Thomas Hartnik


(+47) 926 94 021

Ås - Bygg O43

Oluf Thesens vei 43, 1433 Ås (Varelevering: Elizabeth Stephansens vei 23)





Doktorgrad (Dr.scient) i økotoksikologi fra Norges Miljø- og biovitenskapelige Universitet i 2008


- ledererfaring med personal- og fagansvar,

- variert yrkesbakgrunn fra akademia, statlig forvaltning og privat næringsliv innen sirkulær økonomi    og forurensnings- og klimarelaterte problemstillinger.  

- Prosjektleder for større FoU- og konsulentprosjekter.

- Erfaring fra styrer i Norges Forskningsråd og faglige nettverk

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Biomass pyrolysis is the anoxic thermal conversion of biomass into a carbon rich, porous solid, often called biochar. This could be a better waste management alternative for contaminated organic wastes than incineration, due to the useful properties of biochar and potential for carbon sequestration. There are, however, concerns about the potential formation/destruction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Six organic wastes, including digested sewage sludges, wood wastes, and food waste reject, were pyrolyzed (500–800°C) in a full-scale relevant unit (1–5 kg biochar hr−1). Removal efficiencies for PCBs and PCDD/Fs were > 99% in the produced biochars. Biochar PAH-content (2.7–118 mgkg−1) was not significantly correlated to feedstock or temperature. PAHs (2563–8285 mgkg−1), PCBs (22–113 µgkg−1), and PCDD/Fs (1.8–50 ngTEQ kg−1) accumulated in the pyrolysis condensate, making this a hazardous waste best handled as a fuel for high temperature combustion. Emission concentrations for PAHs (0.22–421 µgNm−3) and PCDD/Fs (≤2.7 pgTEQ Nm−3) were mainly associated with particles and were below the European Union’s waste incineration thresholds. Emission factors ranged from 0.0002 to 78 mg tonne−1 biochar for PAHs and 0.002–0.45 µgTEQ tonne−1 biochar for PCDD/Fs. PCDD/F-formation was negligible during high temperature (≥500 °C) biomass pyrolysis (69–90% net loss)

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the secondary ecotoxicological effects of soil amendment materials that can be added to contaminated soils in order to sequester harmful pollutants. To this end, a nonpolluted agricultural soil was amended with 0.5, 2, and 5% of the following four amendments: powder activated carbon (PAC), granular activated carbon, corn stover biochar, and ferric oxyhydroxide powder, which have previously been proven to sequester pollutants in soil. The resulting immediate effects (i.e., without aging the mixtures before carrying out tests) on the springtail Folsomia candida, the earthworm species Aporectodea caliginosa and Eisenia fetida, the marine bacteria Vibrio f ischeri, a suite of ten prokaryotic species, and a eukaryote (the yeast species Pichia anomalia) were investigated. Reproduction of F. candida was significantly increased compared to the unamended soil when 2% biochar was added to it. None of the treatments caused a negative effect on reproduction. All amendments had a deleterious effect on the growth of A. caliginosa when compared to the unamended soil, except the 0.5% amendment of biochar. In avoidance tests, E. fetida preferred biochar compared to all other amendments including the unamended soil. All amendments reduced the inhibition of luminescence to V. f ischeri, i.e., were beneficial for the bacteria, with PAC showing the greatest improvement. The effects of the amendments on the suite of prokaryotic species and the eukaryote were variable, but overall the 2% biochar dose provided the most frequent positive effect on growth. It is concluded that the four soil amendments had variable but never strongly deleterious effects on the bacteria and invertebrates studied here during the respective recommended experimental test periods.

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Chemical methods to assess bioavailability in soil and sediment often use synthetic polymers that mimic uptake of organic compounds in organisms or microbial degradation. In this paper we have assessed a biomimetic extraction method using hydroxyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) to estimate uptake of the two insecticides alpha-cypermethrin (alpha-CYP) and chlorfen-vinphos (CFVP) in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Additionally, a novel approach was developed to estimate the efficiency of biomimetic extractions. The study revealed that HP-beta-CD is a suitable surrogate for estimating the bioaccessibility of hydrophobic chemicals in soil. If one uses a 3.5 times higher amount of HP-beta-CD than soil, effective and reproducible extractions can be achieved within 48h. At these conditions, inclusion of dissolved chemicals by HP-beta-CD mimics uptake of a given compound into earthworms and takes into account sorption-related aspects that control biological uptake. The data indicate that, with increasing hydrophobicity, the affinity of organic chemicals to HP-beta-CD does not increase to the same degree as to soil organic matter. Therefore, a high surplus of HP-beta-CD is necessary to provide a sufficient extraction capacity in biomimetic extractions.


Alpha-cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, is used as an insecticide in agricultural settings and is increasingly replacing organophosphates and carbamates because of lower application rates and lower toxicity to mammals. Because very little is known about the acute and chronic toxicity of this compound for soil-living organisms, the present study investigated acute and sublethal toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin for four terrestrial invertebrate species in an agricultural soil from Norway. Bioassays with the earthworm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus crypticus, the springtail Folsomia candida, and the land snail Helix aspersa were performed according to slightly modified versions of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Paris, France) or International Organization for Standardization (Geneva, Switzerland) guidelines and resulted in median lethal concentrations of greater than >1,000 to 31.4 mg/kg and sublethal no-observed-effect concentrations of 2.51 to 82 mg/kg. A high acute to chronic ratio was found, especially in the earthworms. Interspecies differences in sensitivity may be explained by differences in exposure and differences in metabolization rate. When based on measured pore-water concentrations, terrestrial species overall appear to be approximately one order of magnitude less sensitive than aquatic species. Effect assessments conducted according to European guideline for risk assessment of pesticides reveal that assessments based on acute toxicity tests are not always conservative enough to determine environmentally safe concentrations in soil. Mandatory incorporation of sublethal toxicity data will ensure that in regions with temperate climate, the effects of pesticides on populations of soil-living organisms are unlikely.


I et stort datamateriale er det påvist at kulturlag i Nedre Langgate 43 i Tønsberg er bra bevart fra ca 1 meter dybde fra overflaten og ned til 4 meter. Dårlige bevaringsforhold er spesielt avdekket i den sørøstlige og nord-vestlige delen av tomten. Kulturlagene i 1,5 m dybde eller lavere ligger godt beskyttet mot nedbrytning, og sterkt reduserende miljøforhold tyder på at oksygen ikke når disse lagene. De beste bevaringsforhold ble funnet i kulturlag under den tidligere kjelleren. Undersøkelsen har vist at jordkjemisk data fra flere borehull vil kunne gi overveiende forståelse over ei tomts innhold av organisk materiale og redokssensitive parametre som påvirker beskyttelse av kulturlag. Geofysisk kartlegging viste nye fordeler ved at målinger utføres uten fysisk inngrep i grunnen og uten å påvirke kulturlagene. Metoden ga opplysninger om tette lag med høyt vanninnhold i kulturlag øst og nord-øst for den tidligere kjelleren og et større område med tørrere, porøse masser i den sør-østlige delen av tomten. Kartleggingen bekrefter resultatene fra jordkjemisk analyse og modellering.

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This paper presents the potential of composting oil wet drill cuttings as a drilling waste disposal option. The potential is substantiated by results from several laboratory and field experiments. Artificially oil wetted drill cuttings were prepared by adding commonly used base oils from Norwegian offshore operations to a representative clay. Degradation of the hydrocarbon components in the oily wet cuttings by vermicomposting was successfully accomplished. The composts were beneficially used as part of growing media for landscape plants; ryegrass, coniferous, and deciduous trees, and the fertilization effect was compared with commercial NPK fertilizers. The plant growth studies showed that the composts produced by treating artificial oily drill cuttings by vermicomposting had considerable fertilizing effect on ryegrass and trees.