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To test the pathogenicity of Ips typographus-associated fungi to Norway spruce, trees were inoculated with four species, Ophiostoma polonicum, O. bicolor, O. penicillltum and Graphium sp. Trees inoculated with the three Ophiostoma species produced strong hypersensitive responses in the phloem and exuded more resin than did the control trees. Only O. polonicum was able to invade the sapwood and consequently able to kill trees. Inoculation with Graphium sp. gave the same response as inoculation with the control.




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An infection experimcnt was made to test the pathogenicity of two Ceratocystis species on Norway spruce trees. Water stress in inoculated and control trees was measured by means of xylem water potential, stomatal aperture and transpiration stream velocity. Most trees inoculated with C. polonica, alone or in combination with C. penicillata, became water-stressed. Ten weeks after inoculation almost all sapwood of water-stressed trees was blue-stained at the level of inoculation. Trees inoculated with C. penicillata alone did not become water-stressed, and their sapwood was not blue-stained. The results indicate that C. polonica is a highly qualified accomplice to Ips typographus in its killing of spruce trees.