Per Holm Nygaard
(+47) 911 38 138
Høgskoleveien 8, 1433 Ås
Academic – Impact of non-native tree species in Europe on soil properties and biodiversity: a review
Thomas Wohlgemuth, Martin M. Gossner, Thomas Campagnaro, ...
AuthorsThomas Wohlgemuth Martin M. Gossner Thomas Campagnaro Hélia Marchante Marcela van Loo Giorgio Vacchiano Pilar Castro-Díez Dorota Dobrowolska Anna Gazda Srdjan Keren Zsolt Keserű Marcin Koprowski Nicola La Porta Vitas Marozas Per Holm Nygaard Vilém Podrázský Radosław Puchałka Orna Reisman-Berman Lina Straigytė Tiina Ylioja Elisabeth Pötzelsberger Joaquim S. Silva
In the context of global change, the integration of non-native tree (NNT) species into European forestry is increasingly being discussed. The ecological consequences of increasing use or spread of NNTs in European forests are highly uncertain, as the scientific evidence is either constraint to results from case studies with limited spatial extent, or concerns global assessments that lack focus on European NNTs. For either case, generalisations on European NNTs are challenging to draw. Here we compile data on the impacts of seven important NNTs (Acacia dealbata, Ailanthus altissima, Eucalyptus globulus, Prunus serotina, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus rubra, Robinia pseudoacacia) on physical and chemical soil properties and diversity attributes in Europe, and summarise commonalities and differences. From a total of 103 publications considered, studies on diversity attributes were overall more frequent than studies on soil properties. The effects on soil properties varied greatly among tree species and depended on the respective soil property. Overall, increasing (45%) and decreasing (45%) impacts on soil occurred with similar frequency. In contrast, decreasing impacts on biodiversity were much more frequent (66%) than increasing ones (24%). Species phylogenetically distant from European tree species, such as Acacia dealbata, Eucalyptus globulus and Ailanthus altissima, showed the strongest decreasing impacts on biodiversity. Our results suggest that forest managers should be cautious in using NNTs, as a majority of NNT stands host fewer species when compared with native tree species or ecosystems, likely reflected in changes in biotic interactions and ecosystem functions. The high variability of impacts suggests that individual NNTs should be assessed separately, but NNTs that lack European relatives should be used with particular caution.
Academic – Long-term spatiotemporal dynamics in a mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forest in south-east Norway
Per Holm Nygaard, Fredrik Bøhler, Bernt-Håvard Øyen, ...
AuthorsPer Holm Nygaard Fredrik Bøhler Bernt-Håvard Øyen Bjørn Tveite
Mountain birch forest covers large areas in Eurasia, and their ecological resilience provides important ecosystem services to human societies. This study describes long-term stand dynamics based on permanent plots in the upper mountain birch belt in SE Norway. We also present forest line changes over a period of 70 years. Inventories were conducted in 1931, 1953, and 2007. Overall, there were small changes from 1931 up to 1953 followed by a marked increase in biomass and dominant height of mountain birch throughout the period from 1953 to 2007. In addition, the biomass of spruce (Picea abies) and the number of plots with spruce present doubled. The high mortality rate of larger birch stems and large recruitment by sprouting since the 1960s reveal recurrent rejuvenation events after the earlier outbreak of the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata). Our results demonstrate both a high stem turnover in mountain birch and a great ability to recover after disturbances. This trend is interpreted as regrowth after a moth attack, but also long-term and time-lagged responses due to slightly improved growth conditions. An advance of the mountain birch forest line by 0.71 m year−1 from 1937 to 2007 was documented, resulting in a total reduction of the alpine area by 12%. Most of the changes in the forest line seem to have taken place after 1960. Regarding silviculture methods in mountain birch, a dimension cutting of larger birch trees with a cutting interval of c. 60 years seems to be a sustainable alternative for mimicking natural processes.
Academic – Biotic threats for 23 major non-native tree species in Europe
Elisabeth Pötzelsberger, Martin M. Gossner, Ludwig Beenken, ...
AuthorsElisabeth Pötzelsberger Martin M. Gossner Ludwig Beenken Anna Gazda Michal Petr Tiina Ylioja Nicola La Porta Dimitrios N. Avtzis Elodie Bay Maarten De Groot Rein Drenkhan Mihai-Leonard Duduman Rasmus Enderle Margarita Georgieva Ari Hietala Björn Hoppe Herve Jactel Kristjan Jarni Srđan Keren Zsolt Keseru Marcin Koprowski Andrej Kormuťák María Josefa Lombardero Aljona Lukjanova Vitas Marozas Edurad Mauri Maria Cristina Monteverdi Per Holm Nygaard Nikica Ogris Nicolai Olenici Christophe Orazio Bernhard Perny Glória Pinto Michael Power Radoslaw Puchalka Hans Peter Ravn Ignacio Sevillano Sophie Stroheker Paul Taylor Panagiotis Tsopelas Josef Urban Kaljo Voolma Marjana Westergren Johanna Witzell Olga Zborovska Milica Zlatkovic
For non-native tree species with an origin outside of Europe a detailed compilation of enemy species including the severity of their attack is lacking up to now. We collected information on native and non-native species attacking non-native trees, i.e. type, extent and time of first observation of damage for 23 important non-native trees in 27 European countries. Our database includes about 2300 synthesised attack records (synthesised per biotic threat, tree and country) from over 800 species. Insects (49%) and fungi (45%) are the main observed biotic threats, but also arachnids, bacteria including phytoplasmas, mammals, nematodes, plants and viruses have been recorded. This information will be valuable to identify patterns and drivers of attacks, and trees with a lower current health risk to be considered for planting. In addition, our database will provide a baseline to which future impacts on non-native tree species could be compared with and thus will allow to analyse temporal trends of impacts.
Academic – Impact of Sitka spruce on biodiversity in NW Europe with a special focus on Norway – evidence, perceptions and regulations
Bernt-Håvard Øyen, Per Holm Nygaard
AuthorsBernt-Håvard Øyen Per Holm Nygaard
The impact of historical and present drivers on biodiversity, particularly species richness and abundance, in afforestation areas concerning non-native tree species is still poorly understood. A better understanding is important to ensure appropriate forest management in the face of climate change and increasing demand for wood products. Here, we have reviewed 75 biodiversity studies in Sitka spruce plantations in NW Europe, forest management recommendations for maintaining biodiversity, timber production and carbon sequestration in Sitka spruce forests in coastal Norway compared to NW Europe. Due to more focus on non-market landscape benefits and protection sites in coastal areas, transformation of spruce plantations is common. Premature cutting of stands and shelterbelts and clearing away saplings has become the dominant management practice in Norway. Based on the extent of use in Norway, and results from biodiversity studies in Sitka spruce plantations in NW Europe, the quality of evidence for the prevailing practice and recommendations in coastal Norway is highly questioned. To reduce conflicts, we propose a more knowledge-based management, a broader perspective underpinning the range of afforestation goals, also including the use of alternative silvicultural methods to increase structural variation in Sitka spruce stands.
Academic – Mapping the patchy legislative landscape of non-native tree species in Europe
Elisabeth Pötzelsberger, Katharina Lapin, Giuseppe Brundu, ...
AuthorsElisabeth Pötzelsberger Katharina Lapin Giuseppe Brundu Tim Adriaens Vlatko Andonovski Siniša Andrašev Jean-Charles Bastien Robert Brus Milić Čurović Željka Čurović Branislav Cvjetković Martina Ðodan Juan M. Domingo-Santos Anna Gazda Jean-Marc Henin Cornelia Hernea Bo Karlsson Ljiljana Keča Srđan Keren Zsolt Keserű Thomai Konstantara Johan Kroon Nicola La Porta Vasyl Lavnyy Dagnija Lazdina Aljona Lukjanova Tiit Maaten Palle Madsen Dejan Mandjukovski Francisco J. Marín Pageo Vitas Marozas Antonin Martinik William L. Mason Frits Mohren Maria Cristina Monteverdi Charalambos Neophytou Pat Neville Valeriu-Norocel Nicolescu Per Holm Nygaard Christophe Orazio Taras Parpan Sanja Perić Krasimira Petkova Emil Borissov Popov Mick Power Károly Rédei Matti Rousi Joaquim S. Silva Ahmet Sivacioglu Michalis Socratous Lina Straigyte Josef Urban Kris Vandekerkhove Radosław Wąsik Marjana Westergren Thomas Wohlgemuth Tiina Ylioja Hubert Hasenauer
Europe has a history rich in examples of successful and problematic introductions of trees with a native origin outside of Europe (non-native trees, NNT). Many international legal frameworks such as treaties and conventions and also the European Union have responded to the global concern about potential negative impacts of NNT that may become invasive in natural ecosystems. It is, however, national and regional legislation in particular that affects current and future management decisions in the forest sector and shapes the landscapes of Europe. We identified all relevant legal instruments regulating NNT, the different legal approaches and the regulatory intensity in 40 European countries (no microstates). Information on hard and effective soft law instruments were collected by means of a targeted questionnaire and consultation of international and national legislation information systems and databases. In total, 335 relevant legal instruments were in place in June/July 2019 to regulate the use of NNT in the investigated 116 geopolitical legal units (countries as well as sub-national regions with their own legislation). Countries and regions were empirically categorized according to ad hoc-defined legislation indicators. These indicators pay respect to the general bans on the introduction of non-native species, the generally allowed and prohibited NNT, approval mechanisms and specific areas or cases where NNT are restricted or prohibited. Our study revealed a very diverse landscape of legal frameworks across Europe, with a large variety of approaches to regulating NNT being pursued and the intensity of restriction ranging from very few restrictions on species choice and plantation surface area to the complete banning of NNT from forests. The main conclusion is that there is a clear need for more co-ordinated, science-based policies both at the local and international levels to enhance the advantages of NNT and mitigate potential negative effects.
Academic – Gap formation and dynamics after long-term steady state in an old-growth Picea abies stand in Norway: Above- and belowground interactions
Per Holm Nygaard, Line Tau Strand, Arne Stuanes
AuthorsPer Holm Nygaard Line Tau Strand Arne Stuanes
Stand dynamics and the gap initiation prior to gap formation are not well- understood because of its long- term nature and the scarcity of late- successional stands. Reconstruction of such disturbance is normally based on historical records and den-droecological methods. We investigated gap initiation and formation at the fine- scale stand level in the old- growth reserve of Karlshaugen in Norway. Given its long- term conservation history, and thorough mapping in permanent marked plots with spatially referenced trees, it provides an opportunity to present stand development before, during, and after gap formation. Late- successional decline in biomass was recorded after more than 50 years of close to steady state. Gaps in the canopy were mainly cre-ated by large old trees that had been killed by spruce bark beetles. Snapping by wind was the main reason for treefall. Long- term dominance of Norway spruce excluded downy birch and Scots pine from the stand. Comparisons of the forest floor soil prop-erties between the gap and nongap area showed significantly higher concentrations of plant available Ca within the gap area. Plant root simulator (PRS™) probes showed significantly higher supply rates for Ca and Mg, but significantly lower K for the gap compared to the nongap area. Soil water from the gap area had significantly higher C:N ratios compared to the nongap area. Fine- scale variation with increasing distance to logs indicated that CWD is important for leaking of DOC and Ca. Our long- term study from Karlshaugen documents gap dynamics after more than 50 years of steady state and a multiscale disturbance regime in an old- growth forest. The observed dis-turbance dynamic caused higher aboveground and belowground heterogeneity in plots, coarse woody debris, and nutrients. Our study of the nutrient levels of the forest floor suggest that natural gaps of old- growth forest provide a long- lasting biogeo-chemical feedback system particularly with respect to Ca and probably also N. Norway spruce trees near the gap edge responded with high plasticity to reduced competition, showing the importance of the edge zone as hot spots for establishing heterogeneity, but also the potential for carbon sequestration in old- growth forest.
Academic – Spread of the Introduced Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis) in Coastal Norway
Per Holm Nygaard, Bernt-Håvard Øyen
Academic – Retention of forest strips for bird-life adjacent to water and bogs in Norway: Effect of different widths and habitat variables
Sigmund Hågvar, Per Holm Nygaard, Bjørn Tore Bækken
AuthorsSigmund Hågvar Per Holm Nygaard Bjørn Tore Bækken
No abstract has been registered
Academic – Aluminium: The need for a re-evaluation of its toxicity and solubility in mature forest stands
Heleen A. de Wit, Jan Mulder, Per Holm Nygaard, ...
AuthorsHeleen A. de Wit Jan Mulder Per Holm Nygaard Dan Aamlid Magne Huse Egil Kortnes Gro Wollebæk Roald Brean
Aluminium (Al) is a key element in critical load calculations for forest. Here, we argue for re-evaluating the importance of Al. Effects of two levels of enhanced Al concentrations and lowered Ca:Al ratios in the soil solution in a field manipulation experiment in a mature spruce stand (1996-1999) on tree vitality parameters were tested. In addition, Al solubility controls were tested. Various loads of Al were added to forest plots by means of an irrigation system. Potentially toxic Al concentrations and critical ratios of Ca to inorganic Al were established.The ratio of Ca to total Al was not a suitable indicator for unfavourable conditions for plant growth. No significant effects on crown condition, tree growth and fine root production were observed after three years of treatment. In 1999, foliar Mg content in the highest Al addition treatment had declined significantly. This agreed with the known response to Al stress of seedlings in nutrient solution experiments. No support was found for using the chemical criterion Ca:Al ratio in soil solution, foliar and root tissue as an indicator for forest damage due to acidification. Al solubility was considerably lower than implied by the assumption of equilibrium with gibbsite, particularly in the root zone.The gibbsite equilibrium is commonly used in critical load models. Substitution of the gibbsite equilibrium with an Al-organic matter complexation model to describe Al solubility in soil water may have large consequences for calculation of critical loads. The results indicate that critical load maps for forests should be reconsidered.
Academic – Testing the Aluminum Toxicity Hypothesis: A Field Manipulation Experiment in Mature Spruce Forest in Norway
Heleen A. de Wit, Jan Mulder, Per Holm Nygaard, ...
AuthorsHeleen A. de Wit Jan Mulder Per Holm Nygaard Dan Aamlid
No abstract has been registered