Dag Fjeld

Research Professor

(+47) 974 81 270
dag.fjeld@nibio.no

Place
Ås H8

Visiting address
Høgskoleveien 8, 1433 Ås

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Abstract

Seasonal variations in wood supply are linked to the regional operating environment. This study constitutes the Norwegian contribution to Era-Net MultiStrat (Multimodal strategies for more resilient wood supply) covering oceanic, sub-arctic and continental climate zones. The oceanic zone is characterized by considerable seasonal variation in both temperature and precipitation. The goal of the study was to seek solutions for more resilient wood supply under these conditions. The study started with a general mapping of wood supply management processes including common demand and supply risks (WP1). The work continued with analysis of three years of production and transport reports (2014-2016) with tracking of roadside stocks and transport lead times (WP2). Daily temperature, precipitation, and snowpack were tracked with data from 65 surrounding weather stations. A simple multimodal transport problem with a rolling selection of planning horizons was then used to find the efficient multimodal solutions for the core, adjacent and peripheral supply regions through 12 balance periods per year (WP3). The transport analysis covers 65 supply districts feeding 6 assortment groups to 10 mills via 11 shipping terminals. The transport analysis varied both vessel cargo capacity and cargo collection practices. The results demonstrated a wide range of solutions to ensure roundwood availability with limited increases in system costs. While the transport analysis demonstrated the contribution of the multimodal solutions to structural flexibility, it also revealed a bottleneck for resilience of the wood supply system; seasonal variation in truck transport output (m3km/week). The geographical distribution of seasonality showed the main source to be one particular supply region. A subsequent wood supply planning workshop with production managers indicated that a bottleneck for improved production planning was short wood purchase and planning horizons. A simple optimization experiment was therefore set up to quantify the feasibility of more specific site-type selection according to actual soil and seasonal weather conditions for the selected region. On-line grid-based groundwater modeling was used to monitor weekly geographical variations in bearing capacity and the experiment provided a plausible re-scheduling of flows to reduce variation in delivery volumes and transport output.

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Abstract

The goal of this study was to assess the long-term effects of partial harvesting and supplementary soil scarification on the frequency of root and butt rot in managed uneven-sized Norway spruce stands. Frequency of rot and the population structure of the rot fungi were assessed on 1353 stumps after clear-cutting 21 years after a selection harvesting experiment. The initial experiment was comprised of three harvest strength (low, intermediate and high) of single-tree selection, removing approximately 25, 45 and 65% of the stand basal area. Uncut control plots were established at the same time. Supplementary soil scarification was applied in subplots within the single-tree selection plots, using a medium-sized excavator. After clear-cutting the stumps were analyzed with respect to rot caused by Heterobasidion parviporum, Armillaria spp., Stereum sanguinolentum as well as other rot fungi. Rot caused by Armillaria spp. was most common (8.6% of the stumps), while infection by H. parviporum (2.9%) or S. sanguinolentum (3.0%) was less frequent. The group “other rot” (5.4%) comprised 21 identified taxa, each occurring in 1–15 stumps. Significantly lower rot frequencies were found for the uncut control (16.3%) and intermediate harvest strength (15.7%), compared with low harvest strength (23.6%). A rot frequency of 21.0% was found in the high harvest strength. In two of three harvest strengths, the rot frequency was higher than for the uncut control. As the observed rot frequencies did not increase consistently with increasing harvest strength, the results do not completely support the initial expectations of increased rot after single-tree selection compared with the uncut control. However, since the probability of rot in individual stumps on plots treated with single-tree selection was significantly affected by the distance to the nearest strip road (H. parviporum) as well as dependent on the size of and distance to the nearest stump of trees cut during the experimental harvest (H. parviporum, S. sanguinolentum and total rot), it is evident that the single-tree selection harvesting was partially responsible for some of the observed rot. One of the selection criteria in the initial harvest was a sanitary removal of trees of poor vitality. Varying degrees of sanitation felling may therefore have offset the effects of new infections in wounds or spread of rot fungi through adjacent stumps. Supplementary soil scarification in small gaps of the residual stand had no significant effect on the frequency of rot, suggesting that such treatment may be used to facilitate regeneration in uneven-sized spruce stands on similar sites.

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Abstract

Improved transport planning and pricing is dependent on correct cycle times. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of road curvature, surface roughness, gradient and truck weight on the operating speed of a conventional 60-tonne gross vehicle weight logging truck. The study used a 320-km test track consisting of both public and forest roads. The track was driven with various gross vehicle weights. Speed data was retrieved from the truck’s CAN-bus system and road data was measured with a profilograph. The key factors for operating speed were curvature and surface roughness, both of which were correlated to each other as well as partially captured by functional road class. Regression analysis quantified the individual effects of these factors as well as gradient, undulation and interactions with truck weight. A regression model is presented which explained 80% of the variation in operating speed. The results were consistent with previous studies, and the proposed models can be used to improve transport planning, cost estimation, operative route path selection and road investments.

Abstract

Two games, called “Wood Supply Games”, are developed based on the structure and dynamics of the Beer Game. The games are intended as student exercises in forestry logistics courses. By introducing divergent and convergent flows in the supply chain, the relevance to the forest sector is increased. Results from pilot experiments of the games are presented and discussed in terms of how different degrees of complexity in supply chain structures may affect their efficiency. Measures of efficiency are accumulated costs, amplification of demand and the sample variance of order rates. Results indicate that supply chain performance is negatively affected by increasing rigidity of constraints at points of divergence. Furthermore, lower degrees of efficiency and predictability are observed as complexity of supply chain structure increases. Testing of results and proposed hypotheses can be accomplished by running numerous replications of the games, or alternatively, by development of appropriate simulation models.

Abstract

Injuries and mortality to advance growth (saplings) after selection harvesting was studied in 17 multi-storied Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands. Harvest removals ranged from 33 to 67 % of initial basal area. Four of the stands were harvested motor-manually (chain saw + skidding with farm tractors; M-FT). The remaining stands were harvested with single-grip harvesters and forwarders (H-FW). In each stand, injury rates were evaluated on a 24x48 m plot, located between the centrelines of two parallel striproads that were spaced 24 m apart. All logging teams had at least five years of experience in clear-cutting and thinning operations. The trees to be removed, and striproad centrelines, were marked prior to harvest. Mortality varied between 5 and 51 %, whereas total injury (injured + dead saplings) varied between 17 and 76 %. Mortality- and injury levels were generally highest on H-FW plots. Crown reduction and leaning stems were the most frequent types of injury, regardless of operating method. Injury rates increased with sapling height with the H-FW method, whereas the opposite was found on M-FT plots. Saplings without pre-harvest damage in the form of top- or leader defects had a higher probability of being injured than saplings with such damage in stands harvested with the M-FT method. A similar difference was not found on H-FW plots. A logistic regression model show that the spatial risk for injury depends on the interaction between forest condition factors and operational characteristics. Forest condition factors influencing the risk of injury are sapling height and the location of saplings relative to larger residual trees and striproads. Corresponding operational characteristics are operating method and harvest intensity.

Abstract

Structural changes in the sawmilling industry imply more wood transport as distance between sawmills is increasing. One of the factors that determines the potential for economies of scale is the trade-off between reduced production costs and increased transport costs. The methods used in this study are based on geometric properties of wood procurement areas.The effects of the distribution of forest (area coefficient) and the road net (winding coefficient) upon average transport distance was explored, and considerable regional variation was found.The transport net factor (t) is the product of the area coefficient (a) and the winding coefficient (w) and gives a relative measure of the potential for efficient procurement logistics with respect to the distribution of productive forest area and the road net. The transport net factor is estimated for two wood procurement areas in each of four regions.When studying the sawlogs procurement in regions with different density of sawlogs buyers, average transport distance increases relatively more in areas where several buyers are competing for a limited timber supply than in areas with few competitors.

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Abstract

This study examines the role of forest operations strategies in sector development for Norway's fjord region. The paper starts with an examination of forest owner attitudes and perceptions in relation to their harvesting behaviour, use of contractor harvesting and road net extension. The influence of forest owner decisions, contractor mechanisation and road net extension standards on operational efficiency is examined in a simple deterministic model of the regional wood chain. Average wood procurement costs are calculated for increasing sector capacity. Direct and indirect harvesting costs are also followed throughout this development.