Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2021

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Abstract

The main objective was to evaluate to what extent subsoil compaction on an arable clay soil (Stagnosol (Drainic)) may be alleviated after 5 years under the climate conditions in South-East Norway. Therefore, field plots which had been ploughed and under minimum tillage were compacted through wheel impact (10x) with a 6.6 Mg wheel load. Samples were taken from the ‘compacted’ and ‘non-compacted reference’ treatments at depths of 40 and 60 cm both before and directly after compaction and again 5 years later. The soil physical parameters revealed that pre-compression stress, bulk density, air capacity, air conductivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity at depths of 40 and 60 cm were impaired by compaction, especially under ploughed. After 5 years, bulk density and pre-compression stress remained almost unchanged, while air capacity, air conductivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity had increased at both the 40 and 60 cm depth on both plots as compared to the compacted state and to R for the most part, indicating the recovery of the soil structure in the subsoil. The compaction status evaluated by the ‘compaction verification tool’ indicates the relative reduction of ‘harmful soil compaction’ (after wheel impact) with a change towards ‘slightly harmful compaction’ for the most part with an as yet limited saturated hydraulic conductivity at both depths after 5 years.

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Abstract

Large population increases of Arctic-breeding waterfowls over recent decades have intensified the conflict with agricultural interests in both Eurasia and North America. In the spring-staging region Vesterålen in sub-Arctic Norway, sheep, dairy and meat farmers have reported reduced agricultural grassland yields due to pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus and barnacle geese Branta leucopsis that rest and forage in the region for 3–4 weeks in spring on their way to their breeding grounds on Svalbard. Here, we report from an experimental exclosure design where goose access to plots at three grassland fields in Vesterålen was prevented. The experiment was conducted over 3 years between 2012 and 2014. Goose abundance varied greatly between fields and years as a function of variable spring weather and forage quantity, facilitating evaluation of longer-term impacts under contrasting grazing intensities. First and second harvest yields across fields and years were 20% and 19% higher in exclosures than in plots open for grazing, while total yields (sum of first and second harvests) were on average 27% higher. Within-year effects on harvest yields varied substantially, primarily due to highly contrasting sward development during the spring-staging periods. Cool weather (2012) led to slow sward development and little or no effects on harvest yields, warmer weather (2013) resulted in generally large effects, while variable weather (2014) led to treatment effects varying across fields, with one field experiencing 61% higher yields in exclosures while there were no significant impacts on first-harvest yields at the two other fields. Goose grazing did not increase dry weight-based proportions of weeds. Overall, the farmers' reports on yield-loss due to goose grazing were confirmed, although impacts varied substantially between years. A novel finding is that second-harvest yields were also reduced. For the most affected farmers, it is unlikely that the current subsidy scheme is sufficient to cover all the their losses.

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Abstract

For a 100% organic value chain, we need more varieties suitable for organic cultivation. Varieties bred for organic growing is a challenge in small markets. Many breeding goals are equal for organic and conventional cereals. Hence, accessions failing qualification as commercial varieties may perform well in organic growing. A field experiment over two years was performed at two growing sites to compare 25 accessions of spring wheat, ranging from old heritage varieties to modern breeding lines. We assessed yield and agronomic characteristics, artisan bread baking quality and sensory characteristics. Modern accessions gave best yields. Old varieties had smaller kernels, less grain filling, lower falling numbers and SDS-sedimentation volumes, but higher concentrations of minerals, although the growing site has a strong effect. Bread from modern accessions performed best in a baking test. Several sensory characteristics such as juiciness, chew resistance, firmness, acid taste and vinegar odor varied between varieties. Heritage varieties have an important cultural value, and many consumers are willing to pay a significant premium price for such products. A premium price is required, since yield levels are often considerably lower.