Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2021

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Abstract

For a 100% organic value chain, we need more varieties suitable for organic cultivation. Varieties bred for organic growing is a challenge in small markets. Many breeding goals are equal for organic and conventional cereals. Hence, accessions failing qualification as commercial varieties may perform well in organic growing. A field experiment over two years was performed at two growing sites to compare 25 accessions of spring wheat, ranging from old heritage varieties to modern breeding lines. We assessed yield and agronomic characteristics, artisan bread baking quality and sensory characteristics. Modern accessions gave best yields. Old varieties had smaller kernels, less grain filling, lower falling numbers and SDS-sedimentation volumes, but higher concentrations of minerals, although the growing site has a strong effect. Bread from modern accessions performed best in a baking test. Several sensory characteristics such as juiciness, chew resistance, firmness, acid taste and vinegar odor varied between varieties. Heritage varieties have an important cultural value, and many consumers are willing to pay a significant premium price for such products. A premium price is required, since yield levels are often considerably lower.

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Abstract

Seed mixtures with a nurse grass that germinates quickly at low soil temperatures can be an option for faster establishment of Agrostis stolonifera (AS) putting greens after winter damage. From 2015 to 2018 Poa trivialis (PT) ‘Dark Horse’ and Lolium perenne (LP) ‘Chardin’ were evaluated as nurse grasses in comparison with pure AS ‘Independence’ at two experimental sites in each of the two major climatic zones of the Nordic countries. Poa annua (PA) ‘Two‐Putt’ was also included as a nurse grass in the northern zone. As an overall trend, establishment was faster with AS+LP than with AS+PT and AS+PA, which in turn had faster establishment than pure AS. In the northern zone, AS+PT produced better turf quality than pure AS in the seeding year and year after and tended to be superior even on average for the entire trial period (mean value 6.0 vs. 5.8 for pure AS, 5.3 for AS+LP, and 4.6 for AS+PA; scale 1–9 where 9 is the highest quality). In the same zone, AS+PT also suffered less overall winter damage than the other combinations and was less infected with microdochium patch than pure AS. In the southern zone, PT and especially LP were far more persistent than in the northern zone and compromised turfgrass quality compared with pure AS. In conclusion, we recommend PT as a nurse grass for faster establishment of AS putting in the northern zone, but not in the southern zone where AS should rather be seeded in a pure stand.

Abstract

Self-sufficiency with feed (SSF) is a basic principle in organic animal production. The current regulations do not impose strict requirements for SSF at farm level, but further restrictions are expected in future. The aim of the present work was to quantify SSF on a range of organic dairy farms in Norway and study farmers’ strategies to produce milk with a high degree of SSF. Nine farms were selected for interview and data collection. On farm level, the proportion of SSF varied between 66 and 99 %. SSF increased to 88-100 % when expressed on national level. Land area is among the limiting factors for famers to reach higher SSF while maintaining the milk production level. A lower proportion of concentrates in the diet seems to have as strong impact on SSF as using own cereals and protein crops as feed, but milk production per total feed production area was highest for the latter. The farmers’ goals and actions are important driving forces to develop more SSF in dairy production systems.

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Abstract

Mechanistic models are useful tools for understanding and taking account of the complex, dynamic processes such as carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) turnover in soil and crop growth. In this study, the EU-Rotate_N model was first calibrated with measured C and N mineralization from nine potential fertilizer resources decomposing at controlled soil temperature and moisture. The materials included seaweeds, wastes from the food industry, food waste anaerobically digested for biogas production, and animal manure. Then the model’s ability to predict soil and crop data in a field trial with broccoli and potato was evaluated. Except for seaweed, up to 68% of added C and 54–86% of added N was mineralized within 60 days under controlled conditions. The organic resources fell into three groups: seaweed, high-N industrial wastes, and materials with high initial content of mineral N. EU-Rotate_N was successfully calibrated for the materials of industrial origin, whereas seaweeds, anaerobically digested food waste and sheep manure were challenging. The model satisfactorily predicted dry matter (DM) and N contents (root mean square; RMSE: 0.11–0.32) of the above-ground part of broccoli fertilized with anaerobically digested food waste, shrimp shell pellets, sheep manure and mineral fertilizers but not algal meal. After adjusting critical %N for optimum growth, potato DM and N contents were also predicted quite well (RMSE: 0.08–0.44). In conclusion, the model can be used as a learning and decision support tool when using organic materials as N fertilizer, preferably in combination with other models and information from the literature.

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Abstract

Several factors may define storability in root crops. In the following paper, preliminary results are presented from two experiments performed to test factors affecting storage quality of carrot. The study have focused on 1) soil loosening/soil compaction and 2) different cultivars of carrot and root age considered by the length of the growing period. The results so far indicate that the soil compaction had few effects on storability of carrot, but did seem to negatively affect the length of the carrot. Soil loosening reduced the occurrence of liquorice rot caused by Mycocentrospora acerina. Large differences were found in storability between the ten tested carrot cultivars and length of growing period tended to be negatively correlated to storability. We conclude that a number of precautions in carrot production may increase storability and thus economic performance.