Simen Gjølsjø

Senior Scientific Adviser

(+47) 481 99 570

Ås H8

Visiting address
Høgskoleveien 8, 1433 Ås


Norway spruce (Picea abies) is widely used not only in Norway but in many other European countries. Due to its refractory behavior after drying it is difficult to impregnate with wood protecting agents that makes it suitable for outside applications. In this research spruce wood samples are exposed to microwave radiation in order to improve the impregnability. The strength properties are evaluated after both microwave and impregnation treatment. The results show, that microwave treatment on spruce wood samples improves the uptake of impregnation agents. With increasing energy absorption due to microwave radiation the impregnability is improved. No differences could be found between the microwave treatments in radial or tangential direction, neither in uptake of wood preservative nor in strength properties. The uptake of impregnation agents in spruce wood is increased by using a pre-treatment with microwave radiation. However, some microwave treatments lead to cracks and a reduction in tangential strength. Most of the values of the process parameters used were obviously too high, which resulted in a distinct crack development.


The report is investigating the current state of forestry, forest industries and the bioenergy sector in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway and Sweden. The main task of the research is to illustrate the current supply and use of wood based fuels in the Baltic and Nordic countries. Additionally the present use of forest fuels in the different countries in the private and industrial sector is analyzed and bottlenecks in the current supply of forest fuels are identified. The focus on energy policy has been on energy systems with less CO2 emissions in order to meet requirement of international agreements. Therefore, forest fuels offer great potential as a source of renewable energy. There has been a steady increase in the growing stock of European forests. Large amounts of residues are left unutilised both in Nordic and Baltic forests, especially in first thinnings and intermediate cuttings. They offer large potential to further increase the share of wood fuels in total energy consumption. Forest industries utilize a great share of wood residues at present but especially in Baltic regions there is potential to intensify the use of wood residues. An additional increase in wood biomass utilization is also dependent on future expansion of the district heating networks in Nordic and Baltic countries. Potential is available especially in the Baltic countries and Norway. The situation in regards to utilization of wood biomass in private dwellings is similar in all seven countries. Large amounts of fuelwood are consumed annually but new furnace and burner technology is necessary to use resources more efficiently. In regards to energy policy a lot has been done to improve the use of biomass utilization, but more has to be done to strengthen the position of forest fuels in the future. The main bottlenecks for the larger use of forest biomass were found to be a lack of utilisation of available technology for harvesting and transport operations and a lack of district heating. An improved use of technology would decrease the price of forest fuels, necessary to compete with fossil fuel prices on international markets.