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Lecture – Finding a common ground for cross-domain collaboration
Tor Myking, Jade Phillips, Enrico Sturaro, ...
AuthorsTor Myking Jade Phillips Enrico Sturaro Kjersti Bakkebø Fjellstad Nina Svartedal Hojka Kraigher Marjana Westergren Nigel Maxted Magda Bou Dagher Kharrat Silvia Perez-Espona
No abstract has been registered
Translation – Hotspots of genetic resources for animals, plants, and forests. GenRes Bridge project.
Tor Myking, Kjersti Bakkebø Fjellstad, Nina Svartedal, ...
AuthorsTor Myking Kjersti Bakkebø Fjellstad Nina Svartedal Linn Borgen Nilsen Wenche Dramstad Svein Olav Krøgli
No abstract has been registered
Report – Hotspots of genetic resources for animals, plants, and forests. GenRes Bridge project
Jade Phillips, Marjana Westergren, Danjela Bojkovski, ...
AuthorsJade Phillips Marjana Westergren Danjela Bojkovski Michele Bozzano Magda Bou Dagher Kharrat Kjersti Bakkebø Fjellstad Hojka Kraigher Francois Lefevre Nigel Maxted Silvia Peres-Espona Nina Svartedal Enrico Sturaro J Sustar Vozlic Tor Myking
No abstract has been registered
Academic – The GenTree Leaf Collection: Inter- and intraspecific leaf variation in seven forest tree species in Europe
Raquel Benavides, Bárbara Carvalho, Cristina C. Bastias, ...
AuthorsRaquel Benavides Bárbara Carvalho Cristina C. Bastias David López-Quiroga Antonio Mas Stephen Cavers Alan Gray Audrey Albet Ricardo Alía Olivier Ambrosio Filippos Aravanopoulos Francisco Auñón Camilla Avanzi Evangelia V. Avramidou Francesca Bagnoli Eduardo Ballesteros Evangelos Barbas Catherine Bastien Frédéric Bernier Henry Bignalet Damien Bouic William Brunetto Jurata Buchovska Ana M. Cabanillas-Saldaña Nicolas Cheval José M. Climent Marianne Correard Eva Cremer Darius Danusevičius Benjamin Dauphin Fernando Del Caño Jean-Luc Denou Bernard Dokhelar Rémi Dourthe Anna-Maria Farsakoglou Andreas Fera Patrick Fonti Ioannis Ganopoulos José M. García del Barrio Olivier Gilg Santiago C González-Martínez René Graf Delphine Grivet Felix Gugerli Christoph Hartleitner Katrin Heer Enja Hollenbach Agathe Hurel Bernard Issehuth Florence Jean Veronique Jorge Arnaud Jouineau Jan-Philipp Kappner Katri Kärkkäinen Robert Kesälahti Florian Knutzen Sonja T. Kujala Timo Kumpula Mariaceleste Labriola Celine Lalanne Johannes Lambertz Martin Lascoux Gregoire Le Provost Mirko Liesebach Ermioni Malliarou Jérémy Marchon Nicolas Mariotte Elisabet Martínez-Sancho Silvia Matesanz Helge Meischner Célia Michotey Pascal Milesi Sandro Morganti Tor Myking Anne Eskild Nilsen Eduardo Notivol Lars Opgenoorth Geir Østreng Birte Pakull Andrea Piotti Christophe Plomion Nicolas Poinot Mehdi Pringarbe Luc Puzos Tanja Pyhäjärvi Annie Raffin José A Ramírez-Valiente Christian Rellstab Sebastian Richter Juan J Robledo-Arnuncio Sergio San Segundo Outi Savolainen Volker Schneck Silvio Schueler Ivan Scotti Vladimir Semerikov Jørn Henrik Sønstebø Ilaria Spanu Jean Thevenet Mari Mette Tollefsrud Norbert Turion Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin Marc Villar Johan Westin Bruno Fady Fernando Valladares
Motivation Trait variation within species can reveal plastic and/or genetic responses to environmental gradients, and may indicate where local adaptation has occurred. Here, we present a dataset of rangewide variation in leaf traits from seven of the most ecologically and economically important tree species in Europe. Sample collection and trait assessment are embedded in the GenTree project (EU-Horizon 2020), which aims at characterizing the genetic and phenotypic variability of forest tree species to optimize the management and sustainable use of forest genetic resources. Our dataset captures substantial intra- and interspecific leaf phenotypic variability, and provides valuable information for studying the relationship between ecosystem functioning and trait variability of individuals, and the response and resilience of species to environmental changes. Main types of variable contained We chose morphological and chemical characters linked to trade-offs between acquisition and conservation of resources and water use, namely specific leaf area, leaf size, carbon and nitrogen content and their ratio, and the isotopic signature of stable isotope 13C and 15N in leaves. Spatial location and grain We surveyed between 18 and 22 populations per species, 141 in total, across Europe. Time period Leaf sampling took place between 2016 and 2017. Major taxa and level of measurement We sampled at least 25 individuals in each population, 3,569 trees in total, and measured traits in 35,755 leaves from seven European tree species, i.e. the conifers Picea abies, Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris, and the broadleaves Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Populus nigra and Quercus petraea. Software format The data files are in ASCII text, tab delimited, not compressed.
Academic – The GenTree Platform: Growth traits and tree-level environmental data in 12 European forest tree species
Lars Opgenoorth, Benjamin Dauphin, Raquel Benavides, ...
AuthorsLars Opgenoorth Benjamin Dauphin Raquel Benavides Katrin Heer Paraskevi Alizoti Elisabet Martínez-Sancho Ricardo Alía Olivier Ambrosio Albet Audrey Francisco Auñón Camilla Avanzi Evangelia Avramidou Francesca Bagnoli Evangelos Barbas Cristina C Bastias Catherine Bastien Eduardo Ballesteros Giorgia Beffa Frédéric Bernier Henri Bignalet Guillaume Bodineau Damien Bouic Sabine Brodbeck William Brunetto Jurata Buchovska Melanie Buy Ana M Cabanillas-Saldaña Bárbara Carvalho Nicolas Cheval José M Climent Marianne Correard Eva Cremer Darius Danusevičius Fernando Del Caño Jean-Luc Denou Nicolas Di Gerardi Bernard Dokhelar Alexis Ducousso Anne Eskild Nilsen Anna-Maria Farsakoglou Patrick Fonti Ioannis Ganopoulos José M. García del Barrio Olivier Gilg Santiago C González-Martínez René Graf Alan Gray Delphine Grivet Felix Gugerli Christoph Hartleitner Enja Hollenbach Agathe Hurel Bernard Issehut Florence Jean Veronique Jorge Arnaud Jouineau Jan-Philipp Kappner Katri Kärkkäinen Robert Kesälahti Florian Knutzen Sonja T Kujala Timo A Kumpula Mariaceleste Labriola Celine Lalanne Johannes Lambertz Martin Lascoux Vincent Lejeune Gregoire Le-Provost Joseph Levillain Mirko Liesebach David López-Quiroga Benjamin Meier Ermioni Malliarou Jérémy Marchon Nicolas Mariotte Antonio Mas Silvia Matesanz Helge Meischner Célia Michotey Pascal Milesi Sandro Morganti Daniel Nievergelt Eduardo Notivol Geir Østreng Birte Pakull Annika Perry Andrea Piotti Christophe Plomion Nicolas Poinot Mehdi Pringarbe Luc Puzos Tanja Pyhäjärvi Annie Raffin José A Ramírez-Valiente Christian Rellstab Dourthe Remi Sebastian Richter Juan J Robledo-Arnuncio Sergio San Segundo Outi Savolainen Silvio Schueler Volker Schneck Ivan Scotti Vladimir Semerikov Lenka Slámová Jørn Henrik Sønstebø Ilaria Spanu Jean Thevenet Mari Mette Tollefsrud Norbert Turion Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin Marc Villar Georg von Arx Johan Westin Bruno Fady Tor Myking Fernando Valladares Filippos A Aravanopoulos Stephen Cavers
Background Progress in the field of evolutionary forest ecology has been hampered by the huge challenge of phenotyping trees across their ranges in their natural environments, and the limitation in high-resolution environmental information. Findings The GenTree Platform contains phenotypic and environmental data from 4,959 trees from 12 ecologically and economically important European forest tree species: Abies alba Mill. (silver fir), Betula pendula Roth. (silver birch), Fagus sylvatica L. (European beech), Picea abies (L.) H. Karst (Norway spruce), Pinus cembra L. (Swiss stone pine), Pinus halepensis Mill. (Aleppo pine), Pinus nigra Arnold (European black pine), Pinus pinaster Aiton (maritime pine), Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine), Populus nigra L. (European black poplar), Taxus baccata L. (English yew), and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (sessile oak). Phenotypic (height, diameter at breast height, crown size, bark thickness, biomass, straightness, forking, branch angle, fructification), regeneration, environmental in situ measurements (soil depth, vegetation cover, competition indices), and environmental modeling data extracted by using bilinear interpolation accounting for surrounding conditions of each tree (precipitation, temperature, insolation, drought indices) were obtained from trees in 194 sites covering the species’ geographic ranges and reflecting local environmental gradients. Conclusion The GenTree Platform is a new resource for investigating ecological and evolutionary processes in forest trees. The coherent phenotyping and environmental characterization across 12 species in their European ranges allow for a wide range of analyses from forest ecologists, conservationists, and macro-ecologists. Also, the data here presented can be linked to the GenTree Dendroecological collection, the GenTree Leaf Trait collection, and the GenTree Genomic collection presented elsewhere, which together build the largest evolutionary forest ecology data collection available.
Academic – A global view of aspen: Conservation science for widespread keystone systems
Paul C. Rogers, Bradley D. Pinno, Jan Šebesta, ...
AuthorsPaul C. Rogers Bradley D. Pinno Jan Šebesta Benedicte R. Albrectsen Guoqing Li Natalya Ivanova Antonín Kusbach Timo Kuuluvainen Simon M. Landhäusser Hongyan Liu Tor Myking Pertti Pulkkinen Zhongming Wen Dominik Kulakowski
Across the northern hemisphere, six species of aspen (Populus spp.) play a disproportionately important role in promoting biodiversity, sequestering carbon, limiting forest disturbances, and providing other ecosystem services. These species are illustrative of efforts to move beyond single-species conservation because they facilitate hundreds of plants and animals worldwide. This review is intended to place aspen in a global conservation context by focusing on the many scientific advances taking place in such biologically diverse systems. In this manner, aspen may serve as a model for other widespread keystone systems where science-based practice may have world implications for biodiversity conservation. In many regions, aspen can maintain canopy dominance for decades to centuries as the sole major broadleaf trees in forested landscapes otherwise dominated by conifers. Aspen ecosystems are valued for many reasons, but here we highlight their potential as key contributors to regional and global biodiversity. We present global trends in research priorities, strengths, and weaknesses based on, 1) a qualitative survey, 2) a systematic literature analysis, and 3) regional syntheses of leading research topics. These regional syntheses explore important aspen uses, threats, and research priorities with the ultimate intent of research sharing focused on sound conservation practice. In all regions, we found that aspen enhance biodiversity, facilitate rapid (re)colonization in natural and damaged settings (e.g., abandoned mines), and provide adaptability in changing environments. Common threats to aspen ecosystems in many, but not all, regions include effects of herbivory, land clearing, logging practices favoring conifer species, and projected climate warming. We also highlight regional research gaps that emerged from the three survey approaches above. We believe multi-scale research is needed that examines disturbance processes in the context of dynamic climates where ecological, physiological, and genetic variability will ultimately determine widespread aspen sustainability. Based on this global review of aspen research, we argue for the advancement of the “mega-conservation” strategy, centered on the idea of sustaining a set of common keystone communities (aspen) that support wide arrays of obligate species. This approach contrasts with conventional preservation which focuses limited resources on individual species residing in narrow niches.
Errata – Author Correction: The GenTree Dendroecological Collection, tree-ring and wood density data from seven tree species across Europe (Scientific Data, (2020), 7, 1, (1), 10.1038/s41597-019-0340-y)
Elisabet Martínez-Sancho, Lenka Slámová, Sandro Morganti, ...
AuthorsElisabet Martínez-Sancho Lenka Slámová Sandro Morganti Claudio Grefen Barbara Carvalho Benjamin Dauphin Christian Rellstab Felix Gugerli Lars Opgenoorth Katrin Heer Florian Knutzen Georg von Arx Fernando Valladares Stephen Cavers Bruno Fady Ricardo Alía Filippos Aravanopoulos Camilla Avanzi Francesca Bagnoli Evangelos Barbas Catherine Bastien Raquel Benavides Frédéric Bernier Guillaume Bodineau Cristina C. Bastias Jean-Paul Charpentier José M. Climent Marianne Corréard Florence Courdier Darius Danusevicius Anna-Maria Farsakoglou José M. García del Barrio Olivier Gilg Santiago C. González-Martínez Alan Gray Christoph Hartleitner Agathe Hurel Arnaud Jouineau Katri Kärkkäinen Sonja T. Kujala Mariaceleste Labriola Martin Lascoux Marlène Lefebvre Vincent Lejeune Grégoire Le-Provost Mirko Liesebach Ermioni Malliarou Nicolas Mariotte Silvia Matesanz Célia Michotey Pascal Milesi Tor Myking Eduardo Notivol Birte Pakull Andrea Piotti Christophe Plomion Mehdi Pringarbe Tanja Pyhäjärvi Annie Raffin José A. Ramírez-Valiente Kurt Ramskogler Juan J. Robledo-Arnuncio Outi Savolainen Silvio Schueler Vladimir Semerikov Ilaria Spanu Jean Thévenet Mari Mette Tollefsrud Norbert Turion Dominique Veisse Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin Marc Villar Johan Westin Patrick Fonti
No abstract has been registered
Lecture – Demonstration cases for integrated conservation of genetic resources
Tor Myking, Jade Phillips, Enrico Sturaro
Academic – The GenTree Dendroecological Collection, tree-ring and wood density data from seven tree species across Europe
Elisabet Martínez-Sancho, Lenka Slámová, Sandro Morganti, ...
AuthorsElisabet Martínez-Sancho Lenka Slámová Sandro Morganti Claudio Grefen Barbara Carvalho Benjamin Dauphin Christian Rellstab Felix Gugerli Lars Opgenoorth Katrin Heer Florian Knutzen Georg von Arx Fernando Valladares Stephen Cavers Bruno Fady Ricardo Alía Filippos Aravanopoulos Camilla Avanzi Francesca Bagnoli Evangelos Barbas Catherine Bastien Raquel Benavides Frédéric Bernier Guillaume Bodineau Cristina C. Bastias Jean-paul Charpentier José M. Climent Marianne Corréard Florence Courdier Darius Danusevičius Anna-Maria Farsakoglou José M. García del Barrio Olivier Gilg Santiago C. González-Martínez Alan Gray Christoph Hartleitner Agathe Hurel Arnaud Jouineau Katri Kärkkäinen Sonja T. Kujala Mariaceleste Labriola Martin Lascoux Marlène Lefebvre Vincent Lejeune Grégoire Le-Provost Mirko Liesebach Ermioni Malliarou Nicolas Mariotte Tor Myking Mari Mette Tollefsrud
The dataset presented here was collected by the GenTree project (EU-Horizon 2020), which aims to improve the use of forest genetic resources across Europe by better understanding how trees adapt to their local environment. This dataset of individual tree-core characteristics including ring-width series and whole-core wood density was collected for seven ecologically and economically important European tree species: silver birch (Betula pendula), European beech (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies), European black poplar (Populus nigra), maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and sessile oak (Quercus petraea). Tree-ring width measurements were obtained from 3600 trees in 142 populations and whole-core wood density was measured for 3098 trees in 125 populations. This dataset covers most of the geographical and climatic range occupied by the selected species. The potential use of it will be highly valuable for assessing ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental conditions as well as for model development and parameterization, to predict adaptability under climate change scenarios.
Academic – Evolutionary consequences of historic anthropogenic impacts on forest trees in Europe
Thomas Geburek, Tor Myking
AuthorsThomas Geburek Tor Myking
Throughout history, man has strongly utilized and aﬀected forest genetic resources in Europe. From an evolu-tionary perspective deforestation/fragmentation (→genetic drift), transfer of seeds and plants to new environ-ments (→mainly gene ﬂow) and selective logging (→selection) are most relevant and have been particularlyaddressed in this review. In contrast to most conifers, broadleaved tree populations have been especially reducedby historic fragmentation, and consequently, the related genetic eﬀects have been possibly more pronounced.Widespread wind-pollinated species with wind/animal dispersed seeds appear to be more resilient to frag-mentation than species with e.g. small geographic ranges and gravity dispersed seeds. In addition, naturallyfragmented populations in the range margins may be more vulnerable than central populations as conditions forgene ﬂow are generally impaired in peripheral areas. Traits important for adaptation (e.g. bud burst, bud set) arecontrolled by many genes, and as a corollary of fragmentation such genes are lost at a low rate. Large scalecommercial translocation of seeds and plants for forestry purposes applies mostly to conifers and dates backabout two centuries. Although many translocations have been successful in a forestry perspective, exposure tonew selective regimes has sometimes challenged the adaptive limits of populations and caused setbacks or evendiebacks of populations, as well as inﬂuencing neighbouring populations with maladapted genes (e.g. Scots pine,maritime pine, larch). Many tree species have substantial plasticity in ﬁtness-related traits, which is vital forsurvival and viability following translocations. Selective logging has been practiced in Europe over the last twocenturies and implies removal of superior trees with respect to growth and quality. Such traits are partly undergenetic control. Consequent removal of superior trees may therefore have negative eﬀects on the remaining genepool, but this eﬀect will also be counteracted by extensive gene ﬂow. Although humans have strongly aﬀectedEuropean forest trees over the last millennia, we argue that they are still resilient from an evolutionary perspective.
Academic – Genetic diversity of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seed orchard crops: Effects of number of parents, seed year, and pollen contamination
Jørn Henrik Sønstebø, Mari Mette Tollefsrud, Tor Myking, ...
AuthorsJørn Henrik Sønstebø Mari Mette Tollefsrud Tor Myking Arne Steffenrem Anne Eskild Nilsen Øyvind Meland Edvardsen O. Ragnar Johnskås Yousry A. El-Kassaby
Seed from orchards, established from breeding programs, often dominate the planting stock in economically important tree species, such as Norway spruce. The genetic diversity in seed orchards’ crops depends on eﬀective population size which in turn is aﬀected by many factors such as: number of parents in the orchard, seed orchards’ design, fecundity, and pollen contamination. Even though seed orchards’ seed is extensively used over large regions, very few studies have addressed how well their crops reﬂect the genetic diversity present in the regions where they are planted. Here we have investigated the genetic diversity (by means of 11 microsatellites) of two Norway spruce seed orchard populations with diﬀerent number of parents (60 and 25) and compared this with seed crops collected in the semi natural forest and natural unmanaged populations. We found that the ratio between the eﬀective population size (N e ) and actual number of parents (N) varied between 0.60 and 0.76 in the orchards’ seedlots. A reduction in genetic diversity (mainly allelic richness) was detected in a few seedlots, mainly where the number of parents was low. Our results also show that pollen contamination play an important role in maintaining the genetic diversity in orchards’ seedlots, particularly when the number of parents is low. The population genetic structure among seed orhcards and natural populations is shallow suggesting that re- generation with seed from current seed orchards will have limited eﬀect on the overall genetic diversity.
Academic – Marginal/peripheral populations of forest tree species and their conservation status: report for Baltic region
Mari Rusanen, Tor Myking
The Baltic region includes in this report Fennoscandia (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Poland. This region is fairly heterogeneous as regards forest history, forest policy, forest economy as well as climate and conditions for forest growth. The climate of the Baltic region is cool, but still drastically modified by the Gulfstream which skirts the western coast of Scandinavia, giving rise to much warmer summers and milder winters than expected based on the latitude. The warming associated with climate change is expected to be particularly pronounced in winter and at high latitudes. In coastal areas precipitation may increase notably. With elevated temperature, the frequency of both spring frost and drought events is predicted to increase in continental parts. The vegetation and forest types are heterogeneous. Fennoscandia has a large proportion of boreal vegetation where coniferous forests dominate and many broadleaves common in Central Europe are rare and scattered. In the Baltic region the most distinct marginal populations are those at the northern fringe of their distribution. The distribution ranges are limited by a combination of different factors such as low winter temperatures, short growing season either for growth or for seed maturation, soil types and human influence. Fragmentation may limit gene flow between stands, and some populations also show slight inbreeding. The countries in the region have protected jointly 4,9 M ha in the main MCPFE categories. The northern part of the region seems to put more weight on nature conservation through no intervention whereas the southern part emphasizes conservation through active management. The countries of the Baltic region have uploaded altogether 1'172 in situ genetic conservation units in the European Information System on Forest Genetic Resources (EUFGIS).
Lecture – Sustainable tree breeding in Norway spruce – advances in research on genetic variation
Academic – Ash dieback in Norway – current situation
Isabella Børja, Volkmar Timmermann, Ari Hietala, ...
AuthorsIsabella Børja Volkmar Timmermann Ari Hietala Mari Mette Tollefsrud Nina Elisabeth Nagy Adam Vivian-Smith Hugh Cross Jørn Henrik Sønstebø Tor Myking Halvor Solheim
In Norway the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) has its northernmost distribution in Europe. It grows along the coastal range as small fragmented populations. The first occurrence of ash dieback caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in Norway was reported in 2008. At that time, the disease had already spread through large areas of southern and south-eastern parts of Norway. Since then the disease continued spreading with a speed of about 50- 60 km per year along the western coastal range. To monitor the disease development over time, we established eight permanent monitoring plots in south-eastern and western Norway in 2009 and 2012, respectively. In all plots tree mortality was high, especially among the youngest trees in south-eastern Norway. The extent of crown damage has continually increased in all diameter classes for both regions. In 2009, 76.8 % of all trees on the five monitoring plots in south-eastern Norway were considered to be healthy or slightly damaged, and only 8.9 % to be severely damaged. In 2015, 51.7 % were dead, 13.5 % severely damaged and only 25.7 % remained healthy or slightly damaged. To assess the infection pressure and spore dispersal patterns of the pathogen, we used a Burkard volumetric spore sampler placed in an infested ash stand in southern Norway. We examined the airborne ascospores of H. fraxineus and H. albidus captured on the sampling tape microscopically and with real-time PCR assays specific to these fungi. We detected very few ascospores of H. albidus, whereas ascospores of H. fraxineus dominated throughout entire sampling periods of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Spore discharge occurred mainly between the hours of 5 and 8 a.m., though the distinctive sporulation had yearly variation between 5-7 a.m. We observed the same diurnal pattern throughout the entire sampling period, with a seasonal peak in spore liberation between mid-July and midAugust, after which the number of ascospores decreased substantially. Similar diurnal patterns were observed throughout the sampling period except that after mid-August the number of trapped ascospores substantially decreased. To compare the genetic pattern of common ash in the northern and central ranges of Europe we analyzed the Norwegian samples together with available samples from central Europe by using chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers. We found that the northern range of common ash was colonized via a single migration route that originated in eastern or south-eastern Europe with little influence originating from other southern or western European refugia. In the northern range margins, genetic diversity decreased and population differentiation increased, coherent with a post-glacial colonization history characterized by founder events and population fluctuations. Based on our findings we discuss the future management and conservational implications.
Academic – Protection of forest genetic resources by intellectual property rights – exploring possibilities and conceivable conflicts
Tor Myking, Morten Walløe Tvedt, Bo Karlsson
AuthorsTor Myking Morten Walløe Tvedt Bo Karlsson
The world’s need for industrial wood is expected to greatly increase in coming decades. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a way in which an almost unlimited number of genetically identical plants (clones) can be produced from a single mother plant/seed, and it offers an effective way to convey the genetic gain obtained in breeding to the planting stock. As cultures or methods of SE, for example in Norway spruce (Picea abies), may become the subject of intellectual property rights (IPRs), a legal conflict may arise between the right holder and the rights of the general public covered by the Every man’s rights to freely sample, for example, forest genetic resources (FGRs). Various IPR systems may be relevant for the protection of SE material in forestry, but they possibly differ in how well sufficient genetic variation can be encompassed by protection claims. We therefore specifically advocate awareness of genetic variation in future SE-related IPR claims in forestry, and argue that process patents are most applicable. In face of the bioeconomy, it is mandatory to be aware of the possible conflicts between IPRs and rights of the public to FGRs, and the genetic variation of future IPR-protected SE material in forestry.
Academic – Genetic Structure in the Northern Range Margins of Common Ash, Fraxinus excelsior L.
Mari Mette Tollefsrud, Tor Myking, Jørn Henrik Sønstebø, ...
AuthorsMari Mette Tollefsrud Tor Myking Jørn Henrik Sønstebø Vaidotas Lygis Ari Hietala Myriam Heuertz
During post glacial colonization, loss of genetic diversity due to leading edge effects may be attenuated in forest trees because of their prolonged juvenile phase, allowing many migrants to reach the colonizing front before populations become reproductive. The northern range margins of temperate tree taxa in Europe are particularly suitable to study the genetic processes that follow colonization because they have been little affected by northern refugia. Here we examined how post glacial range dynamics have shaped the genetic structure of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) in its northern range compared to its central range in Europe. We used four chloroplast and six nuclear microsatellites to screen 42 populations (1099 trees), half of which corresponded to newly sampled populations in the northern range and half of which represented reference populations from the central range obtained from previously studies. We found that northern range populations of common ash have the same chloroplast haplotypes as south-eastern European populations, suggesting that colonization of the northern range took place along a single migration route, a result confirmed by the structure at the nuclear microsatellites. Along this route, diversity strongly decreased only in the northern range, concomitantly with increasing population differentiation and complex population substructures, a pattern consistent with a leading edge colonization model. Our study highlights that while diversity is maintained in the central range of common ash due to broad colonizing fronts and high levels of gene flow, it profoundly decreases in the northern range, where colonization was unidirectional and probably involved repeated founder events and population fluctuations. Currently, common ash is threatened by ash dieback, and our results on northern populations will be valuable for developing gene conservation strategies.
Academic – Historic transfer of forest reproductive material in the Nordic region: drivers, scale and implications
Tor Myking, Mari Rusanen, Arne Steffenrem, ...
AuthorsTor Myking Mari Rusanen Arne Steffenrem Erik Dahl Kjær Gunnar Jansson
No abstract has been registered
Lecture – A Nordic perspective on challanges and needs for FGR conservation in a changing climate
Lecture – Transfer of seeds and plants to Fennoscandia in the past – drivers, scale and implications
Report – Foreign Norway spruce (Picea abies) provenances in Norway and effects on biodiversity
Per Arild Aarrestad, Tor Myking, Odd Egil Stabbetorp, ...
AuthorsPer Arild Aarrestad Tor Myking Odd Egil Stabbetorp Mari Mette Tollefsrud
Rapporten gir en oversikt over granas (Picea abies) utbredelse, taksonomi og genetisk variasjon som en bakgrunn for å vurdere om planting av norske og utenlandske provenienser av gran kan ha ulike effekter på stedegent biologisk mangfold. Ifølge oppdraget skal en slik vurdering gis på bakgrunn av en sammenstilling av eksisterende kunnskap. Granas utbredelse i Europa er delt i et nordlig og et sørlig område som utgjør to klart adskilte genetiske grupper, sannsynligvis som følge av isolasjon gjennom flere istider. I nord danner gran et sammenhengende område som dekker nesten hele Fennoskandia, Estland, Latvia, Litauen, Hviterussland, nordre deler av Polen og den europeiske delen av Russland. I sør opptrer grana hovedsakelig langs fjellkjedene i sentrale og sørøstlige deler av Europa. I Norge er gran hovedsakelig utbredt i østlige og sentrale deler av landet, med spredte populasjoner i indre strøk av Vestlandet og i Øst-Finnmark. Både paleodata og genetiske data viser at grana vandret inn til Norge fra et stort Russisk istidsrefugium langs både nordlige og sørlige innvandringsveier. Samtidig tyder genetiske data på at grana også har overlevd siste istid i Skandinavia. Det finnes møtesoner i Skandinavia fra både et østlig og et vestlig refugium med genetiske subgrupper som følge av de ulike historiske prosessene. Videre bidrar genflyt over store avstander til genetisk homogenisering. Proveniens (fra latin «provenir» – komme fra, opprinnelse) henviser til områdene der et treslag vokser eller stedsopprinnelsen til frø eller trær, og er ikke et taksonomisk begrep. Ulike provenienser av gran fra flere europeiske land, særlig fra Tyskland og Østerrike, har blitt benyttet i flere tiår til skogplanting i Norge. Slike utenlandske provenienser kan skille seg i adaptive økologiske egenskaper som fenologi, hardførhet mot frost og kulde, evne til frøproduksjon og frøspredning, noe som igjen kan føre til ulik vekst- og spredningspotensiale. Granplanting påvirker det stedegne biologiske mangfoldet betydelig gjennom redusert lystilgang, endret vannbalanse og næringsomsetning i jorda. Man kunne således anta at de proveniensene av gran som har best vekstegenskaper ville påvirke den stedegne biodiversiteten mest. Imidlertid har søk i internasjonale databaser, så vel som forespørsler til miljø- og skogforskningsinstitusjoner i Europa, ikke avdekket noe litteratur eller erfaringsbasert kunnskap som bekrefter dette. Forskning på temaet er trolig ikke-eksisterende. Selv om ulike provenienser av gran skulle påvirke stedegent biologisk mangfold ulikt, vil slike forskjeller høyst sannsynlig være marginale, sammenlignet med effektene av selve granplantingen, der plantetetthet, skjøtsel av plantefeltene, endret jordkjemi og lysforhold er det viktigste påvirkningsfaktorene på biologisk mangfold. Norway spruce, provenance, afforestation, forestry, taxonomy, genetic variation, paleobotany, biodiversity, ecological traits, risk assessment, gran, proveniens, skogplanting, skogbruk, taksonomi, genetisk variasjon, paleobotanikk, biodiversitet, økologiske egenskaper, sårbarhetsanalyse
Lecture – Genetic structure in ash populations at the northern range margins
Mari Mette Tollefsrud, Tor Myking, Jørn Henrik Sønstebø, ...
AuthorsMari Mette Tollefsrud Tor Myking Jørn Henrik Sønstebø Einar Heegaard Myriam Heuertz
No abstract has been registered
Academic – The role of exotic tree species in Nordic forestry
Erik Dahl Kjær, Albin Lobo, Tor Myking
Academic – Browsing of sallow (Salix caprea L.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in the context of life history strategies: a literature review
Tor Myking, Erling Johan Solberg, Gunnar Austrheim, ...
AuthorsTor Myking Erling Johan Solberg Gunnar Austrheim James David Mervyn Speed Fredrik Bøhler Rasmus Astrup Rune Eriksen
Sallow (Salix caprea L.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) constitute small proportions of the deciduous tree volume in Scandinavia, but are highly preferred winter forage for moose and red deer, which occur at historically high densities. Thus, a possible decline of these tree species has been indicated. Against this background, we have reviewed the life histories of relevance for browsing, as well as the basic biology and genetics of sallow and rowan. The species show similarities with respect to short lifespan, small size and sympodial growth pattern, which are risk factors in a browsing context. They also have high juvenile growth rate, important for growing quickly out of reach of browsers. Sallow depends strongly on disturbance for establishment and is more demanding with respect to soil and light conditions than rowan, possibly important for the substantially lower abundance of sallow on the Norwegian Forest Inventory plots. Similarly, the relative recruitment of small size classes of sallow is less than for rowan. Although recruitment is reported to be hampered in wintering areas with high moose or red deer densities, the inventory data, however, dating only back to 1994, do not suggest a general decrease in any of the species. Sallow and rowan saplings show low mortality in moose and deer dominated areas and the species can be characterised as rather resilient to browsing. Of more concern is that browsing can constrain the development of mature rowan and sallow trees locally, with possible consequences for associated epiphytic biodiversity.
Report – Access and rights to forest genetic resources in the Nordic region. Current situation and future perspectives
Tor Myking, Morten Walløe Tvedt, Øyvind Meland Edvardsen, ...
AuthorsTor Myking Morten Walløe Tvedt Øyvind Meland Edvardsen Henrik Hallingbäck Ditte Christina Olrik Gunnar Friis Proschowsky Mari Rusanen Sanna Black-Samuelsson Tore Skrøppa
Continued flexible exchange of forest genetic resources (FGR) in the Nordic region is important for sustainable forest management and for climate change adaptation and mitigation. For this reason, a high level political initiative identified a need to clarify the legal status of FGR in the Nordic region. The overall aim of this study was to assess whether it is necessary and possible to take legal steps to ensure that FGR remain available for conservation and sustainable use in and between the Nordic countries. A survey of the present situation revealed that although the Nordic countries have different domestic legislation on access to FGR, it has not caused any hinders for exchange. Thus, in effect the situation is quite similar in the Nordic countries. As for the future, it is unlikely that application of patent law and plant variety protection (UPOV) will restrict exchange of FGR, mainly due to the short protection periods of these regulations relative to the long generation time of main forestry tree species. For short rotation tree species, intellectual property rights (IPR) might prove to be more applicable. Concerning international agreements, it is premature to evaluate the effect of the Nagoya Protocol (2010) on access and benefit sharing for FGR, as well as recent FAO initiatives. Based on the current study, no legal steps or action seem necessary. To promote continuing simple exchange of FGR the Nordic countries are recommended to stay involved in those processes where relevant international agreements are debated and developed, facilitate simple procedures for exchange and establish a mechanism for surveillance of biotechnological methods that might increase the use of private property rights on FGR.
Report – Terrestrial and aquatic baseline. Study and monitoring programme for CO2 technology centre Mongstad
Merete Grung, Sissel Ranneklev, Øyvind Garmo, ...
AuthorsMerete Grung Sissel Ranneklev Øyvind Garmo Richard Frederic Wright Tor Myking Einar Heegaard Bernt-Håvard Øyen Fride Høistad Schei Hans Haavardsholm Blom
CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad will be the world\"s largest test centre for testing and development of CO2 capture technology. The emissions to the atmosphere from CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad contain amines and may in addition contain or lead to the formation of degradation products from amine-based CO2 capture technology. An environmental baseline survey was conducted in 2011 prior to the operation. The survey performed is broad, and describes in detail the environmental situation both in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as well as relevant chemical compositions of a range of matrices such as soil, plants and water. The data collected in the monitoring program were used to propose a future monitoring program in the area.
Academic – Translating conservation genetics into management: Pan-European minimum requirements for dynamic conservation units of forest tree genetic diversity
Jarkko Koskela, Franҫois Lefèvre, Silvio Schüler, ...
AuthorsJarkko Koskela Franҫois Lefèvre Silvio Schüler Hojka Kraigher Ditte C. Olrik Jason Hubert Roman Longauer Michele Bozzano Leena Yrjänä Paraskevi Alizoti Peter Rotach Lorenzo Vietto Sándor Bordács Tor Myking Thröstur Eysteinsson Oudara Souvannavong Bruno Fady Bart De Cuyper Berthold Heinze Georg von Wühlisch Alexis Ducousso Bjerne Ditlevsen
This paper provides a review of theoretical and practical aspects related to genetic management of forest trees. The implementation of international commitments on forest genetic diversity has been slow and partly neglected. Conservation of forest genetic diversity is still riddled with problems, and complexities of national legal and administrative structures. Europe is an example of a complex region where the distribution ranges of tree species extend across large geographical areas with profound environmental differences, and include many countries. Conservation of forest genetic diversity in Europe has been hampered by a lack of common understanding on the management requirements for genetic conservation units of forest trees. The challenge resides in integrating scientific knowledge on conservation genetics into management of tree populations so that recommendations are feasible to implement across different countries. Here, we present pan-European minimum requirements for dynamic conservation units of forest genetic diversity. The units are natural or man-made tree populations which are managed for maintaining evolutionary processes and adaptive potential across generations. Each unit should have a designated status and a management plan, and one or more tree species recognized as target species for genetic conservation. The minimum sizes of the units are set at 500, 50 or 15 reproducing individuals depending on tree species and conservation objectives. Furthermore, silvicultural interventions should be allowed to enhance genetic processes, as needed, and field inventories carried out to monitor regeneration and the population size. These minimum requirements are now used by 36 countries to improve management of forest genetic diversity.
Academic – Life history strategies of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and browsing effects: a literature review
Tor Myking, Fredrik Bøhler, Gunnar Austrheim, ...
AuthorsTor Myking Fredrik Bøhler Gunnar Austrheim Erling Johan Solberg
Aspen (Populus tremula L.) is associated with high biodiversity and provides high-quality forage for wild browsing herbivores in boreal and temperate ecosystems. The long-term persistence of aspen in many regions in Scandinavia has been questioned due to the historically high browsing levels. We here review the basic ecology, genetics and life histories of aspen in a browsing context. Browsers can suppress the regeneration of aspen and the relatively short lifespan of the trees result in frequent regeneration cycles and concurrent exposure to browsers. In the long term, browsing may reduce recruitment and delay maturation, increase mortality and ultimately cause a decline of aspen. Norwegian forest inventory data indicate a reduced recruitment rate of young aspen (diameter at breast height; 60–79 mm) during the last 25 years, but it is unclear whether this is all due to browsing. Regeneration may also be hampered by lack of disturbance. Recent genetic studies have shown that aspen may have substantial regeneration by seeds, which allows for effective migration. The main conclusion of this review is that although browsing may affect demography and local abundance of aspen, it is very unlikely to lead to the eradication of the species in Fennoscandia.
Academic – Nuclear genetic markers indicate Danish origin of the Norwegian beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations established in 500–1,000 AD
Tor Myking, Igor A. Yakovlev, Geir Atle Ersland
AuthorsTor Myking Igor A. Yakovlev Geir Atle Ersland
The northernmost range of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is in southern Norway and consists of two distinct and isolated distributions, a single population at Seim in West Norway and several adjacent populations in Vestfold, East Norway. The modest beech pollen deposits beyond these main distributions suggest that the Norwegian beech distribution has never been an extension of the south Scandinavian range. We used genetic markers and historical sources to trace the ancestor populations for the beech at Seim and Vestfold, hypothesising Denmark as the most likely source. Nuclear inter-simple sequence repeat markers, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were applied to estimate genetic distances between beech populations in Norway, England and Denmark. The variation in chloroplast DNA polymorphism was estimated using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The nuclear genetic data indicate Denmark as a source for the beech in Norway, although the data are less certain in the case of Seim than in that of Vestfold. The populations from South England were genetically different from most Scandinavian populations. The genetic variation within Norwegian populations was only slightly lower than that of the English and Danish populations, questioning birds as vectors for dispersal. Thus, the pollen data and our results are in accordance with the intentional introduction and documented human migrations across Skagerrak before and during the Viking Age.
Academic – Bud dormancy release in elm (Ulmus spp.) clones-a case study of photoperiod and temperature responses
Luisa Ghelardini, Alberto Santini, Sanna Black-Samuelsson, ...
AuthorsLuisa Ghelardini Alberto Santini Sanna Black-Samuelsson Tor Myking Mauro Falusi
Dormancy release as influenced by duration of outdoor winter chilling in Florence (Italy) was studied under different photoperiodic and temperature treatments in collected twigs of two European (Ulmus glabra Huds. and Ulmus minor Mill.) and four Asian (Ulmus pumila L., Ulmus parvifolia Jacq., Ulmus macrocarpa Hance and Ulmus villosa Brandis) elm clones. Photoperiod had no effect on dormancy release, and there was no evidence that photoperiod affected bud burst during quiescence in the studied elm clones. Thermal time (day degrees >0 °C) to bud burst decreased in all the clones with increasing outdoor chilling. Although all the clones exhibited a rather weak dormancy, they significantly differed from each other. Dormancy was released earlier in the Asian than in the European clones, and the clones could be ranked from the U. pumila clone (very weak and short dormancy) to the U. minor clone (relatively stronger and longer dormancy), the other clones being intermediate. In all the clones except U. minor, the observed decrement in thermal time to bud burst was efficiently explained as an inverse exponential function of the number of chill days ≤5 °C received outdoor in autumn and winter. Endodormancy, as measured by the single-node cuttings test, was weak and short in all the clones. The latter result suggests that correlative inhibitions were largely responsible for preventing bud burst during winter in these elm clones.
Report – Forest ecosystem monitoring in the Pasvik River valley and adjoining area
Dan Aamlid, Tor Myking
AuthorsDan Aamlid Tor Myking
The Pasvik River valley is the easternmost part of Norway, and borders to Finland and Russia. In Norway it is known for its wilderness and taiga forests. During the 1960-1970s most of the mature pine forests were harvested, and large areas of pine stands have been naturally regenerated. In addition, large areas are covered with birch. The Pasvik River valley and the adjoining areas are therefore important both as an area for growing timber resources and for recreation. However, these areas have also been exposed to air pollution from Russian smelting industry since the 1930s. In addition to sulphur dioxide, emissions consist of various heavy metals which contaminate the surroundings. The main pollution source is the huge nickel plant in the Russian city Nikel, located only 10 km from the Norwegian border. For a long time there was general concern for the quality of the forest ecosystems in these areas. This concern accelerated in the mid-1980s.
Popular scientific article – Legal rights to forest genetic resources - approaching a new regime?
Tor Myking, Morten Walløe Tvedt
The Nordic region is characterized by simple, non-bureaucratic exchange of forest genetic resources (FGR) between countries that is strongly associated with the everyman\"s right legislation within the individual countries. The regime for international exchange of FGR is smooth and regarded as being very valuable for the forestry sector across the Nordic country borders as it secures the unrestricted availability of seeds and breeding material.
Popular scientific article – Who owns the genes of the forest trees?
Tor Myking, Mari Rusanen, Henrik Hallingbäck, ...
AuthorsTor Myking Mari Rusanen Henrik Hallingbäck Ditte Christina Olrik Richard Sanders
There is great ecological, economic and social value within forest genetic resources – that is a fact. But so far, the true legal status of this resource has not been defined. This was the background for a meeting held in Vienna on 13 September 2010 which assembled forest and legal experts to discuss preliminary outputs from a NordGen project (2009-2010), initiated by representatives from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden....
Report – Content of heavy metals in cloudberries and bilberries in Sør-Varanger, Finnmark 2008
Academic – Effects of air pollution from a nickel-copper industrial complex on boreal forest vegetation in the joint Russian-Norwegian-Finnish border area
Tor Myking, Per Arild Aarrestad, John Derome, ...
AuthorsTor Myking Per Arild Aarrestad John Derome Vegar Bakkestuen Jarle Werner Bjerke Michael L. Gytarsky Ludmila Isaeva Rodion Karaban Vladimir Korotkov Martti Lindgren Antti-Jussi Lindroos Ingvald Røsberg Maija Salemaa Hans Tømmervik Natalya Vassilieva
The effect of air pollution from the Petchenganickel industrial complex, northwestern part of the Kola Peninsula, on forest vegetation was studied by combining three dormant monitoring networks in Finland, Russia and Norway, comprising a total of 21 plots that were revisited in 2004. Chemical composition of precipitation was monitored during 2004–2005, and indicated continuing high deposition of heavy metals and SO2 in the border area. The cover of epiphytic lichens on the trunks of downy birch (Betula pubescens) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was severely affected by pollution, and there was also a consistent negative effect on the abundance and richness of lichens and bryophytes on the forest floor in a more limited area. The effects of pollution on crown condition and stand growth were weak or absent. This study is an important reference for evaluating the effects of the planned renovation of the smelter in Nikel.
Academic – Genetic variation in northern marginal Taxus baccata L. populations. Implications for conservation
Tor Myking, Pekka Vakkari, Tore Skrøppa
Popular scientific article – Legal rights to forest genetic resources - challenges and solutions
Tor Myking, Morten Walløe Tvedt
Report – Current state of terrestrial ecosystems in the joint Norwegian, Russian and Finnish border area in northern Fennoscandia
An international EU/Interreg III Kolarctic project `Development and implementation of an environmental monitoring and assessment program in the joint Finnish, Norwegian and Russian border area`, was carried out during 2003–2006 as a joint undertaking between Norwegian, Finnish and Russian research institutes and environmental authorities. The aim of the terrestrial ecosystem sub-project of the Pasvik project was to develop and implement a monitoring and assessment programme for terrestrial ecosystems in the joint Finnish, Norwegian and Russian border area...
AuthorsJarle Werner Bjerke Tor Myking Hans Nyeggen Hans Tømmervik
No abstract has been registered
Report – Harmonization of the environmental monitoring and assessment methods employed in the sampling, measurement/observation, data analysis, evaluation and reporting stages
John Derome, Tor Myking, Per Arild Aarrestad
AuthorsJohn Derome Tor Myking Per Arild Aarrestad
Harmonization was achieved by carrying out joint sampling and assessment exercises at selected sites, inter-laboratory ring tests for the chemical analyses of deposition, plant and soil material, and by drawing up data compilation, data analysis and reporting guidelines and templates for the researchers working in the three countries.
Report – Testing the integrated monitoring programme to be implemented by the environmental authorities and organizations of the three countries
Per Arild Aarrestad, Tor Myking
Academic – Assessments of tree crown condition of two Masson pine forests in the acid rain region in south China
Yanhui Wang, Svein Solberg, Pengtao Yu, ...
AuthorsYanhui Wang Svein Solberg Pengtao Yu Tor Myking Rolf David Vogt Shicai Du
After two decades of monitoring forest health in Europe, in response to concern for negative effects of air pollution, a similar worry is now increasing in China. In a co-operative project between Chinese and Norwegian researchers a forest monitoring was implemented in the acid rain region in south China. During 2000–2004 two small watersheds were monitored: TieShanPing (TSP) near ChongQing City and LuChongGuan (LCG) near GuiYang City. They are covered by Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest. The methodology of the European intensive forest monitoring programme (ICP-Forests level-II) was adopted; including crown assessments, foliar chemistry, air and soil chemistry, and more. This paper presents results of this co-operative project. Considerable forest damage was revealed by monitoring the crown condition of Masson pine trees. The average defoliation percentage for all assessed trees (predominant, dominant and co-dominant pines, corresponding to Kraft classes 1–3) in the more acidified TSP was over 40% and remained stable throughout the monitoring period, accompanied by an extremely high mortality in some years. In contrast, the defoliation in the less acidified LCG was relatively low but increased considerably, from 16% to around 40%, within the 4 monitoring years. The significance of air pollution for the forest damage remains uncertain. The annual SO2 concentration in TSP and LCG is about 2 and 4 times higher than the critical level of 20 μg m−3 given in the LRTAP convention for effects on forests. Therefore the air pollution effects cannot be ruled out as contributing factors for forest damage. However, this cannot be substantiated based on the presented monitoring data since none of the specific symptoms of air pollution damage were observed. Furthermore, an analysis of the monitoring data did not reveal any significant correlation between defoliation and the soil chemical properties. It is noteworthy that the evident agents that were identified are capable of causing the observed forest damage. These agents were insect attacks and climatic stress. It is possible that the forest damage has complex causes.
AuthorsJohn Derome Per Arild Aarrestad Paul Aspholm Vegar Bakkestuen Jarle Werner Bjerke Kjell Einar Erikstad Minna Hartikainen Ludmila Isaeva Martti Lindgren Antti-Jussi Lindroos Tor Myking Jarmo Poikolainen Pasi Rautio Ingvald Røsberg Maija Salemaa Hans Tømmervik Natalya Vassilieva
No abstract has been registered
Academic – Variation in phenology and height increment of northern Ulmus glabra populations - implications for conservation
Tor Myking, Tore Skrøppa
Popular scientific article – Certification of forest reproductive materials - is present practice sufficient?
Tor Myking, Tore Skrøppa
Academic – Ecology, history and silviculture of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in western Norway - a literature review
Bernt-Håvard Øyen, Hans Blom, Ivar Gjerde, ...
AuthorsBernt-Håvard Øyen Hans Blom Ivar Gjerde Tor Myking Magne Sætersdal Karl Thunes
Results from a literature review on pinewood ecology, silviculture, genetics, aspects of history and forest resources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in western Norway are presented. The pinewoods cover 40 per cent of the forested land, 0.31 million ha. During the last 75 years, the area has increased by 17 per cent and the growing stock has risen from 10 to 34 million m3. The impact of man in previous times was very marked, and has had a significant influence on the present forest conditions. The pronounced climatic gradients mixed with the topographic variation - from the coastal plains via the fjord systems to the high mountains - is reflected in rather steep gradients in the pine forest vegetation. Various floristic elements can be distinguished, from oceanic via the suboceanic in the outer islands to the thermophytic, boreonemoral and boreal elements in the inner fjord districts and valleys. The introduction of spruce (Picea spp.) plantations on 10-15 per cent of former native pine forests has not negatively affected the bird fauna at the landscape scale. Although not particular species rich, the pine forests harbour species usually not found in other forest types. So far, most work in the field of silviculture and forest ecology in the pinewoods of West Norway has been in the form of case studies. Implications of the results for forestry in the region are briefly discussed.
Academic – Management of urban recreational woodlands: The case of Norway
Vegard Gundersen, Lars Helge Frivold, Tor Myking, ...
AuthorsVegard Gundersen Lars Helge Frivold Tor Myking Bernt-Håvard Øyen
No abstract has been registered
Academic – Variation in leaf morphology and chloroplast DNA in Ulmus glabra in the northern suture zone: Effects of distinct glacial refugia
Tor Myking, Igor A. Yakovlev
AuthorsTor Myking Igor A. Yakovlev
Based on field observations of leaf morphology and variation in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) in Scandinavia, Norway has been suggested as a suture zone for elm (Ulmus glabra) from different glacial refugia. The aim of this paper was to study the geographical concordance between the maternally inherited cpDNA markers (16 populations) and the assumed polygenic and biparentally inherited leaf traits, studied in a field trial (five populations).Two cpDNA haplotypes were detected, but without geographical structure. Leaf traits showed a gradient from typical ssp. montana traits (relatively long, long tapering, absent acute lobes) in western populations to more ssp. glabra-like traits (relatively broad, short tapering, acute lobes present) in eastern and northern populations.The overall geographical concordance between haplotype distribution and leaf traits was limited, probably owing to different inheritance of cpDNA and leaf traits, but the spatial variation in leaf traits and cpDNA in a subset of common populations (n=5) was compatible with a dual migration of elm to Scandinavia. Both measures suggest a broad suture zone, covering the entire distribution of elm in Norway.The results are discussed in relation to the use of maternally inherited markers, such as cpDNA, in delimiting suture zones.
Report – A preliminary study of effects of emissions to air from a LNG plant in Russia
D. Tønnesen, Tor Myking, Ingvald Røsberg, ...
AuthorsD. Tønnesen Tor Myking Ingvald Røsberg Nicholas Clarke Brit Lisa Skjelkvåle Øyvind Kaste Thorbjørn Larssen
Impact assessment for a proposed LNG plant has been carried out for three potential locations in northwest Russia. The impact from the plant is small, and the critical loads for terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems will not be exceeded at any of the 3 locations.
Academic – History, manufacture and properties of lime bast cordage in northern Europe
Tor Myking, A Herzberg, Tore Skrøppa
Report – EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for sycamore (Acer pseudplatanus)
Mari Rusanen, Tor Myking
Report – Integrated Monitoring Program on Acidification of Chinese Terrestrial Systems IMPACTS; Summary report 2002
Yi He, Jixi Gao, Haiying Liu, ...
AuthorsYi He Jixi Gao Haiying Liu Zhengtao Liu Feng Liu Xiaoshan Zhang Jingheng Guo Yanhui Wang He Shang Pengtao Yu Jianhua Zhu Jingjun Han Bin Yao Xiyon Hu Xiaoquan Zhang Min Shao Limin Zeng Lei Jin Lei Duan Quanru Liu Dawei Zhao Dongbao Zhang Shengliang Chen Renjun Xiang Yi Chang Jinhong Zhang Jiahai Luo Zhanyi Zhang Jinsong Xiao Xiaoyu Peng Rolf David Vogt Hans Martin Seip Wenche Aas Kjetil Tørseth Jan Mulder Trine Sogn Odd Eilertsen Tonje Ingeborg Økland Harald Bratli Valter Angell Svein Solberg Tor Myking Espen Lydersen Thorjørn Larssen Dagang Tang
Sulphur deposition is high at all IMPACTS sites and exceed maximum levels observed in Europe and North-America. Dry deposition equals or exceeds wet deposition. The IMPACTS data, in particular those from the remote Lei Gong Shan site clearly document long-range transport of air pollutants. Due to the actual and future energy combustion and emission strategy in China, the long-range transport of air pollutants may significantly increase with subsequent increased environmental damage in rural and remote areas in China. In addition to sulphur deposition, depositions of reactive nitrogen (nitric acid and ammonia) and calcium are also important and clearly demonstrate that pH alone is not a good indicator for acid deposition. High concentrations of ground level ozone, above critical levels for vegetation and forest, are observed at the Liu Xi He site in Guangdong province. Soil acidification gives rise to high concentrations of toxic aluminium in soil water at several sites. At the Tie Shan Ping site in Chongqing aluminium occurs at a level where long-term harmful effects on trees might be expected. Defoliation and mortality have been severe, however, fairly stable. Insect attacks are apparently a major cause, but enhanced insect attacks might be an indirect effect of health weakening due to acidification. Defoliation has been considerable also in Liu Chong Guan in Guiyang, while the three other catchments had minor defoliation only. High foliar nitrogen concentrations are seen in Lei Gong Shan in Guizhou and Cai Jia Tang in Hunan, accompanied by low P/N-ratios. Statistical tests of vegetation change, so far only implemented in Liu Chong Guan, revealed minor changes in number and abundances of vascular plants, but a significant decline in number of bryophytes. This decline is probably related to climatic year-to-year variations. Data from other catchments and longer time periods are needed to identify vegetation changes related to soil acidification or direct effects of air pollutants. Modelling results from Tie Shan Ping suggest that the currently planned 20% reduction in sulphur emissions is far from sufficient to avoid further acidification. As more data are generated, dose-response relationships, critical load estimates and model predictions will obviously be improved.
Academic – Evaluation of genetic resources of forest trees by means of life history traits a Norwegian example
Additive variation in adaptive traits is a prerequisite for selection and adaptation to future environmental changes, but distribution of adaptive genetic variability between and within populations is poorly known in most forest trees. Owing to this deficiency, life history traits such as geographic range, pollination vector and seed dispersal capability, which significantly affect gene flow and thus the distribution of genetic variability, were used to evaluate the genetic resources in 23 Norwegian native forest tree species. Based on the combination of life history traits the species\" genetic resources were classified either as viable, potentially vulnerable or vulnerable, assuming a decrease in within-population variability in this sequence. Twelve widely distributed species with generally effective dispersal of pollen and seeds were considered viable (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Juniperus communis, Betula pubescens, B. pendula, Alnus incana, A. glutinosa, Salix caprea, Populus tremula, Corylus avellana, Sorbus aucuparia, Prunus padus) and have as such no particular conservation needs. Effective seed dispersal of these species, as inferred from post-glacial migration rates, may be partly responsible for their generally early post-glacial appearance, and may, in combination with the wide ranges and relatively large evolutionary potential, indicate that viable species are best able to cope with climatic change. Among species with restricted ranges and more limited gene flow eight were considered potentially vulnerable (Quercus petraea, Q. robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, Taxus baccata, Ilex aquifolium, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra) and three were considered vulnerable (Tilia cordata, Malus sylvestris, P. avium). Application of different intensities of a multiple population breeding system (MPBS) is considered the most appropriate mode of conserving genetic resources in these species.
Academic – Norway - Introductary country report for the Noble Hardwoods Network
Tor Myking, Tore Skrøppa
Academic – Conservation and state of genetic resources of oaks and beech in Norway
Tor Myking, Tore Skrøppa
Lecture – Genetic variation in budburst time in Acer platanoides and Betula pendula
Tor Myking, Christian Kierulf
Lecture – Variation in adaptive traits in broadleaved species - with special emphasis on climatic adaptation
Academic – Winter dormancy release and budburst in Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh. ecotypes
Winter dormancy reduces or inhibits totally the growth ability of buds. Dormancy release and budburst in Scandinavian Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. ecotypes were studied in controlled environments. There was a gradual decline in the heat-sum requirement for budburst with increasing chilling time. Two main clines in time of dormancy release appeared in ecotypes of different geographic origin, a latitudinal cline and a coastal-inland cline in which the duration of dormancy increased southwards and towards the coast. In addition, dormancy was later alleviated in high-altitude than in lowland B. pubescens ecotypes. In late autumn, after 44 chilling days, time to budburst at 15C was less in plants chilled at 0C than in plants chilled at 10C, indicating that 0C was most effective for dormancy release. In January, after 105 chilling days, however, dormancy release was completed, and budburst was earliest in plants chilled at 10C. At this stage there were no detectable differences in effectiveness between fluctuating and corresponding constant temperatures (6 to 21C) in promoting growth and budburst in B. pubescens. Long photoperiods significantly reduced time to budburst in partly dormant buds, but had no effect when dormancy was fully released
Academic – Interrelations between respiration and dormancy in buds of three hardwood species with different chilling requirements for dormancy release
Academic – Dormancy, budburst and impacts of climatic warming in coastal-inland and altitudinal Betula pendula and B.pubescens ecotypes
Academic – Effects of constant and fluctuating temperature on time to budburst in Betula pubescens and its relation to bud respiration
Lecture – Is 12°C the upper critical temperature for release of winter dormancy in birch buds?
Academic – Dormancy release and chilling requirement of buds of latitudinal ecotypes of Betula pendula and B. pubescens
Tor Myking, O.M. Heide
Lecture – Effekts on terrestrial ecosystems. I: Air pollution problems in the northern region of Fennoscandia included Cola (Sivertsen, B. red.).
Dan Aamlid, Tor Myking, Kåre Olav Venn
Lecture – Winter dormancy release and budburst in Betula pendula and B. pubescens ecotypes