Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2023

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Abstract

Ongoing efforts focus on quantifying plastic pollution and describing and estimating the related magnitude of exposure and impacts on human and environmental health. Data gathered during such work usually follows a receptor perspective. However, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) represents an emitter perspective. This study examines existing data gathering and reporting approaches for field and laboratory studies on micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs) exposure and effects relevant to LCA data inputs. The outcomes indicate that receptor perspective approaches do not typically provide suitable or sufficiently harmonised data. Improved design is needed in the sampling, testing and recording of results using harmonised, validated and comparable methods, with more comprehensive reporting of relevant data. We propose a three-level set of requirements for data recording and reporting to increase the potential for LCA studies and models to utilise data gathered in receptor-oriented studies. We show for which purpose such data can be used as inputs to LCA, particularly in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. Implementing these requirements will facilitate proper integration of the potential environmental impacts of plastic losses from human activity (e.g. litter) into LCA. Then, the impacts of plastic emissions can eventually be connected and compared with other environmental issues related to anthropogenic activities.

2022

Abstract

Green roofs are increasingly being used to meet the challenges of extreme rainfall and surface water management in cities and towns. Biochar is a locally sourced and carbon-negative material that can be used as a substrate component for green roofs. Here are some experiences NIBIO has gained in this area through research and testing of various concept.

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Abstract

Prediction of the relative phosphorus (P) fertiliser value of bio-based fertiliser products is agronomically important, but previous attempts to develop prediction models have often failed due to the high chemical complexity of bio-based fertilisers and the limited number of products included in analyses. In this study, regression models for prediction were developed using independently produced data from 10 different studies on crop growth responses to P applied with bio-based fertiliser products, resulting in a dataset with 69 products. The 69 fertiliser products were organised into four sub-groups, based on the inorganic P compounds most likely to be present in each product. Within each product group, multiple regression was conducted using mineral fertiliser equivalents (MFE) as response variable and three potential explanatory variables derived from chemical analysis, all reflecting inorganic P binding in the fertiliser products: i) NaHCO3-soluble P, ii) molar ratio of calcium (Ca):P and iii) molar ratio of aluminium+iron (Al+Fe):P. The best regression model fit was achieved for sewage sludges with Al-/Fe-bound P (n = 20; R2 = 79.2%), followed by sewage sludges with Ca-bound P (n = 11; R2 = 71.1%); fertiliser products with Ca-bound P (n = 29; R2 = 58.2%); and thermally treated sewage sludge products (n=9;R2=44.9%). Even though external factors influencing P fertiliser values (e.g. fertiliser shape, application form, soil characteristics) differed between the underlying studies and were not considered, the suggested prediction models provide potential for more efficient P recycling in practice.

Abstract

Three strains of chlorophyte microalgae indigenous in Norway were studied regarding their potential for nutrient removal and resource recovery from wastewater. The nutrient uptake, growth, and cell composition (total proteins and carbohydrates) were monitored under a controlled batch environment for 14 days. Additionally, the fatty acids were analyzed at the end of the study. The fastest nutrient removal was achieved by Lobochlamys segnis F12 that used up NH4+ (28 mg L-1) and PO43- (15 mg L-1) after 4 days. Similar PO43- uptake was achieved by Tetradesmus wisconsinensis H1 while its NH4+ uptake took 2 days longer. Both strains showed a higher specific growth rate (1.1 day-1) than Klebsormidium flaccidum NIVA-CHL80 (0.55 day-1). The highest biomass (1.276 ± 21 mg L-1) and carbohydrates content (40%) were achieved by T. wisconsinensis. K. flaccidum was characterized by superior protein content (53 ± 4%). In terms of total fatty acids production both K. flaccidum and L. segnis were favored (184 ± 6 and 193 ± 12 mg g-1 dry cells), especially with their high polyunsaturated fatty acid content (82 and 67%, respectively). The fatty acids of K. flaccidum consisted mainly C18:2 n-6 (73% of the total). L. segnis had a preferable n3 to n6 ratio (1.3) in their fatty acid profile. The proteins and carbohydrates content changed in all strains depending on the growth stage. Therefore, resource recovery scenarios could be further optimized for a specific cell component production combined with an appropriate strategy for nutrient removal from wastewater.

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Abstract

Proper treatment of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) waste is challenge as it is not easily degraded and incineration can lead to environmental issue as it will produce toxic chemicals. In this study, a hydrothermal carbonization approach was applied to treat PVC waste. The influence of exogenous additives on dechlorination efficiency of PVC were evaluated. The results showed that, with exogenous additive, substitution, elimination, dehydration and aromatization reaction were enhanced during hydrothermal carbonization. The maximum dechlorination efficiency of 97.50% was achieved with the mass ratio of 1.4% between rice straw and PVC resin at hydrothermal carbonization temperature 240℃ for 120min. The calorific value of hydrothermal charcoal was relatively higher (39.57MJ/kg ± 0.40MJ/kg), indicating a good combustion process. This study presented a novel and sustainable approach, which could convert PVC-waste as a form of solid fuel.