Sammendrag

This report describes some of the most unique and characteristic natural features and interdependencies between species and nature types at the Vega world heritage site, and how these habitats are intertwined with the continuity of human intervention. Foreseeable threats and change scenarios are then presented and discussed for the key natural features in Vega.

Sammendrag

Det er ikke registrert sammendrag

Til dokument

Sammendrag

We sow or plant vascular plant species on a large scale in revegetation and restoration projects in Norway today. Some of the species used are already found in Norway, but many of the species, subspecies or populations used though native are not local, that is, they are regionally alien. A regionally alien species is a species that is native to Norway (has been in Norway since 1800) somewhere in the country, but which has been spread by humans to places in Norway where they do not occur. In theory, and according to the Biodiversity Act, it is desirable to use local seeds or plants to preserve local biodiversity. The aim of this report is to define guidelines that helps prevent the planting of vascular plant species with a high potential for negative effects on local biodiversity. It is assumed that the native or local populations are better adapted to local environmental conditions than populations from other areas or regions, and the risk of harmful genetic changes is therefore considered small when using local plant and seed sources. Arriving at a common definition for the area within which plants are “local” is difficult, though; vascular plant species are numerous (3317 species in mainland Norway, of which more than half are alien species introduced after 1800, Artdatabanken 2015), have different growth forms, different environmental requirements, and different reproductive and dispersal ecology. Even closely related vascular plant species can differ in such characteristics and hence in the extent of the "place" or “area”. The dispersal ecology of a plant species is of great importance for whether the species has genetically distinct populations within its range or not. Different strategies (wind pollination vs. insect pollination, vegetative propagation vs. seed dispersal, large seeds vs. small seeds) have an impact on the degree of gene flow between populations and thus also how locally adapted the species is in different areas. Whether the species has primarily vegetative reproduction or whether it spreads mainly by means of seeds, and whether the seed dispersal takes place ballistically, with wind or water, or by zookori (attached to animals or eaten by animals) determines how far the species can spread and how large gene flow there is between different populations. Whether the species is pollinated by wind or by the help of insects also affects the degree of gene flow differently. In Norway, there is great variation in many biophysical and ecological conditions (climate, topography, hydrology, and geology) over relatively short distances. This means that species that grow only a few meters apart can grow under different environmental conditions. This large variation in environmental conditions - on different spatial scales - can give rise to local genetic adaptation. However, plants have been moved around the landscape for several hundred years by our livestock (as seeds in fur and hooves, and in faeces) from lowland pasture to mountain pasture and along traffic arteries across the country due to the extensive transport of animals and people. Over time, this has led to expanded geographical distribution for several species and increased gene flow between populations over relatively large distances. .............

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Introduction Atlantic salmon in the River Klarälven in Sweden live the entire life in freshwater, undertaking feeding migrations to Lake Vänern. The upper part of the watershed is in Norway and comprises the River Trysilelva and associated rivers and lakes. Atlantic salmon previously lived in the Norwegian part of the watershed but were lost due to the construction of 11 hydropower stations that block the upstream migration from Vänern. The power stations also cause a high mortality among downstream migrating fish. Tagging studies showed that there is 71-84% mortality of juveniles (smolts) and 100% mortality of adults during downstream migration past the eight lowermost power stations. Extensive mitigation measures are needed to reduce the mortality of downstream migrants and reestablish a population that can reach areas in Norway naturally without being captured in Sweden and transported to Norway. In 2015, the total costs of establishing fishways bypassing the power stations and securing safe downstream migration was estimated to be 1000 million SEK. To compensate for a decline of salmon due to lost habitat, hatchery-produced juveniles have been released in the watershed for more than 100 years, and adult salmon have been captured in the lower reaches of Klarälven and released in upstream reaches. After the Höljes power station was built, 80% of the salmon transported upstream were released upstream of Höljes. In 1993, the Norwegian government stopped these releases due to the large mortality of downstream migrating fish at the power stations. The releases had already been stopped from late summer 1988 due to bacterial kidney disease (BKD) outbreaks in salmon populations in the watershed. Since 1988, transported fish have been released upstream of Edsforsen in Sweden, and have not been able to reach Norway. Aim of report The Norwegian Environment Agency asked VKM to carry out a risk assessment of three specified methods that can be used to reestablish salmon in the Norwegian part of the watershed. This risk assessment is pertinent because the occurrence of alien organisms and infectious agents have developed differently in the Swedish and Norwegian parts of the watershed after salmon became unable to migrate through the river system. In 2013, the fish parasite Gyrodactylus salaris was detected in Klarälven, but has not been recorded in Norwegian parts of the watershed. Here, we assess the risk of negative impacts on native biodiversity by importing Atlantic salmon eggs or live adults from Klarälven to Norway. Three methods of importing eggs or adults were assessed: I. Import of fertilised eggs to a local hatchery in Norway, which are planted in the river in the spring or hatched and released as juveniles or smolts. II. Import of fertilised eggs that will be used to establish a long-term broodstock in Norway using the gene bank model, from which eggs can be planted into the river, or transferred to a local hatchery with subsequent release of juveniles or smolts. III. Import of adult salmon spawners that are captured in the lower parts of Klarälven in Sweden, transported in tanks and released in the Norwegian parts of the watershed. Methods The risk assessment was based on a literature review and qualitative assessment of each of the three methods of importing eggs or adults. The risk of impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystems was assessed for infectious agents, including parasites, bacterial pathogens, and viruses, and for other alien species. For each of the infectious agents and alien species, the risk is based on the product of the magnitude of the potential negative impact to native biodiversity and ecosystems, and the likelihood that negative consequences occur. The risk assessment concludes in terms of low, moderate, or high risk. .......................

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Key words: Risk assessment, Crayfish, Shrimps, Crabs, Climate change, Aphanomyces astaci, White spot syndrome, Alien species, Biological invasion Introduction The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM) was requested by the Norwegian Environment Agency to assess the risk of negative impacts to biodiversity in Norway resulting from import of crustacean decapods for keeping in freshwater aquariums. VKM was asked to 1) list species of crayfish, crabs and shrimps that are currently kept in freshwater aquaria in Norway, and species that are likely to be kept in freshwater aquaria in Norway within the next 10 years, 2) assess the ability of the species to survive under Norwegian conditions and cause impacts on ecosystems and other species, and 3) state the potential negative effects on the biological diversity of diseases caused by pathogens, regulated under the Norwegian Food Act. Methods The risk assessment, without focus on pathogens, was performed in two steps. First, we used a pre-screening toolkit to identify species of crayfish, crabs and shrimps with potential to become invasive in freshwater habitats in Norway. Each species was given an invasiveness score based on 55 questions on biogeography, ecology, and climate change. In a second step, a full risk assessment, including the potential impacts of pathogens, was conducted on those species receiving the highest invasiveness score. This assessment included questions on the organism’s probability of entry and pathways of entry, establishment and spread, potential impacts on biodiversity, and how climate change scenarios might affect the assessment. Likelyhood and confidence was assessed for each question. In conclusion, each species was designated as either low-, moderate-, or high risk. Many crustacean decapod species are confirmed or suspected carriers of pathogens that can cause mass mortality among native crustaceans. The risk posed by crustaceans as carriers of pathogens may be independent of the environmental risk that they pose through ecological interactions. Therefore, the four crustacean disease pathogens that are regulated under the Norwegian Food Act, were assessed separately. These include Aphanomyces astaci causing crayfish plague, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causing white spot disease, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) causing Taura syndrome, and yellow head virus genotype 1 (YHV1) causing yellow head disease. The assessments comprised questions on the pathogen’s probability of entry (as a hitchhiker organism with imported crustaceans), pathways of entry, establishment and spread, and potential impact on crustacean biodiversity. Likelihood and confidence were assessed for each question. In conclusion, each pathogen was designated as either low-, moderate-, or high risk. In a third step, we categorized the likelihood that a crustacean species introduces a pathogen associated with a high- or moderate risk into: I) known chronic carriers, II) suspected chronic carriers, III) suspected situational carrier, IV) possible pathogen transmitters, and V) no direct or circumstantial evidence for carrier status or pathogen transmission in the genus. Results Based on information from the Norwegian Pet Trade Association, the project group listed 112 taxa (mainly species and some genera) of freshwater crayfish, crabs and shrimps that are relevant for trade in Norway. These included 38 crayfish taxa, 28 crab taxa, and 45 shrimp taxa. In addition, one marine crab was included. Sixteen species of crayfish, four species of shrimps, and two species of crabs underwent a full ecological risk assessment. The probabilities of entry both into the aquarium trade in Norway, and potentially further into Norwegian nature, were based on the prevalence of the species in the aquarium trade in Norway. We assumed that all species were equally likely to escape captivity or to be .........

Til dokument

Sammendrag

A recurrent concern in nature conservation is the potential competition for forage plants between wild bees and managed honey bees. Specifically, that the highly sophisticated system of recruitment and large perennial colonies of honey bees quickly exhaust forage resources leading to the local extirpation of wild bees. However, different species of bees show different preferences for forage plants. We here summarize known forage plants for honey bees and wild bee species at national scale in Denmark. Our focus is on floral resources shared by honey bees and wild bees, with an emphasis on both threatened wild bee species and foraging specialist species. Across all 292 known bee species from Denmark, a total of 410 plant genera were recorded as forage plants. These included 294 plant genera visited by honey bees and 292 plant genera visited by different species of wild bees. Honey bees and wild bees share 176 plant genera in Denmark. Comparing the pairwise niche overlap for individual bee species, no significant relationship was found between their overlap and forage specialization or conservation status. Network analysis of the bee-plant interactions placed honey bees aside from most other bee species, specifically the module containing the honey bee had fewer links to any other modules, while the remaining modules were more highly inter-connected. Despite the lack of predictive relationship from the pairwise niche overlap, data for individual species could be summarized. Consequently, we have identified a set of operational parameters that, based on a high foraging overlap (>70%) and unfavorable conservation status (Vulnerable+Endangered+Critically Endangered), can guide both conservation actions and land management decisions in proximity to known or suspected populations of these species.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Pollination sustains biodiversity and food security, but pollinators are threatened by habitat degradation, fragmentation, and loss. We assessed how remaining forest influenced bee visits to flowers in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Borneo. We observed bee visits to six plant species: four crops (Capsicum frutescens L. “chili”; Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai “watermelon”; Solanum lycopersicum L. “tomato”; and Solanum melongena L. “eggplant”); one native plant Melastoma malabathricum L. “melastome”; and the exotic Turnera subulata Smith “turnera”. We made one local grid-based and one landscape-scale transect-based study spanning 208 and 2130 m from forest, respectively. We recorded 1249 bee visits to 4831 flowers in 1046 ten-min observation periods. Visit frequency varied among plant species, ranging from 0 observed visits to S. lycopersicum to a mean of 0.62 visits per flower per 10 min to C. lanatus. Bee visitation frequency declined with distance from forest in both studies, with expected visitation frequency decreasing by 55% and 66% at the maximum distance from forest in each study. We also tested whether the distance to the nearest oil palm patch, with a maximum distance of 144 m, influenced visitation, but found no such associations. Expected visitation frequency was 70%–77% lower for plants close to a 200 ha forest fragment compared with those near large continuous forests (>400 ha). Our results suggest that, although found throughout the oil palm-dominated landscape, bees depend on remaining forests. Larger forests support more bees, though even a 50 ha fragment has a positive contribution. Abstract in Indonesian is available with online material.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

There is increasing interest in developing urban design principles that incorporate good ecological management. Research on understanding the distribution and role of beneficial pollinating insects, in particular, is changing our view of the ecological value of cities. With the rapid expansion of the built environment comes a need to understand how insects may be affected in extensive urban areas. We therefore investigated insect pollinator capture rates in a rapidly growing and densely urbanized city (Melbourne, Australia). We identified a remnant native habitat contained within the expansive urban boundary, and established study sites at two nearby populated urban areas. We employed standard pan trap sampling techniques to passively sample insect orders in the different environments. Our results show that, even though the types of taxonomic groups of insects captured are comparable between locations, important pollinators like bees and hoverflies were more frequently captured in the remnant native habitat. By contrast, beetles (Coleoptera) and butterflies/moths (Lepidoptera) were more frequently observed in the urban residential regions. Our results suggest that the maintenance of native habitat zones within cities is likely to be valuable for the conservation of bees and the ecosystem services they provide.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

1. Predicting plant–pollinator interaction networks over space and time will improve our understanding of how environmental change is likely to impact the functioning of ecosystems. Here we propose a framework for producing spatially explicit predictions of the occurrence and number of pairwise plant–pollinator interactions and of the species richness, diversity and abundance of pollinators visiting flowers. We call the framework ‘MetaComNet’ because it aims to link metacommunity dynamics to the assembly of ecological networks. 2. To illustrate the MetaComNet functionality, we used a dataset on bee–flower networks sampled at 16 sites in southeast Norway along with random forest models to predict bee–flower interactions. We included variables associated with climatic conditions (elevation) and habitat availability within a 250 m radius of each site. Regional commonness, site-specific distance to conspecifics, social guild and floral preference were included as bee traits. Each plant species was assigned a score reflecting its site-specific abundance, and four scores reflecting the bee species that the plant family is known to attract. We used leave-one-out cross-validations to assess the models' ability to predict pairwise plant–bee interactions across the landscape. 3. The relationship between observed occurrence or absence of interactions and the predicted probability of interactions was nearly proportional (GLMlogistic regression slope = 1.09), matching the data well (AUC = 0.88), and explained 30% of the variation. Predicted probability of interactions was also correlated with the number of observed pairwise interactions (r = 0.32). The sum of predicted probabilities of bee–flower interactions were positively correlated with observed species richness (r = 0.50), diversity (r = 0.48) and abundance (r = 0.42) of wild bees interacting with plant species within sites. 4. Our findings show that the MetaComNet framework can be a useful approach for making spatially explicit predictions and mapping plant–pollinator interactions. Such predictions have the potential to identify areas where the pollination potential for wild plants is particularly high, and where conservation action should be directed to preserve this ecosystem function. interactions, network, plants, pollinators, predict, random forest

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Key words: VKM, risk assessment, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment, Norwegian Food Safety Authority, biological control, Nematodes, Phasmarhabditis californica, Moraxella osloensis. Parasitic nematodes and associated bacteria are increasingly being used for biocontrol of molluscs. Functionally, it is the bacteria that kill and thus control the targeted pests, but the function of the bacteria is dependent on the nematodes, which should be regarded as vectors of biocontrol. Although the nematodes and the bacteria have a symbiotic relationship within such biocontrol formulations, it should be noted that they are not dependent on each other in the wild, but can establish separate populations which can be free-living or hosted by other organisms. The biocontrol product Nemaslug 2.0 contains the nematode Phasmarhabditis californica (strain P19D) and the bacterial symbiont Moraxella osloensis (unknown strain). The nematode was first described in 2016 and has never been reported in Norway. The lack of reports suggests that it is absent from Norway, but this conclusion comes with a high degree of uncertainty since there have been limited search efforts. The climatic thresholds of the nematode are not known, but its current distribution, spanning widely varying climates, suggests that it could survive and establish in Norway. Natural spread from currently known areas of establishment to natural habitats in Norway is ruled out due to the nematode’s limited dispersal capacity. However, human-assisted spread (e.g. via the use of biocontrol products) and establishment would be likely if Nemaslug 2.0 is allowed for use in open fields in Norway. Use of Nemaslug 2.0 in greenhouses and other enclosed areas is not likely to facilitate spread to natural habitats in Norway provided that residues are properly handled. However, deposition of product residues from greenhouses to outdoor areas may result in local establishment of the nematode in the vicinity of the deposition. Phasmarhabditis californica has a broad host range and may parasitize both rare/endangered and common mollusc species. However, there is no scientific evidence suggesting that the nematode can affect natural populations of molluscs in wild habitats, or otherwise have negative effects on biodiversity. The nematodes’ association with the bacteria Moraxella osloensis is most likely lost, or at least weakened, in natural habitats, suggesting that the nematode becomes less capable of killing its hosts in the wild. Phasmarhabditis californica is not capable of harming or infecting humans. The bacterial species Moraxella osloensis is already present in Norway in a few locations and at a low abundance, and it may be native to Norway. Little is known regarding its distribution in natural environments, but the literature shows that it can infect humans and other mammals. In humans with immunodeficiency or other comorbidities, M. osloensis can cause meningitis, vaginitis, sinusitis, bacteremia, endocarditis, and septic arthritis. The risk of infection in people handling Nemaslug 2.0 can probably be substantially reduced by protective clothing and appropriate handling. We are not aware of any reported health issues arising from use of the previous version of Nemaslug, which also contains M. osloensis. Different strains of M. osloensis are known to vary in their sensitivity to antibiotics, and likely in other traits too. Thus, the lack of information provided about the strain identity and specific characteristics of the strain used in Nemaslug 2.0 generates a high degree of uncertainty regarding its pathogenicity, climate tolerance, sensitivity to antibiotics etc.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Pollinating insects are an inherent part of most terrestrial ecosystems as they provide a crucial service for most angiosperms, including numerous important crops. A decrease in pollinator populations can therefore have severe consequences for both natural ecosystems and agricultural yields. Pesticide usage has been pointed out as one of the drivers behind pollinator declines. Globally, neonicotinoids are one of the most commonly used insecticides and studies have shown that exposure at sub-lethal levels can alter foraging behaviour, ultimately negatively affecting survival. Using a custom-made bumblebee colony monitoring system, we examined how the number and duration of foraging bouts of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) on an individual level, and hive growth rate, was affected by exposure to low (6.5 µg/L) and high (10.6 µg/L) sub-lethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid clothianidin via nectar. We also examined possible interaction between clothianidin exposure and abiotic factors (temperature and precipitation), and its impact on foraging bout number and duration. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of clothianidin increased foraging bout duration in bumblebees. Furthermore, the foraging bout duration decreased with increasing temperature at both exposure concentrations, whereas the unexposed control group was not affected by temperature. Neither number of foraging bouts nor the daily rhythm of foraging bout duration was affected by clothianidin exposure or temperature. The foraging bout duration decreased with increasing precipitation in both exposed and non-exposed groups. However, we did not find any interaction between precipitation and exposure, suggesting that precipitation does not affect toxicity. Our study shows the importance of semi-natural experiments and accounting for ambient factors when assessing the risk that pesticide exposure may present to pollinators. We conclude that the effect of clothianidin exposure on bumblebee foraging behaviour is temperature sensitive and that local climatic conditions and future climate change scenarios should be considered in risk assessments of clothianidin and other insecticides.

Sammendrag

Key words: Ursus maritimus, CITES, polar bear, Non-Detriment Finding, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment, Norwegian Environment Agency, VKM Background: Canada is the only nation in the world that allows commercial export of polar bear products harvested from its own wild populations. Norway is among the destinations for exported material. Polar bears are listed on CITES appendix II and on list B of the Norwegian CITES Regulation. Import of harvested polar bears to Norway requires both export permits from the Canadian CITES authorities and import permits from the Norwegian Environment Agency. Consequently, a Non-Detriment Finding (NDF) is mandated and was commissioned by the Norwegian Environment Agency (Norwegian Management Authority for CITES) to the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM) (Norway’s CITES Scientific Authority). The NDF is a scientific risk assessment evaluating whether or not international trade can be detrimental to the survival of polar bears. The risk assessment may also be used by the Norwegian Environment Agency to assess whether the polar bears should be placed on Norwegian CITES list A. Currently, the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group (PBSG) recognizes 19 subpopulations of polar bears in the circumpolar Arctic, of which 13 reside wholly (9) or partly (4) in Canada. Together, these 13 populations account for about two thirds of the world’s total polar bear population. This risk assessment considers the populations that are within the hunting areas. Methods: VKM has reviewed current knowledge about polar bear biological characteristics, population status and trends in subpopulations. Scenarios for the future development of the Arctic environment, to which the species is inextricably adapted, are presented. Habitat loss due to declining sea ice is widely recognized as the main threat to polar bears, and this, as well as other obstacles to the species survival, has been evaluated. The various legislations, regulations and monitoring regimes of the range countries are briefly summarised. Moreover, international trade in polar bear products has been analysed. VKM has further undertaken an assessment of data quality and uncertainties. In order to gain access to the most recent information on polar bear biology and management, four scientists from the PBSG were interviewed and the transcripts of the interviews (with consent from the hearing experts) are attached to this report. Results: The best scientific knowledge available for polar bears in Canada suggests that four subpopulations are in decline, two are stable, and one is increasing, while the population trends for the remaining subpopulations are unknown. Noteworthy, all the estimates of population size are highly uncertain. Survey methods also changed between the 2008 and 2018 population estimates used for quota setting. Moreover, data are in most areas collected too infrequently to detect rapid changes in population size. Particularly, under changing environmental conditions. The prognosis for the Arctic marine environment points towards continuing habitat loss and inevitably further decline for the polar bear population. Analyses of data from the CITES trade database reveal a dynamic international market for polar bear products with significant changes in destination countries and the purpose for transactions. The United States was the main importer of polar bear products, mainly hunting trophies, until listing the polar bear as a threatened species in 2008. In more recent years, China has become the major importer, with hides being the preferred product. Simultaneously with these changes, there has been a significant increase in the price of polar bear hides. Conclusion: Several polar bear subpopulations are in decline. Predictions of continuing habitat loss points to further decline. While not the main threat to polar bear survival, international trade .......

Til dokument

Sammendrag

1. Ecological network theory hypothesizes that the structuring of species interactions can convey stability to the system. Investigating how these structures react to species loss is fundamental for understanding network disassembly or their robustness. However, this topic has mainly been studied in‐silico so far. 2. Here, in an experimental manipulation, we sequentially removed four generalist plants from real plant–pollinator networks. We explored the effects on, and drivers of, species and interaction disappearance, network structure and interaction rewiring. First, we compared both the local extinctions of species and interactions and the observed network indices with those expected from three co‐extinction models. Second, we investigated the trends in network indices and rewiring rate after plant removal and the pollinator tendency at establishing novel links in relation to their proportional visitation to the removed plants. Furthermore, we explored the underlying drivers of network assembly with probability matrices based on ecological traits. 3. Our results indicate that the cumulative local extinctions of species and interactions increased faster with generalist plant loss than what was expected by co‐extinction models, which predicted the survival or disappearance of many species incorrectly, and the observed network indices were lowly correlated to those predicted by co‐extinction models. Furthermore, the real networks reacted in complex ways to plant removal. First, network nestedness decreased and modularity increased. Second, although species abundance was a main assembly rule, opportunistic random interactions and structural unpredictability emerged as plants were removed. Both these reactions could indicate network instability and fragility. Other results showed network reorganization, as rewiring rate was high and asymmetries between network levels emerged as plants increased their centrality. Moreover, the generalist pollinators that had frequently visited both the plants targeted of removal and the non‐target plants tended to establish novel links more than who either had only visited the removal plants or avoided to do so. 4. With the experimental manipulation of real networks, our study shows that despite their reorganizational ability, plant–pollinator networks changed towards a more fragile state when generalist plants are lost.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Key words: VKM, risk assessment, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment, Norwegian Environment Agency, Norwegian Food Safety Authority Introduction: The Norwegian Environment Agency and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority asked the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment to assess the risk to Norwegian biodiversity, to the productivity of native salmonid populations, and to aquaculture, from the spread and establishment of pink salmon in Norwegian rivers, and to assess mitigation measures to prevent the spread and establishment of this alien species. Pink salmon is native to rivers around the northern Pacific Ocean. The species usually has a strict two-year life cycle, with populations spawning in even and odd years being genetically isolated. Fertilized eggs of pink salmon were transferred from Sakhalin Island to Northwest Russia in the late 1950s, and fry were released in rivers draining to the White Sea. The first abundant return to rivers in Northwest Russia, as well as to Norway and other countries in northwestern Europe, was recorded in 1960. Stocking with fish from Sakhalin was terminated in 1979. By then, no self-sustaining populations had been established. From 1985 onwards, stocking in White Sea rivers was resumed with fish from rivers in the more northerly Magadan oblast on the Russian Pacific, resulting in the establishment of reproducing populations. Stocking was continued until 1999, when the last batch of evenyear fertilized eggs was imported, and the fry released in spring 2000. Thus, all pink salmon caught after 2001 in the Northeast Atlantic and the Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean including the Barents Sea, as well as in rivers draining into these seas, are the result of reproduction in the wild. Pink salmon is now established with abundant and increasing stocks in Northwest Russia and regular occurrence in rivers in eastern Finnmark. Catches of odd-year adult pink salmon in Northwest Russia were usually below 100 tonnes before 2001 and increased to an annual average of 220.5 tonnes during the period 2001-2017. Even-year returns are smaller than odd-year returns both in Northwest Russia and in Norway. The number of pink salmon recorded in Norwegian rivers peaked in 2017, with a high number of fish in eastern Finnmark, and substantial numbers recorded in rivers all along the coast of Norway and in other European countries. In 2019, the area with abundant returns expanded in comparison with 2017, to include rivers in western Finnmark and Troms. The recorded numbers were perhaps lower in southern Norway in 2017 than in 2019 (full statistics not available when this report was finalised), but also in southern Norway there were more pink salmon in 2019 than in any year before 2017. The large numbers of pink salmon in western Finnmark and Troms in 2019 may indicate an expansion of the area in Norway with abundant odd-year pink salmon returns. In some small rivers in eastern Finnmark, between 1000 and 1500 pink salmon were fished out by local people in 2019, demonstrating the magnitude of the potential impact in terms of numbers of pink salmon. We cannot rule out that this will not happen over larger parts of Norway in the coming years. The even-year strain of pink salmon only occurs in low numbers in Russian rivers, as well as Norwegian, rivers. Adult pink salmon enter the rivers from early July, and spawning occurs in AugustSeptember. Spawning habitat requirements are like those of native salmonids: Atlantic salmon, brown trout, and Arctic charr. Spawning of pink salmon occurs earlier than the native salmonids, but observations in 2019 indicate a possible overlap with native salmonids in September in northern Norway. . Pink salmon eggs hatch in late winter or spring, and the alevins remain in the gravel until most of the yolk sac has been resorbed. Emerging fry are approximately 30 mm in length. ...................

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Global economic value of agriculture production resulting from animal pollination services has been estimated to be $235–$577 billion. This estimate is based on quantification of crops that are available at the global markets, and mainly originates from countries with precise information about quantities of agriculture production, exports, and imports. In contrast, knowledge about the contribution of pollinators to household food and income in small-scale farming at local and regional scales is still lacking, especially for developing countries where the availability of agricultural statistics is limited. Although the global decline in pollinator diversity and abundance has received much attention, relatively little effort has been directed towards understanding the role of pollinators in small-scale farming systems, which feed a substantial part of the world’s population. Here, we have assessed how local farmers in northern Tanzania depend on insect-pollinated crops for household food and income, and to what extent farmers are aware of the importance of insect pollinators and how they can conserve them. Our results show that local farmers in northern Tanzania derived their food and income from a wide range of crop plants, and that 67% of these crops depend on animal pollination to a moderate to essential degree. We also found that watermelon—for which pollination by insects is essential for yield—on average contributed nearly 25% of household income, and that watermelons were grown by 63% of the farmers. Our findings indicate that local farmers can increase their yields from animal pollinated crops by adopting more pollinator-friendly farming practices. Yet, we found that local farmers’ awareness of pollinators, and the ecosystem service they provide, was extremely low, and intentional actions to conserve or manage them were generally lacking. We therefore urge agriculture authorities in Tanzania to act to ensure that local farmers become aware of insect pollinators and their important role in agriculture production.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Agricultural practices to improve yields in small‐scale farms in Africa usually focus on improving growing conditions for the crops by applying fertilizers, irrigation, and/or pesticides. This may, however, have limited effect on yield if the availability of effective pollinators is too low. In this study, we established an experiment to test whether soil fertility, soil moisture, and/or pollination was limiting watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) yields in Northern Tanzania. We subjected the experimental field to common farming practices while we treated selected plants with extrafertilizer applications, increased irrigation and/or extra pollination in a three‐way factorial experiment. One week before harvest, we assessed yield from each plant, quantified as the number of mature fruits and their weights. We also assessed fruit shape since this may affect the market price. For the first fruit ripening on each plant, we also assessed sugar content (brix) and flesh color as measures of fruit quality for human consumption. Extra pollination significantly increased the probability of a plant producing a second fruit of a size the farmer could sell at the market, and also the fruit sugar content, whereas additional fertilizer applications or increased irrigation did not improve yields. In addition, we did not find significant effects of increased fertilizer or watering on fruit sugar, weight, or color. We concluded that, insufficient pollination is limiting watermelon yields in our experiment and we suggest that this may be a common situation in sub‐Saharan Africa. It is therefore critically important that small‐scale farmers understand the role of pollinators and understand their importance for agricultural production. Agricultural policies to improve yields in developing countries should therefore also include measures to improve pollination services by giving education and advisory services to farmers on how to develop pollinator‐friendly habitats in agricultural landscapes.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

ANDERcontrol with the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni as the active organism is sought to be used as a biological control agent in Norway. ANDERcontrol is intended for use against different mites (such as the two-spotted, fruit-tree, and red spider mite, russet mite,cyclamen mite) and in horticultural crops such as fruits, berries, vegetables, and ornamental. VKM’s conclusions are as follows Prevalence, especially if the organism is found naturally in Norway: Amblyseius andersoni has not been observed in Norway. It has been observed, in low numbers, in southern Sweden and has the capability to enter diapause under unfavourable conditions which suggests the potential for establishing under Norwegian conditions. It is however, the view of VKM that it likely lacks the ability to survive and establish in areas with cold winters and chilly summers, as found in most parts of Norway under current climatic conditions. The potential of the organism for establishment and spread under Norwegian conditions specified for use in greenhouses and open field: The thermal preference of A. andersoni restricts its establishment, and the species has not been observed in Norway. The species is capable of entering diapause, but the lack of records, despite targeted surveys, makes it the opinion of VKM that it is unlikely that A. andersoni will be able to establish in outdoor areas in Norway. However, the lack of information on temperature tolerance of the species constitute an uncertainty factor. The risk of spread from greenhouses is low because no wind or vector are likely to carry the mites from the greenhouse to suitable outdoor habitats, and mite populations in greenhouses do not enter the more cold-tolerant diapause. All conclusions are uncertain due to lack of relevant information regarding the species’ climate tolerance. Any ambiguities regarding the taxonomy, which hampers risk assessment: There are no taxonomic challenges related to the assessment of A. andersoni. Assessment of the product and the organism with regard to possible health risk: VKM is unaware of reports where harm to humans by A. andersoni itself, or associated pathogenic organisms have been observed. Mites may however produce allergic reactions in sensitive individuals handling plant material with high numbers of individuals. There is reason to believe that this holds true also for A. andersoni. Key words: VKM, risk assessment, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment, Norwegian Food Safety Authority, biological control, predatory mite

Sammendrag

Atheta-System with the rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz 1856) as the active organism is sought to be used as a biocontrol agent for augmentation biological control in Norway. Atheta-System is intended for use against soil dwelling stages of fungus gnats (e.g. Bradysia paupera), shore flies (Scatella stagnalis), and thrips (e.g. Frankliniella occidentallis) in greenhouses, plastic tunnels, and other closed or controlled climate cultivations of horticultural crops, incl. soft-fruit crops, vegetables, ornamentals, and kitchen herbs. VKM’s conclusions are as follows Distribution, especially if the organism is found naturally in Norway Atheta coriaria is established (naturalized) in Norway since 1919 and has been reported numerous times from Agder in the South to Trøndelag in mid-Norway. The potential of the organism for establishment and spread under Norwegian conditions specified for use in greenhouses and open field The thermal thresholds of A. coriaria are not well-studied, but its current distribution in Southern and mid-Scandinavia shows that it tolerates relatively low winter temperatures, and that the Norwegian summer climate allows for successful reproduction. A. coriaria overwinters in the soil, which provides a relatively sheltered environment. Adults disperse rapidly by flying. All life stages can be vectored by humans – mainly by movement of soil and compost material. Thus, further spread northwards in Norway is predicted irrespective of additional introductions. It is unknown if it can enter diapause under greenhouse conditions. Any ambiguities regarding the taxonomy which hamper risk assessment There are no major taxonomic challenges related to the assessment of A. coriaria. Assessment of the product and the organism with regard to possible health risk VKM is unaware of reports of harm inflicted to humans by A. coriaria itself. Atheta-System comes with the cosmopolitan cheese mite (Tyrophagus putrescentiae), serving as food for A. coriaria. As with most mites, T. putrescentiae may induce allergic reactions in sensitive persons handling the product. Key words: VKM, risk assessment, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment, Norwegian Food Safety Authority, biological control, rove beetle

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The product Limonica, with the predatory mite Amblydromalus limonicus as the active organism, is sought to be used as a biological control agent in Norway. Limonica is intended for use against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentallis), other thrips (e.g. Thrips tabaci), spider mites and whiteflies (e.g. Trialeurodes, Aleyrodes and Bemisia spp.) in protected horticultural crops such as cucumber, sweet pepper, strawberry and ornamentals. The product is not recommended for greenhouse-grown tomatoes. VKM’s conclusions are as follows Distribution, especially if the organism is found naturally in Norway Amblydromalus limonicus has a very wide natural distribution, being reported from New Zealand, Australia South America, Central America, and North America as well as Hawaii. It has also recently established populations in crop productions and non-crop vegetation in Catalonia, North Eastern Spain. Amblydromalus limonicus have not been observed in Norway. The species seems not to have the capability to enter diapause under unfavourable conditions and it is the view of VKM that it likely lacks the ability to survive and establish in areas with cold winters and chilly summers, as found in most parts of Norway under current climatic conditions. The potential of the organism for establishment and spread under Norwegian conditions specified for use in greenhouses and open field The thermal preference of A. limonicus restricts its establishment, and the species has not been observed outdoors in Norway. As the species is incapable of entering diapause it is the opinion of VKM that it is unlikely that A. limonicus will be able to establish in outdoor areas in Norway. However, the lack of detailed information on temperature tolerance of the species constitutes an uncertainty factor. The risk of spread from greenhouses is low because no wind or vector are likely to carry the mites from the greenhouse to suitable outdoor habitats. However, mites that have escaped from a greenhouses to may spread in the nature. All conclusions are uncertain due to lack of relevant information regarding the species’ climate tolerance. Its origin and current distribution suggest that it cannot survive cold winters. Any ambiguities regarding taxonomy that hamper risk assessment There are no taxonomic challenges related to the assessment of A. limonicus. Assessment of the product and the organism with regard to possible health risks VKM Report 2020: 13 8 VKM is unaware of reports where harm to humans has been observed, whether by A. limonicus itself. Mites may, however, produce allergic reactions in sensitive individuals handling plant material with high numbers of individuals. There is reason to believe that this holds true also for A. limonicus. Key words: VKM, risk assessment, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment, Norwegian Food Safety Authority, biological control, predatory mite

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Key words: Psittaciformes, CITES, Appendix I parrots, Status and trade assessment, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment, Norwegian Environment Agency, VKM Background: Parrots are one of the most species-rich groups of birds of which the majority inhabits tropical and subtropical forests. Nearly one-third of parrots are threatened with extinction (IUCN categories CR, EN or VU) and more than half of the world’s parrot species are assumed to be decreasing in numbers. Parrots are popular pets on all continents, mainly due to their colourful feathers, their capacity to mimic the human voice, and their tolerance to life in captivity. More than 250 species have been traded internationally. Since the inception of CITES in 1975, trade of about 12 million live wild-sourced parrots has been registered. Currently, 55 parrot species are listed on CITES Appendix I (Norwegian CITES regulation list A) that includes the most endangered among CITES-listed animals and plants. In compliance with CITES, Norway only permits import for commercial purposes of Appendix I listed parrots bred in captivity in operations included in the Secretariat's Register (Resolution Conf. 12.10 (Rev. CoP15). Presently, 9 of the Appendix I parrot species are bred in such facilities. Import of Appendix I species to Norway requires permits both from the exporter’s CITES authority and the Norwegian Environment Agency (Norwegian CITES Management Authority). All legal transactions of CITES Appendix I listed species should be recorded in the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) Trade Database. However, discrepancies are common, demonstrating that the trade monitoring is not accurate. Moreover, several studies suggest that regardless of efforts to regulate trade, the global conservation situation for parrots may be worse than estimated by the IUCN species statuses. Even though habitat loss is the main threat to most parrot species, it has been suggested that priority should be given to conservation actions aimed at reducing the illegal capture of wild parrots for the pet trade. As Norway’s CITES Scientific Authority, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM) was assigned by the Norwegian Environment Agency to assess the status of populations and trade for Appendix I parrot species. Methods: As different trade patterns are typical for different geographic regions, the species were initially divided into three groups: Africa, Australasia and Central and South America. For species with commercial trade registered in the UNEP-WCMC trade database after year 2010 a full assessment was made. In addition, two species for which negative impact from illegal trade is suspected were also fully assessed. The assessments are based on the Norwegian Cites Regulation and Article III of the Convention and Resolution 16.7(Rev.CoP17). Information on the parrot species assessed in this report were gathered from the text accounts published by BirdLife International and Birds of the World as well as literature cited in the text. Results: VKM undertook full assessments of the population status and trade for 26 of the 55 CITES Appendix I species. The species assessments are presented as fact sheets. They each contain a brief summary of the species’ biology (name, taxonomy, distribution, life history, habitat and role in ecosystem), populations and trends, threats and conservation status, population surveillance and regulations, evaluation of legal/illegal trapping and trade, overall assessment of data quality and references. We found that the quantity, as well as quality, of the information available for the Appendix I parrot species varied much. This was the case for data on general biology, population size and trends and levels of illegal trade. For all of the 23 of species for which commercial trade was registered since 2010 in the UNEP-WCMC trade database discrepancies ........

Til dokument

Sammendrag

In Norway domestic sheep are mostly kept on mountain pastures over summer. Previous studies have shown that climate conditions affect the growth of mountain grazing lambs in contrasting ways. We analysed a data-set from the Tjøtta Research farm in northern Norway comprising weights and growth of 8696 lambs over 17 years. The lambs grazed coastal or a mountain pasture, 15 km apart. We found that the lambs grew faster when grazing the mountain pasture. Spring and integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) affected only the lambs grazing in the mountains. Winter conditions (North Atlantic Oscillation) and summer temperature had a positive effect on growth in both pastures while spring temperature and spring NDVI were important only in the mountains. The positive effect of spring NDVI suggests that the mountain pasture will produce bigger lambs under future climate warming, while the lambs on the coastal pasture will be less affected.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Universitetet for miljø- og biovitenskap fikk i mai 2007 i oppdrag fra Norges Forskningsråd å kartlegge og beskrive kunnskapsstatus og forskningsbehov knyttet til bioenergi og klimagasser fra landbruket (jord, skog og utmark). Utredningen beskriver i korte trekk dagens status og hovedutfordringer når det gjelder produksjon av bioenergi og utslipp/binding av klimagasser i landbruket, og peker på sentrale forskningsbehov og forskningsoppgaver som kan bidra til å møte disse utfordringene. Rapporten er basert på bidrag fra forskningsmiljøene på Campus Ås.