spring. There were small effects from mowing height, but partly significant positive effects of fertilization. The results form annual meadow grass (Poa annua) were not consistent, but red fescue (Festuca rubra), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and velvet bent grass (A.canina) accorded.