Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2020

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Abstract

To respect the Paris agreement targeting a limitation of global warming below 2°C by 2100, and possibly below 1.5 °C, drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are mandatory but not sufficient. Large‐scale deployment of other climate mitigation strategies are also necessary. Among these, increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is an important lever because carbon in soils can be stored for long periods and land management options to achieve this already exist and have been widely tested. However, agricultural soils are also an important source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a powerful greenhouse gas, and increasing SOC may influence N2O emissions, likely causing an increase in many cases, thus tending to offset the climate change benefit from increased SOC storage. Here, we review the main agricultural management options for increasing SOC stocks. We evaluate the amount of SOC that can be stored as well as resulting changes in N2O emissions to better estimate the climate benefits of these management options. Based on quantitative data obtained from published meta‐analyses and from our current level of understanding, we conclude that the climate mitigation induced by increased SOC storage is generally overestimated if associated N2O emissions are not considered but, with the exception of reduced tillage, is never fully offset. Some options (e.g, biochar or non‐pyrogenic C amendment application) may even decrease N2O emissions.

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Abstract

Since Emaraviruses have been discovered in 2007 several new species were detected in a range of host plants. Five genome segments of a novel Emaravirus from mosaic‐diseased Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula) have been completely determined. The monocistronic, segmented ssRNA genome of the virus shows a genome organisation typical for Emaraviruses encoding the viral RNA‐dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP, 268.2 kDa) on RNA1 (7.1 kb), a glycoprotein precursor (GPP, 73.5 kDa) on RNA2 (2.3 kb), the viral nucleocapsid protein (N, 35.6 kDa) on RNA3 (1.6 kb), and a putative movement protein (MP, 41.0 kDa) on RNA4 (1.6 kb). The fifth identified genome segment (RNA5, 1.3 kb) encodes a protein of unknown function (P28, 28.1 kDa). We discovered that it is distantly related to proteins encoded by Emaraviruses, such as P4 of European mountain ash ringspot‐associated virus. All proteins from this group contain a central hydrophobic region with a conserved secondary structure and a hydrophobic amino acid stretch, bordered by two highly conserved positions, thus clearly representing a new group of homologues of Emaraviruses. The virus identified in Eurasian aspen is closely associated with observed leaf symptoms, such as mottle, yellow blotching, variegation and chloroses along veins. All five viral RNAs were regularly detectable by RT‐PCR in mosaic‐diseased P. tremula in Norway, Finland and Sweden (Fennoscandia). Observed symptoms and testing of mosaic‐diseased Eurasian aspen by virus‐specific RT‐PCR targeting RNA3 and RNA4 confirmed a wide geographic distribution of the virus in Fennoscandia. We could demonstrate that the mosaic‐disease is graft‐transmissible and confirmed that the virus is the causal agent by detection in symptomatic, graft‐inoculated seedlings used as rootstocks as well as in the virus‐infected scions used for graft‐inoculation. Owing to these characteristics, the virus represents a novel species within the genus Emaravirus and was tentatively denominated aspen mosaic‐associated virus.

Abstract

The term Circular Regulations (CR) is introduced to describe a broad regulatory framework, designed with a circular understanding of the economy. Central in this discussion is the transition towards bioeconomy, a term that is not always used consistently, and sometimes treated in the same way as circular economy (CE), although these terms are not necessarily equivalent. In this article we endorse a systemic interpretation of CE, where a continuum of approaches, extending from reusing/recycling/upcycling to refuse/rethink/reduce, gradually replace existing linear “end-of-life” concepts. CE is a key prerequisite for the bioeconomy shift, a transition that further builds on CE, where circular design and processes are further augmented with increased resource utilization and intensive applications of innovative science and technology. The prevailing regulatory arrangements in CE, however, remain either fragmented or largely based on pre-existing policies, drafted to address issues of the linear economy, thus presenting several limitations when dealing with the underlying paradigm shift: complex market relationships that go beyond the standard neoclassical model. CR adopts an encompassing approach to regulatory design; it is not meant to be a rigid set of rules, but rather a regulatory framework where institutions, market rules, and business practice explicitly account for environmental and socially responsible activities, while securing an enabling environment for innovation. CR directly reflects on CE, where bioeconomy growth is informed by science, enabled by technology, driven by business, and supported by relevant policies and institutional frameworks. The article presents a conceptual setting towards CR and a practical example for its development.

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Abstract

Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), a mastrevirus transmitted by the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus, causes a severe disease in cereal crops. Typical symptoms of wheat plants infected by WDV are yellowing and severe dwarfing. In this present study, RNA-Seq was used to perform gene expression analysis in wheat plants in response to WDV infection. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated that a total of 1042 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparison between mock and WDV-inoculated wheat plants. Genomes ontology (GO) annotation revealed a number of DEGs associated with different biological processes, such as phytohormone metabolism, photosynthesis, DNA metabolic process, response to biotic stimulus and defense response. Among these, DEGs involved in phytohormone and photosynthesis metabolism and response pathways were further enriched and analyzed, which indicated that hormone biosynthesis, signaling and chloroplast photosynthesis-related genes might play an important role in symptom development after WDV infection. These results illustrate the dynamic nature of the wheat-WDV interaction at the transcriptome level and confirm that symptom development is a complex process, providing a solid foundation to elucidate the pathogenesis of WDV.