Abirami Ramu Ganesan

Forsker

(+47) 922 41 654
abirami.ganesan@nibio.no

Sted
Bodø

Besøksadresse
Torggården, Kudalsveien 6, NO-8027 Bodø

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Sammendrag

Chitin is one of the most diverse and naturally occurring biopolymers, and it is mainly present in crustaceans, insects, and fungi. Chitosan is derived from chitin by deacetylation process. It is important to note that the conventional chemical method of extracting chitin includes disadvantages and it poses various environmental issues. Recently, the green extraction techniques have perceived substantial development in the field of polymer chemistry. A variety of methods have been successfully developed using green extraction techniques for extracting chitin and chitosan from various resources. It includes the use of ionic liquids (ILs), deep eutectic solvents (DES), microbial fermentation, enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), subcritical water extraction (SWE), and electrochemical extraction (ECE). In this review, the extraction of chitin and chitosan using greener approaches were summarized. In addition, challenges, opportunities and future perspectives of green extraction methods have also been narrated.

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Aquaculture industry is one of the major food-producing sectors in the world that provide nutritional food security for mankind. Fish and crustacean farmers are facing various challenges in treating the rapid spread of infectious diseases in recent times. Numerous strategies, including antibiotics, disinfectants, and other antimicrobial agents, have been applied to protect the cultivable aquatic animals from infectious diseases. These applications lead to the development of antimicrobial resistance, toxicity, and the accumulation of antibiotic residues in cells and organelles of the cultivable edible organisms and the environment. The use of naturally derived compounds, polysaccharides, and functional metabolites has gained immense attention among aquaculturists. Mushrooms and their nutraceutical components have been widely used in various sectors, including food, pharmaceutical, poultry, and aquaculture industries, for their non-toxic and eco-friendly properties. To date, there are several reports available on edible and medicinal mushrooms as a dietary ingredient for fish and decapod crustacean culture. The mushroom products such as mycelia, stalk, dry powder, polysaccharides, and extracts have been utilized in aquaculture as growth promoters and immunostimulants, improving the digestive enzyme activity, antimicrobials, and improving the health status of cultivable aquatic animals. This present review elucidates the effectiveness of mushrooms and mushroom-derived compounds as prebiotics in aquaculture. The challenges and future perspectives of mushroom-derived bioactive molecules have been discussed in this review.

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Aquaculture industry is one of the world’s fastest and largest growing food producing sector. Most importantly, the usage of fish meal in aquaculture has been replaced with alternate protein sources due to their production cost, demand of raw materials and various environmental issues. The insect black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larval (BSFL) meal is being recognized as a feed ingredient in aquafeeds for their protein rich content similar to fish meal (FM). BSFL meal has been utilized as a fish meal or soy meal substitution in aquaculture to improve the nutrition. The culture of H. illucens larvae can be achieved using various biodegradable wastes and converted into a valuable biomass. In addition, the proximate analysis of H. illucens has been analyzed for its multifaceted role in poultry, cattle feed preparation and human consumption. The effectiveness of BSFL diet was analyzed for final body weight (FBW), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE) and survival (SUR) of different fish and shrimp used as an experimental models with FM as the control diet. However, there is no comprehensive review available on the BSFL as an alternate protein source in aquaculture till date. Hence, the present review aimed to evaluate the feasible role of BSFL in feed, its sustainable production and challenges of BSFL meal in aquaculture sector along with their merits and demerits.