Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2022

Abstract

Environmental conditions during plant raising determine the yield potential of everbearing strawberries. We studied the effect of three rooting dates in the cultivars ‘Favori’ and ‘Murano’ in a greenhouse with 18 ℃ and 20-h long day and under outdoor conditions in Norway. The highest yield of 1.350 g/plant was obtained in ‘Favori’ plants rooted on 1 August and raised outdoors, being at level with ‘Favori’ plants produced in The Netherlands. High yields were mainly related to fruit size and less to fruit number, and determined by a complex three-factor interaction of rooting date, raising environment, and cultivar. The seasonal pattern of fruit flushes and off periods varied significantly between cultivars and treatments. The large first flush of high yielding ‘Favori’ plants was associated with a long off period, while the small first flush in ‘Murano’ resulted in a more even crop distribution. Earliness of ripening and berry harvest was superior in ‘Favori’, which had a larger share of its crop during the first half-season. We conclude that it is possible by choosing the right rooting date and raising environment to produce plants with the same high quality and yield potential under the cool Nordic conditions as those currently produced in Central Europe.

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Abstract

Tomato greenhouses at high latitudes (≥58°North) require supplemental light to enable high yields and year-round production. Supplemental light systems can differ in lamp type, high-pressure sodium (HPS) or light emitting diode (LED), and also vary in lamp capacity. Based on a combined greenhouse climate, tomato yield, and greenhouse economics model, a methodology was developed, for determining the optimal supplemental light system, dependent on local climate and economic conditions. Two optimisation objectives were considered separately, maximal energy use efficiency (EUE) and maximal net financial result (NFR). The developed methodology was applied to four different greenhouse locations in Norway. At each location, both optimisation objectives were reached with LEDs. The optimal lamp capacities range from 256 to 341 μmol m−2 s−1 (maximal EUE) and 302–323 μmol m−2 s−1 (maximal NFR). The economically optimal lamp capacity is little sensitive to climate conditions. At the lamp type respective NFR maxima, LEDs resulted, on average, in 10% higher tomato yield, 102.2 NOK m−2 year−1 higher NFR, and 35% higher EUE. Consequently, switching from HPS lamps to LEDs enables increasing productivity, energy efficiency and profitability of greenhouse tomato production. Furthermore, the difference between EUE and NFR optima was, on average, 24% lower in terms of EUE and 56% lower in terms of NFR, when using LEDs instead of HPS lamps. On farm-scale, the proposed methodology can be used as decision-support-tool for selecting an efficient and profitable supplemental light system for greenhouse tomato production, dependent on local climate and economic conditions.

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Abstract

In 2017, two multi-location apple rootstock trials were established at 16 sites in 12 European countries. The evaluations are performed by members of the EUFRIN (European Fruit Research Institute Network) Apple & Pear Variety & Rootstock Testing Working Group. Two separate trials were arranged, grouping rootstocks into dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks according to the expected vigour; ‘Galaval’ was used as scion cultivar. The trial of dwarf rootstocks includes ‘G.11’ and ‘G.41’ (US), ‘EM_02’, ‘EM_03’, ‘EM_04’, ‘EM_05’ and ‘EM_06’ (UK), ‘62-396-B10®‘ (Russia), ‘P 67’ (Poland), ‘PFR4’ and ‘PFR5’ (New Zealand) and ‘Cepiland-Pajam®2’ as control. The trial of semi-dwarf rootstocks includes ‘G.202’ and ‘G.935’ (US), ‘PFR1’ and ‘PFR3’ (New Zealand), ‘EM_01’ (UK) and ‘G.11’ as a control for both trials. Part of the rootstocks (from dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstock trials) was planted in replanting conditions to test their tolerance to apple replant disease. All test trees came from the same nursery, and a common standardised evaluation protocol was used. Based on preliminary results averaged across sites, dwarf rootstocks can be ranked in terms of vigour in the following order: ‘EM_04’ < ‘EM_03’, ‘EM_05’ < ‘62-396-B10®’, ‘P 67’, ‘EM_02’, ‘G.11’ < ‘G.41’, ‘Cepiland-Pajam®2’ < ‘EM_06’, ‘PFR4’ < ‘PFR5’. On average, semi-dwarf rootstocks can be ranked in terms of vigour in the following order: ‘G11’ < ‘G.935’, ‘G.202’ < ‘PFR3’, ‘EM_01’ < ‘PFR1’. The highest cumulative yield in the young orchard was registered for trees on ‘PFR5’, ‘PFR4’, ‘G.11’, ‘G.41’, ‘Cepiland-Pajam®2’ and ‘EM_02’, while the lowest production was found for trees on ‘EM_04’. In the group of semi-dwarf rootstocks, the highest yield was on ‘PFR3’, ‘G.935’ and ‘PFR1’. Rootstocks also had a significant effect on fruit weight and fruit quality parameters. Results from the young orchards revealed interactions between sites and rootstock, potentially leading to site-specific rootstock choice based on the combination of rootstock, soil conditions and climate.

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Abstract

The morphogenetic changes of the bud meristem during floral initiation in gooseberry were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Six floral stages, similar to those reported for black currants, were identified. We also studied the environmental control of shoot growth and floral initiation of cvs. Mucurines, Pax and Xenia in two experiments in daylight phytotron compartments at 12, 18 and 24°C. Under natural daylength conditions at Ås, Norway (69°40’N), shoot growth started to decline by mid-August and ceased in early September. Cessation of growth was associated with floral initiation at 18 and 12°C, while at 24°C, only ‘Mucurines’ initiated floral primordia. Floral Stage 2 was reached by 3 September in ‘Mucurines’ and ‘Xenia’ at 18 and 12°C and nearly 2 weeks later in ‘Pax’. In a second experiment with controlled photoperiods, all cultivars ceased growing and initiated flowering in 10-h SD within 2–3 weeks, while in 20-h LD, growth continued for 8 weeks without floral initiation. Under 10-h SD conditions, all cultivars initiated flowers also at 24°C. Flowering performance in the following spring verified these results. We conclude that gooseberry is an obligatory SD plant with a critical photoperiod of 15–16 h.

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Abstract

In order to best conserve, as well as utilize, traditional apple germplasm in Norway, an apple heritage cultivar collection was established in Ullensvang, western Norway, which aims to become the National Clonal Germplasm Repository. The establishment of the apple heritage cultivar collection was preceded by a molecular study that aimed to genotype a large number of apple accessions maintained in various ex situ sites in western and south-eastern Norway, using a rather small set of eight SSR markers. However limited, the marker set managed to identify synonyms, homonyms, and duplicates within and among the investigated collections. In this study, 171 apple accessions from the Ullensvang apple heritage cultivar collection were genotyped using a set of 20 different SSR markers. Approximately half of the accessions have been previously genotyped using eight SSR markers, enabling an assessment of whether the use of a larger marker set would yield a more accurate characterization. Based on the obtained molecular data, the apple heritage cultivar collection was determined to hold a key part of the overall genetic diversity of the Norwegian apple germplasm. Furthermore, the twelve additional SSR markers were able to differentiate several accessions groups originally thought to be synonyms, as well as to provide a more detailed insight into the genetic structure of this germplasm.

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Abstract

Modern apple orchard systems should guarantee homogeneity of fruit internal and external qualities and fruit maturity parameters. However, when orchards reach productive age, a variation of these parameters takes place and mostly it is related to uneven light distribution within the tree canopy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the canopy position’s effect on fruit internal and external quality parameters. This is the first study where all the main fruit quality and maturation parameters were evaluated on the same trees and were related to the light conditions and photosynthetic parameters. Four fruit positions were tested: top of the apple tree, lower inside part of the canopy, and east and west sides of the apple tree. Fruit quality variability was significant for fruit size, blush, colour indices, total sugar content, dry matter concentration, accumulation of secondary metabolites and radical scavenging activity. Fruit position in the canopy did not affect flesh firmness and fruit maturity parameters such as the starch index, Streif index and respiration rate. At the Lithuanian geographical location (55°60′ N), significantly, the highest fruit quality was achieved at the top of the apple tree. The tendency was established that apple fruits from the west side of the canopy have better fruit quality than from the east side and it could be related to better light conditions at the west side of the tree. Inside the canopy, fruits were distinguished only by the higher accumulation of triterpenic compounds and higher content of malic acid. Light is a main factor of fruit quality variation, thus all orchard management practices, including narrow two-dimensional tree canopies and reflecting ground covers which improve light penetration through the tree canopy, should be applied.