Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2022

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Abstract

Knowledge about the spatial variation of boreal forest soil carbon (C) stocks is limited, but crucial for establishing management practices that prevent losses of soil C. Here, we quantified the surface soil C stocks across small spatial scales, and aim to contribute to an improved understanding of the drivers involved in boreal forest soil C accumulation. Our study is based on C analyses of 192 soil cores, positioned and recorded systematically within a forest area of 11 ha. The study area is a south-central Norwegian boreal forest landscape, where the fire history for the past 650 years has been reconstructed. Soil C stocks ranged from 1.3 to 96.7 kg m−2 and were related to fire frequency, ecosystem productivity, vegetation attributes, and hydro-topography. Soil C stocks increased with soil nitrogen concentration, soil water content, Sphagnum- and litter-dominated forest floor vegetation, and proportion of silt in the mineral soil, and decreased with fire frequency in site 1, feathermoss- and lichen-dominated forest floor vegetation and increasing slope. Our results emphasize that boreal forest surface soil C stocks are highly variable in size across fine spatial scales, shaped by an interplay between historical forest fires, ecosystem productivity, forest floor vegetation, and hydro-topography.

Abstract

Norway spruce parents selected from results in progeny trials for testing Svenneby Seed Orchard clones were crossed in a factorial crossing design, and full-sib families were planted in short-term and field trials in southern Norway. Artificial freezing tests with the same families were made the first growing season and at ages 10 and 12 years. Offspring of parents selected for superior growth were taller in the field tests than those from parents with heights lower than the mean in the progeny test. However, the correlations between half-sib family performance in the initial progeny test and in the offspring field tests were only moderate. The variation among families in injury scores in the freezing tests was large, but the relationships with field trial performance were weak, indicating that frost hardiness testing at a young age is not valuable for predicting later field performance. Families with a late timing of bud flush had the highest frequency of injuries after a frost event at mid-summer. These families were also the tallest in the field tests. The families from crosses among Svenneby Seed Orchard clones had better height growth than commercial provenances. Foreldretrær av gran, valgt ut fra resultater i avkomforsøk for å teste kloner i Svenneby frøplantasje, ble krysset etter en faktoriell krysningsplan, og full-søsken familiene ble plantet i kortidsforsøk og i langsiktige feltforsøk. Fryseforsøk med familiene ble gjort etter første vekstsesong og ved alder 10 og 12 år. Avkom fra foreldre valgt ut for god høydevekst var høyere i feltforsøkene enn de fra foreldre som ble valgt ut med midlere høyde. Det var bare moderate korrelasjoner mellom høyder til halv-søsken i de første avkomforsøkene og i feltforsøkene. Det var betydelig variasjon mellom familiene i skader etter frysforsøkene, men sammenhengene var svake mellom frostskader og vekst og skader i feltforsøkene. Dette indikerer at resultater fra testing av frostherdighet i ung alder sier lite om hvordan trær fra familiene senere vokser i felt. Familier med sen skuddskyting fikk mest skader etter frostnetter 22.-23. juni. De sent skytende familiene hadde best høydevekst i feltforsøkene. Trærne fra familiene fra Svenneby frøplantasje var høyere enn de fra hadde handelsprovenienser.

Abstract

Background: Tardigrades are common in most habitats, however few studies have focusedon large faunistic survey, specifically on tardigrade diversity in forests. Up to now, only 61 species have been recorded in different types of forest in Norway with an additional 25 found in limnic environments in forests. Although little is known about the ecological preferences of many species, previous studies have found that tardigrade diversity and community composition are significantly affected by ecological variables. In this study we associate georeferenced tardigrade species records with forest type, substrate type and substrate composition in order to see if tardigrade diversity and species communities can be associated with ecological characteristics of Norwegian forests. Methods: In total 390 moss, lichen and litter samples were collected from 12 forests in central and southern Norway in the summers of 2017 and 2018 and later stored in paper envelopes. For the identification modern literature and keys for specific genera and groups of species were used. For statistical analyses, moss and lichen substrate of each sample was classified according to the main species, life form, growth forms and habitat of substrate and associated with each tardigrade identification and sample metadata. Results: A total of 17 407 specimens were identified, encompassing in total 132 species (including some new species). Species richness increases with precipitation, but does not change with temperature or precipitation seasonality. The distribution of species richness between life forms and forest types showed considerable variation within and among the variables. Disregarding variables with low sample numbers, among life forms only acrocarpous moss samples appeared to deviate with respect to species richness, containing less species than substrates with other life forms. Conclusions: Tardigrades in Norwegian forest are extremely abundant, frequent and diverse. Moreover, it appears that that certain species and/or entire communities prefer specific microhabitats.

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Abstract

Mountain birch forest covers large areas in Eurasia, and their ecological resilience provides important ecosystem services to human societies. This study describes long-term stand dynamics based on permanent plots in the upper mountain birch belt in SE Norway. We also present forest line changes over a period of 70 years. Inventories were conducted in 1931, 1953, and 2007. Overall, there were small changes from 1931 up to 1953 followed by a marked increase in biomass and dominant height of mountain birch throughout the period from 1953 to 2007. In addition, the biomass of spruce (Picea abies) and the number of plots with spruce present doubled. The high mortality rate of larger birch stems and large recruitment by sprouting since the 1960s reveal recurrent rejuvenation events after the earlier outbreak of the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata). Our results demonstrate both a high stem turnover in mountain birch and a great ability to recover after disturbances. This trend is interpreted as regrowth after a moth attack, but also long-term and time-lagged responses due to slightly improved growth conditions. An advance of the mountain birch forest line by 0.71 m year−1 from 1937 to 2007 was documented, resulting in a total reduction of the alpine area by 12%. Most of the changes in the forest line seem to have taken place after 1960. Regarding silviculture methods in mountain birch, a dimension cutting of larger birch trees with a cutting interval of c. 60 years seems to be a sustainable alternative for mimicking natural processes.