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Academic – Development of a universal height response model for transfer of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) in Fennoscandia
Mateusz Liziniewicz, Mats Berlin, Thomas Solvin, ...
AuthorsMateusz Liziniewicz Mats Berlin Thomas Solvin Henrik R. Hallingbäck Matti Haapanen Seppo Ruotsalainen Arne Steffenrem
Norway spruce is a major industrial tree species in Fennoscandia and future productivity of the species must be secured by matching the variation in adaptation of the species with suitable sites for optimized performance. An appropriate transfer model for forest reproductive material (FRM) is crucial for regeneration of productive forests in the changing climatic conditions that are predicted to occur in Fennoscandia. We have developed a transfer model for prediction of height of Norway spruce in Norway, Sweden, and Finland, using data acquired from 438 progeny and provenance trials with 1919 genetic entries of local and transferred origins. Transfer of genetic material at a given site was expressed in terms of the difference in daylength (photoperiod) between the site and its origin. This variable best reflected the nonlinear response to transfer that has been commonly reported in previous studies. Apart from the transfer variable, the height prediction model included the age of material when height measurements were acquired, annual temperature sum over 5 °C, precipitation during the vegetation period, and interaction terms between test site and transfer variables. The results show that long northward transfers (4-5° latitude) seem to be optimal for relatively mild sites in southern parts of the countries where growing season is longer, and shorter northward transfers (2-4° latitude) for harsher northern sites with shorter growing seasons. The transfer model also predicts that southward transfers of Norway spruce would result in height growth reductions. The developed model provides foundations for development of common or national recommendations for genetically improving Norway spruce material in Fennoscandia.
Lecture – Estimation of phenotypic plasticity in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Kars.) as maternal reproductive environment alter adaptive performance
Arne Steffenrem, Thomas Solvin, Tore Skrøppa
Academic – Use of UAV photogrammetric data in forest genetic trials: measuring tree height, growth, and phenology in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)
Thomas Solvin, Stefano Puliti, Arne Steffenrem
No abstract has been registered
Academic – Genetic variation and inheritance in a 9 × 9 diallel in silver birch (Betula pendula)
Tore Skrøppa, Thomas Solvin
AuthorsTore Skrøppa Thomas Solvin
A complete diallel cross was made among nine Betula pendula trees growing in a natural population and a trial was planted on agricultural soil at one site. This exceptional trial has provided estimates of genetic parameters that can only be estimated in complete diallels. Traits measured were height and diameter during a period of 37 years, and assessments were made of bud burst, leaf abscission and rust infection at the early ages. All traits showed genetic variation and the variance components of general combining ability (GCA) effects were dominating, with heritability estimates of 0.16 and 0.23 for height and diameter at age six years. The best-growing families could be identified at that age. At age 37 years, when the trial had been thinned twice, the offspring from the highest and lowest ranked parent for growth contributed with 19% and 6% of the total volume of the stand, respectively. The GCA effects were also highly significant for the assessment traits, but with an interaction with year for bud burst. High values of estimates of genetic correlations proved that bud burst, leaf abscission and rust infection are interrelated, and also to some extent with growth traits. Families with an early bud burst were tallest, were less affected by the rust fungus and kept their leaves later in the autumn.
Academic – Modelling the epigenetic response of increased temperature during reproduction on Norway spruce phenology
Thomas Solvin, Arne Steffenrem
Temperature during seed maturation can induce an epigenetic memory effect in growth phenology of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) that lasts for several years. To quantify the epigenetic modifications induced by natural climatic variation, common garden experiments with plants originating from different provenances and seed years were performed. Plants from warmer seed years showed delayed phenology with later bud flush, bud set and growth cessation. This effect was quantified by linear models of phenology traits as a function of climate indices for the origin and seed year of the plants. Significant effects of the temperature during seed production (seed year) was found for the bud set in seedlings in their first growing season and for bud flush and growth cessation in the 7th-8th growing season from seed. The models suggest that growth start and growth cessation are delayed 0.7–1.8 days per 100 additional degree days experienced by the seed during embryo development and seed maturation. Models that include factors that are known to induce epigenetic effects could be used to better predict future performance of forest reproductive material.
Academic – Predicting evolutionary potential: A numerical test of evolvability measures
Thomas F Hansen, Thomas Solvin, Mihaela Pavlicev
AuthorsThomas F Hansen Thomas Solvin Mihaela Pavlicev
Despite sophisticated mathematical models, the theory of microevolution is mostly treated as a qualitative rather than a quantitative tool. Numerical measures of selection, constraints, and evolutionary potential are often too loosely connected to theory to provide operational predictions of the response to selection. In this paper, we study the ability of a set of operational measures of evolvability and constraint to predict short‐term selection responses generated by individual‐based simulations. We focus on the effects of selective constraints under which the response in one trait is impeded by stabilizing selection on other traits. The conditional evolvability is a measure of evolutionary potential explicitly developed for this situation. We show that the conditional evolvability successfully predicts rates of evolution in an equilibrium situation, and further that these equilibria are reached with characteristic times that are inversely proportional to the fitness load generated by the constraining characters. Overall, we find that evolvabilities and conditional evolvabilities bracket responses to selection, and that they together can be used to quantify evolutionary potential on time scales where the G‐matrix remains relatively constant.
Lecture – Genetic and epigenetic parts of climatic adaptation in two boreal tree species - Mid seminar for PhD project
Thomas Solvin, Arne Steffenrem, Tore Skrøppa
Lecture – The epigenetic memory and climatic adaptation in Norway spruce
Igor A. Yakovlev, Thomas Solvin, Harald Kvaalen, ...
AuthorsIgor A. Yakovlev Thomas Solvin Harald Kvaalen Arne Steffenrem Marcos Viejo Carl Gunnar Fossdal
No abstract has been registered
Division of Forest and Forest Resources
FORGENRES: Management of forest genetic resources under climate change
Current forest tree gene resource management, with concurrent selective breeding and geneconservation, are long-term endeavors. Hundreds of parents and thousands of offspring are being tested on multiple locations, requiring substantial resources, elaborate logistics, and sustained organizational commitment.