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Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2023

2022

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Sammendrag

The Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production (EGTOP) was requested to advise on the use of several substances in organic production. The Group discussed whether the use of these substances is in line with the objectives and principles of organic production and whether they should therefore be included in Annex III of Reg. (EU) 2021/1165. With respect to feed the Group recommends the following: - Leonardite should not be included in Annex III. - Sepiolitic clay should be included in Annex III, part B. - Peat should not be included in Annex III. With respect to pet food, the Group recommends the following: - Locust bean gum should be included in Annex III, part B with the following conditions/limits: only for pet food and obtained only from the roasting process and from organic production, if available. - Acacia-Arabic gum should be included in Annex III, part B with the following conditions/limits: only for pet food and from organic production, if available. - Carrageenan should be included in Annex III, part B with the following conditions/limits: only for pet food. - Ammonium chloride should be included in Annex III, part B with the following conditions/limits: only for pet food intended to be used for special nutritional purposes for cats. - (Ortho-)phosphoric acid should not be included in Annex III. - Taurine should be included in Annex III, part B with the following conditions/limits: only for cats and dogs, not from GMO origin and if possible not from synthetic origin. - Methionine should not be included in Annex III. - Disodium dihydrogen diphosphate (SAPP) should be included in Annex III, part A with the following conditions/limits: only for pet food. - Pentasodium triphosphate (STPP) should be included in Annex III, part A with the following conditions/limits: only for pet food.

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Sammendrag

The Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production (EGTOP) was requested to advise on the use of several substances in organic production. The Group discussed whether the use of these substances is in line with the objectives and principles of organic production and whether they should therefore be included in Annex III of Reg. (EU) 2021/1165. With respect to feed the Group recommends the following: - Calcium hydroxide should not be included in Annex III. - Calcium pidolate should not be included in Annex III. - Algal oil should be included in Annex III, part A. - The trace elements; Copper (II) chelate of protein hydrolysates, Iron (II) chelate of protein hydrolysates, Manganese chelate of protein hydrolysates and Zinc chelate of protein hydrolysates should be included in Annex III, part B. - The feed for special nutritional purposes; Propylene glycol should be included in Annex III, part A. - The feed for special nutritional purposes; Calcium chloride should be included in Annex III, part A. - The feed for special nutritional purposes; Calcium propionate should not be included in Annex III. - The feed for special nutritional purposes; Iron dextran should be included in Annex III, part B. - The feed for special nutritional purposes; Iron (II) fumarate should not be included in Annex III. - Vegetable charcoal should not be included in Annex III. - Selenised yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae cncm i-3060, inactivated, should be included in Annex III, part B. With respect to pet food, the Group recommends the following: - Algae flour should not be included in Annex III. - Papain should be included in Annex III, part B.

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Sammendrag

The Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production (EGTOP) was requested to advise on the use of several substances with plant protection or fertilising effects in organic production. The Group discussed whether the use of these substances is in line with the objectives and principles of organic production, and whether they should therefore be included in Reg. (EU) 2021/1165. With respect to Annex I to Reg. (EU) 2021/1165, the Group recommends the following: - Aqueous extract from the germinated seeds of sweet Lupinus albus should be included in Annex I, part 2 (low risk active substances). - Low risk active substances of plant or animal origin should be authorised generically in Annex I, part 2, provided that they are not of GMO origin. This would mean that they can be used in organic production as soon as they are approved under pesticide legislation, without the need for evaluation by EGTOP and without explicit mentioning in Annex I to Reg. (EU) 2021/1165. - Ferric pyrophosphate should be included in Annex I, part 2 (low risk active substances). - The entries for deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin should be modified as follows: (i) for both substances, the authorisation should be limited until 2026; (ii) for the time period until 2026, deltamethrin should also be authorised against Rhagoletis completa with the same restrictions as for other uses, i.e. ‘only in traps with specific attractants’. With respect to Annex II to Reg. (EU) 2021/1165, the Group recommends the following: - The entry on ‘Composted or fermented household waste’ should be changed to ‘Composted or fermented bio-waste’. - Recovered struvite and precipitated phosphate salts should be included in Annex II with the following restrictions: (i) Products must meet the requirements defined by Reg. (EU) 2019/1009, for products derived from waste materials. (ii) Animal manure as source material cannot have factory farming origin. - Bone charcoal should not be included in Annex II. - Potassium chloride (muriate of potash) should be included in Annex II with the following restriction: Only of natural origin. - Phosphogypsum should not be included in Annex II. - Comment on widespread environmental contamination: In the Group’s opinion, circular economy is important and should be widely adopted also in organic production. However, recycled materials may be contaminated with undesirable substances such as microplastic, heavy metals, veterinary drugs or pesticides. The Group does not recommend any changes in the organic legislation at the moment. However, the Group highlights these risks and recommends that the European Commission and Member States take them into consideration within the framework of policies and regulations concerning organic farming development, circular economy and environmental protection. Moreover, these risks should be continuously monitored and preventively managed in the use of pesticides, veterinary drugs, plastic or any other potentially polluting materials and in the production of organic fertilizers from recycled materials. Finally, the organic sector should be aware that the proposed measures can reduce contaminations (in frequency and in amounts), but may not always completely eliminate them from the organic production chain. Under these circumstances, a certain level of contamination can be difficult to avoid in organic products. The issue of how to handle such residues is hotly debated at the moment. The Group would welcome harmonization among EU member states of control practises and on actions taken in case of detections of residues of non-allowed products on organic products and in organic farms.

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Sammendrag

The Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production (EGTOP) was requested to advise on the use of several substances in organic production. The Group discussed whether the use of these substances is in line with the objectives and principles of organic production and whether they should therefore be included in Annex III of Reg. (EU) 2021/1165. With respect to food the Group recommends the following: - Magnesium carbonate should be included in Annex V B as processing aid. - Lecithin should be included in Annex III as a food additive in animal origin products. - Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate (E337) should be included as a food additive. - The extension of the use of ascorbic acid (E300) should be included in ‘meat preparations’, but the EGTOP sub-group suggests a new mandate for a comprehensive assessment of the substance.

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Young children have unique nutritional requirements, and breastfeeding is the best option to support healthy growth and development. Concerns have been raised around the increasing use of milk-based infant formulas in replacement of breastfeeding, in regards to health, social, economic and environmental factors. However, literature on the environmental impact of infant formula feeding and breastfeeding is scarce. In this study we estimated the environmental impact of four months exclusive feeding with infant formula compared to four months exclusive breastfeeding in a Norwegian setting. We used life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, including the impact categories global warming potential, terrestrial acidification, marine and freshwater eutrophication, and land use. We found that the environmental impact of four months exclusive feeding with infant formula was 35–72% higher than that of four months exclusive breastfeeding, depending on the impact category. For infant formula, cow milk was the main contributor to total score for all impact categories. The environmental impact of breastfeeding was dependant on the composition of the lactating mother’s diet. In conclusion, we found that breastfeeding has a lower environmental impact than feeding with infant formula. A limitation of the study is the use of secondary LCA data for raw ingredients and processes.

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Fusarium graminearum is regarded as the main deoxynivalenol (DON) producer in Norwegian oats, and high levels of DON are occasionally recorded in oat grains. Weather conditions in the period around flowering are reported to have a high impact on the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and DON in cereal grains. Thus, it would be advantageous if the risk of DON contamination of oat grains could be predicted based on weather data. We conducted a functional data analysis of weather-based time series data linked to DON content in order to identify weather patterns associated with increased DON levels. Since flowering date was not recorded in our dataset, a mathematical model was developed to predict phenological growth stages in Norwegian spring oats. Through functional data analysis, weather patterns associated with DON content in the harvested grain were revealed mainly from about three weeks pre-flowering onwards. Oat fields with elevated DON levels generally had warmer weather around sowing, and lower temperatures and higher relative humidity or rain prior to flowering onwards, compared to fields with low DON levels. Our results are in line with results from similar studies presented for FHB epidemics in wheat. Functional data analysis was found to be a useful tool to reveal weather patterns of importance for DON development in oats.

Sammendrag

The availability of fresh vegetables grown in greenhouses under controlled conditions throughout the year has given rise to concerns about their impact on the environment. In high latitude countries such as Norway, greenhouse vegetable production requires large amounts of energy for heat and light, especially during the winter. The use of renewable energy such as hydroelectricity and its effect on the environment has not been well documented. Neither has the effect of different production strategies on the environment been studied to a large extent. We conducted a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse tomato production for mid-March to mid-October (seasonal production), 20th January to 20th November (extended seasonal) production, and year-round production including the processes from raw material extraction to farm gate. Three production seasons and six greenhouse designs were included, at one location in southwestern and one in northern Norway. The SimaPro software was used to calculate the environmental impact. Across the three production seasons, the lowest global warming (GW) potential (600 g CO2-eq per 1 kg tomatoes) was observed during year-round production in southwestern Norway for the design NDSFMLLED + LED, while the highest GW potential (3100 g CO2-eq per 1 kg tomatoes) was observed during seasonal production in northern Norway for the design NS. The choice of artificial lighting (HPS (High Pressure Sodium) or LED (Light Emitting Diodes)), heating system and the production season was found to have had a considerable effect on the environmental impact. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in most of the impact categories including GW potential, terrestrial acidification, and fossil resource scarcity from seasonal to year-round production. Overall, year-round production in southwestern Norway had the lowest environmental impact of the evaluated production types. Heating of the greenhouse using natural gas and electricity was the biggest contributor to most of the impact categories. The use of an electric heat pump and LED lights during extended seasonal and year-round production both decreased the environmental impact. However, while replacing natural gas with electricity resulted in decreased GW potential, it increased the ecotoxicity potential.

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Despite substantial efforts to control locusts they remain periodically a major burden in Africa, causing severe yield loss and hence loss of food and income. Distribution maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number R0 was used to identify areas where an insect pest can be controlled by a natural enemy. A dynamic process-based mathematical model integrating essential features of a natural enemy and its interaction with the pest is used to generate R0 risk maps for insect pest outbreaks, using desert locust and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum (Synn. Metarhizium anisoliae var. acridum) as a case study. This approach provides a tool for evaluating the impact of climatic variables such as temperature and relative humidity and mapping spatial variability on the efficacy of M. acridum as a biocontrol agent against desert locust invasion in Africa. Applications of M. acridum against desert locust in a few selected African countries including Morocco, Kenya, Mali, and Mauritania through monthly spatial projection of R0 maps for the prevailing climatic condition are illustrated. By combining mathematical modeling with a geographic information system in a spatiotemporal projection as we do in this study, the field implementation of microbial control against locust in an integrated pest management system may be improved. Finally, the practical utility of this model provides insights that may improve the timing of pesticide application in a selected area where efficacy is highly expected.

2021

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Sammendrag

As the demand for proteins increases with growing populations, farmed seaweed is a potential option for use directly as an ingredient for food, feed, or other applications, as it does not require agricultural areas. In this study, a life cycle assessment was utilised to calculate the environmental performance and evaluate possible improvements of the entire value chain from production of sugar kelp seedings to extracted protein. The impacts of both technical- and biological factors on the environmental outcomes were examined, and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were conducted to analyse the impact of the uncertainty of the input variables on the variance of the environmental impact results of seaweed protein production. The current production of seaweed protein was found to have a global warming potential (GWP) that is four times higher than that of soy protein from Brazil. Further, of the 23 scenarios modelled, two resulted in lower GWPs and energy consumption per kg of seaweed protein relative to soy protein. These results present possibilities for improving the environmental impact of seaweed protein production. The most important variables for producing seaweed protein with low environmental impact are the source of drying energy for seaweed, followed by a high protein content in the dry matter, and a high dry matter in the harvested seaweed. In the two best scenarios modelled in this study, the dry matter content was 20% and the protein content 19.2% and 24.3% in dry matter. This resulted in a lower environmental impact for seaweed protein production than that of soy protein from Brazil. These scenarios should be the basis for a more environmental protein production in the future.