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Abstract

To meet increasing demand for animal protein, swine have been raised in large Chinese farms widely, using antibiotics as growth promoter. However, improper use of antibiotics has caused serious environmental and health risks, in particular Antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This paper reviews the consumption of antibiotics in swine production as well as AMR and the development of novel antibiotics or alternatives in China. The estimated application of antibiotics in animal production in China accounted for about 84240 tons in 2013. Overuse and abuse of antibiotics pose a great health risk to people through food-borne antibiotic residues and selection for antibiotic resistance. China unveiled a national plan to tackle antibiotic resistance in August 2016, but more support is needed for the development of new antibiotics or alternatives like plant extracts. Antibiotic resistance has been a major global challenge, so international collaboration between China and Europe is needed.

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Abstract

Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection leads to severe liver pathogenesis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As no curable medication is yet available, vaccination remains the most costeffective approach to limit HBV spreading and control the infection. Although safe and efficient, the standard vaccine based on production of the small (S) envelope protein in yeast fails to elicit an effective immune response in about 10% of vaccinated individuals, which are at risk of infection. One strategy to address this issue is the development of more immunogenic antigens. Here we describe a novel HBV antigen obtained by combining relevant immunogenic determinants of S and large (L) envelope proteins. Our approach was based on the insertion of residues 21-47 of the preS1 domain of the L protein (nomenclature according to genotype D), involved in virus attachment to hepatocytes, within the external antigenic loop of S. The resulting S/preS121-47 chimera was successfully produced in HEK293T and Nicotiana benthamiana plants, as a more economical recombinant protein production platform. Comparative biochemical, functional and electron microscopy analysis indicated assembly of the novel antigen into subviral particles in mammalian and plant cells. Importantly, these particles preserve both S- and preS1-specific epitopes and elicit significantly stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than the S protein, in both expression systems used. Our data promote this antigen as a promising vaccine candidate to overcome poor responsiveness to the conventional, S protein-based, HBV vaccine.

HCV talk Biotechnology Havana 2017 Dec 6, 2017-bilde
SmartVac - Next Generation Viral Hepatitis B and C vaccine development in plantsand algae using advanced biotechnological tools


Hepatitis B (HBV) and C viruses (HCV) infect the human liver, triggering persistent inflammation and eventually cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Currently, more than 500 million people are chronically infected with HBV or HCV and at high risk of developing end stage liver disease and HCC.

Active Updated: 11.10.2019
End: may 2023
Start: jun 2019
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Division of Food Production and Society

Risk management of imported plants and seeds: possibilities for improved pest detection to prevent the introduction and spread of new pests


Plant pathogens and invertebrates harmful to plants continue to threaten food security and natural habitats. In Norway, the responsibility of performing plant health inspections on imported plants has gradually shifted to importers of plants who are currently responsible for internal pest control and must be registered with the Norwegian Food Safety Authority.

Active Updated: 23.09.2020
End: sep 2024
Start: sep 2020