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NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.




Detailed descriptions of individual vegetation types shown on vegetation maps can improve the ways in which the composition and spatial structure within the types are understood. The authors therefore examined dwarf shrub heath, a vegetation type covering large areas and found in many parts of the Norwegian mountains. They used data from point samples obtained in a wall-to-wall area frame survey. The point sampling method provided data that gave a good understanding of the composition and structure of the vegetation type, but also revealed a difference between variation within the vegetation type itself (intra-class variation) and variation resulting from the inclusion of other types of vegetation inside the map polygons (landscape variation). Intra-class variation reflected differences in the botanical composition of the vegetation type itself, whereas landscape variation represented differences in the land-cover composition of the broader landscape in which the vegetation type was found. Both types of variation were related to environmental gradients. The authors conclude that integrated point sampling method is an efficient way to achieve increased understanding of the content of a vegetation map and can be implemented as a supporting activity during a survey.





There is a need for monitoring methods for forest volume, biomass and carbon based on satellite remote sensing. In the present study we tested interferometric X-band SAR (InSAR) from the Tandem-X mission. The aim of the study was to describe how accurate volume and biomass could be estimated from InSAR height and test whether the relationships were curvilinear or not. The study area was a spruce dominated forest in southeast Norway. We selected 28 stands in which we established 192 circular sample plots of 250 m2, accurately positioned by a Differential Global Positioning System (dGPS). Plot level data on stem volume and aboveground biomass were derived from field inventory. Stem volume ranged fromzero to 596 m3/ha, and aboveground biomass up to 338 t/ha.We generated 2 Digital Surface Models (DSMs) fromInSAR processing of two co-registered, HH-polarized TanDEM-X image pairs – one ascending and one descending pair.We used a Digital TerrainModel (DTM) from airborne laser scanning (ALS) as a reference and derived a 10 m × 10 m Canopy Height Model (CHM), or InSAR height model. We assigned each plot to the nearest 10 m × 10 m InSAR height pixel. We applied a nonlinear, mixed model for the volume and biomass modeling, and from a full model we removed effects with a backward stepwise approach. InSAR heightwas proportional to volume and aboveground biomass, where a 1 m increase in InSAR height corresponded to a volume increase of 23 m3/ha and a biomass increase of 14 t/ha. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values were 43–44% at the plot level and 19–20% at the stand level.