Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2022

Abstract

Sustainable phosphorus use is essential in golf course management to prevent eutrophication and overconsumption. The study aimed to investigate if phosphorus fertilization can be reduced without negative effects on turf quality. We compared two P fertilization recommendations based on soil analyses, one based on the annual nitrogen rate, and a zero-P control. The recommendations were the “minimum level of sustainable nutrition” (MLSN), which aims to keep treatment soil levels above 18 mg P kg–1 dry soil (Mehlich-3); the “sufficiency level of available nutrition” (SLAN), in which the threshold for excluding P fertilization is >54 mg P kg–1 dry soil (Mehlich-3); and “Scandinavian precision fertilization” (SPF), which recommends applying P at 12% of the annual N rate. The treatments were compared via monthly assessments of turf quality and the coverage of sown species and annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) from 2017 to 2020 on five golf courses from Germany, Sweden, China, Norway, and the Netherlands. MLSN and SPF significantly reduced soil P at all sites compared with SLAN recommendations. Turf quality showed no significant differences. The results from the mixed creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.)–annual bluegrass green showed a 2 to 4% increase in annual bluegrass coverage with P fertilization over the zero-P treatments. The MLSN guideline is recommended for sustainable P fertilization on established greens with low P sorption capacity under diverse climatic and management conditions. The SPF may result in application of excess P to soils with high Mehlich-3 values, as soil analyses are not considered.

Abstract

Since 2020, the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy (NIBIO) Turfgrass Research Group has been studying agronomic, environmental, and economic consequences of switching to light-weight robotic mowers on golf course fairways and semiroughs. Preliminary results from field trials in 2020 and 2021 at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center Landvik, Norway, and demonstration trials on one golf course in each of the five Nordic countries, showed that turfgrass quality with robotic mowing was similar to manual mowing. At Landvik, robotic mowing resulted in less disease in both fairway and semirough but more infestation of white clover than manual mowing in the semirough. A survey of players’ attitudes to robotic mowers conducted on the five golf courses showed that about 90% of the players were positive or neutral to the new technology. However, respondents asked for better adaptation of the local rules on the golf course and even the international rules of golf to robotic mowing.

Abstract

Denne rapporten gir resultater fra andre år (2021) i prosjektet"ROBO-GOLF: Bedre gresskvalitet, redusert gjødselkostnad og mindre bruk av fossil energi ved bruk av robotklippere på fairway og semi-rough". Arbeidspakke (WP1) omfatter forsøk med sammenlikning av robotklipper og manuell klipper (sylinder-klipper på fairway, 15 mm klippehøyde; rotorklipper på semirough, 35 mm klippehøyde) til ulike grasarter. Resultatene viste forskjeller mellom robotklipping og manuell klipping, som for det meste ble sett på semi-rough når det gjelder sykdommer, ugress (hvitkløver) og jordpakking. En tendens til lavere sykdomsforekomst med robotklipping ble sett spesielt på semi-rough i alle arter på sensommeren/høsten, men også i Agrostis capillaris på fairway. Mer hvitkløver på de robotklippede ruter med Lolium perenne i semi-rough resulterte i et lavere helhetsinntrykk. I arbeidspakke 2 (WP2) ble nitrogen (N) gjødseleffekten av retur av klipp med robot- vs. manuell klipping studert på fairway etablert i en blanding bestående av Poa pratensis, Agrostis capillaris og Festuca rubra. Årlige N-rater på 0, 30, 60, 90 og 120 kg/ha/år, hver delt inn i 6 like tilførsler, ble brukt over sesongen. Innsamling av klipp én gang per måned viste at tilbakeføring av klipp både for manuell og robotklipping økte gressveksten sammenlignet med når klippet ble fjernet. Samtidig var N-konsentrasjonen i klippet høyere om våren og forsommeren, men ikke på sensommeren og høsten. Helhetsinntrykket av gresset viste samme høye vurdering for robot- og manuell klipp. I WP3 ble demonstrasjonsforsøk med robotklippere sammenlignet med sylinderklippere på fairway og rotorklippere på semi-rough videreført fra 2020 på fem golfbaner i Norden. Helhetsinntrykk, dekning av ugress og sykdommer og energibruk ble registrert månedlig fra mai til september. Helhetsinntrykk i robotklippede ruter var stort sett lik manuelt klippede ruter på fairway og semi-rough. På noen datoer resulterte robotklipping i signifikant høyere helhetsinntrykk enn manuell klipping.

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Abstract

This paper presents results from a container experiment and a real-scale study in road environments for evaluating the performance of soil mixtures and herbaceous perennials for use in rain gardens. The container experiment included 12 soil mixtures and 4 perennial species. The plants were exposed to three flooding events and one drought period, and their overall vitality was recorded after the floodings. The containers were stored outdoors the following winter and plant survival was observed in spring. Amsonia orientalis did not survive the winter after being exposed to flooding in the growing season and was replaced by Hosta ‘Francee’ in the real-scale study, which was established in Drammen (Norway) in a soil mixture based on optimisation of the best mixtures in the container experiment. Luzula sylvatica performed well in the container study and survived the winter; however, in the field study, individuals of this species that were located close to the road died due to de-icing salt. Eurybia divaricata showed some mortality in both studies, and total mortality occurred in individuals that were close to the road, due to de-icing salt. Hemerocallis cvv. performed well in both experiments and appeared to be useful in all rain garden positions in the cold climate road environment. H. ‘Francee’ developed well in the road environment, except when exposed to splashes of road water. The study highlights considerable differences between species’ adaption to roadside rain gardens in cold climates, and the need for further field investigations.

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Abstract

The replacement of native birch with Norway spruce has been initiated in Norway to increase long-term carbon storage in forests. However, there is limited knowledge on the impacts that aboveground changes will have on the belowground microbiota. We examined which effects a tree species shift from birch to spruce stands has on belowground microbial communities, soil fungal biomass and relationships with vegetation biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC). Replacement of birch with spruce negatively influenced soil bacterial and fungal richness and strongly altered microbial community composition in the forest floor layer, most strikingly for fungi. Tree species-mediated variation in soil properties was a major factor explaining variation in bacterial communities. For fungi, both soil chemistry and understorey vegetation were important community structuring factors, particularly for ectomycorrhizal fungi. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi and the ectomycorrhizal : saprotrophic fungal ratio were higher in spruce compared to birch stands, particularly in the deeper mineral soil layers, and vice versa for saprotrophs. The positive relationship between ergosterol (fungal biomass) and SOC stock in the forest floor layer suggests higher carbon sequestration potential in spruce forest soil, alternatively, that the larger carbon stock leads to an increase in soil fungal biomass.

Abstract

In a fertiliser experiment in a Norway spruce forest in SE Norway, four treatments were applied in a block design with three replicates per treatment. Treatments included 3 t wood ash ha−1 (Ash), 150 kg nitrogen ha−1 (N), wood ash and nitrogen combined (Ash + N), and unfertilised control (Ctrl). Treatment effects on understory plant species numbers, single abundances of species and (summarised) cover of main species groups were studied. Two years after treatment there were no significant changes for species numbers or abundances of woody species, dwarf shrubs or pteridophytes, nor for Sphagnum spp. in the bottom layer. The cover of graminoids decreased in Ctrl plots. Herb cover increased significantly in Ash + N and N plots due to the increase of Melampyrum sylvaticum. In Ash + N plots, mosses decreased significantly in species number, while their cover increased. Moss cover also decreased significantly in N plots. The species number and cover of hepatics decreased significantly in Ash and Ash + N plots. Hepatics cover also decreased in Ctrl plots. Both the lichen number and cover decreased in Ash + N plots. Single species abundances decreased for many bryophytes in fertilised plots. To conclude, fertilisation had modest effects on vascular plants, while bryophytes were more strongly affected, especially by Ash + N.

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Abstract

Sorption to cheap sorbents can be used to concentrate nutrients from liquid waste streams and make them into fertilisers. In this study we assess how plant available is ammonium nitrogen (N) sorbed to three sorbents, and if the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions after a non-growing season is affected by sorption. Ammonium-N labelled with N15 was sorbed to biochar, bentonite and zeolite. Treatments where N was sorbed and where N and sorbents were applied separately were tested in a pot experiment with wheat, and soil samples were then frozen and dried to simulate non-growing seasons. After thawing and re-wetting, GHG emissions from the soil were assessed. There was no difference between sorption treatments in biomass or N uptake or fertiliser N left in the soil, and little difference between sorption treatments in gas emissions after the non-growing seasons was seen. We conclude that ammonium applied sorbed to these sorbents is as plant available as ammonium applied the conventional way. GHG emissions at the beginning of the next season are also not affected by ammonium applied sorbed.

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Abstract

The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol under the United Nations Environment Programme evaluates effects on the environment and human health that arise from changes in the stratospheric ozone layer and concomitant variations in ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth’s surface. The current update is based on scientific advances that have accumulated since our last assessment (Photochem and Photobiol Sci 20(1):1–67, 2021). We also discuss how climate change affects stratospheric ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation, and how stratospheric ozone depletion affects climate change. The resulting interlinking effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and climate change are assessed in terms of air quality, carbon sinks, ecosystems, human health, and natural and synthetic materials. We further highlight potential impacts on the biosphere from extreme climate events that are occurring with increasing frequency as a consequence of climate change. These and other interactive effects are examined with respect to the benefits that the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments are providing to life on Earth by controlling the production of various substances that contribute to both stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.