Jeg er utdannet bioteknolog fra NTNU (2014) med spesialisering innen molekylærbiologi. Mine hovedarbeidsområder omfatter genetiske analyser av fisk og mikroorganismer. For å studere ulike økosystemer bruker vi:
- Fragmentanalyse (STR)
- Sekvensering (RAD-seq, barcoding og metabarcoding)
- Realtime-PCR (SNP og genuttrykk)
Jeg utvikler nye metoder i laboratoriet for å drive populasjonsanalyser, men også metoder knyttet til deteksjon av mikroorganismer og antibiotikaresistens.
En genetisk undersøkelse av svanemuslingen i Transjøen har avdekket tre unike genvarianter/haplotyper for Norge på cytochrome oxidase I genet som er en del av det mitokondrielle DNAet. En av disse variantene danner en egen gren i det evolusjonære treet ut fra den mest vanlige varianten i Europa. Det kan indikere at populasjonen i Norge har unike egenskaper som bør undersøkes videre.
Maintaining standing genetic variation is a challenge in human-dominated landscapes. We used genetic (i.e., 16 short tandem repeats) and morphological (i.e., length and weight) measurements of 593 contemporary and historical brown trout (Salmo trutta) samples to study fine-scale and short-term impacts of different management practices. These had changed from traditional breeding practices, using the same broodstock for several years, to modern breeding practices, including annual broodstock replacement, in the transnational subarctic Pasvik River. Using population genetic structure analyses (i.e., Bayesian assignment tests, DAPCs, and PCAs), four historical genetic clusters (E2001A-D), likely representing family lineages resulting from different crosses, were found in zone E. These groups were characterized by consistently lower genetic diversity, higher within-group relatedness, lower effective population size, and significantly smaller body size than contemporary stocked (E2001E) and wild fish (E2001F). However, even current breeding practices are insufficient to prevent genetic diversity loss and morphological changes as demonstrated by on average smaller body sizes and recent genetic bottleneck signatures in the modern breeding stock compared to wild fish. Conservation management must evaluate breeding protocols for stocking programs and assess if these can preserve remaining natural genetic diversity and morphology in brown trout for long-term preservation of freshwater fauna.
Foredrag – Fish project: Updates from the Norwegian side
Cornelya Klutsch, Kristin Forfang, Benedicte Beddari, ...
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Habitat discontinuity, anthropogenic disturbance, and overharvesting have led to population fragmentation and decline worldwide. Preservation of remaining natural genetic diversity is crucial to avoid continued genetic erosion. Brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) is an ideal model species for studying anthropogenic influences on genetic integrity, as it has experienced significant genetic alterations throughout its natural distribution range due to habitat fragmentation, overexploitation, translocations, and stocking. The Pasvik River is a subarctic riverine system shared between Norway, Russia, and Finland, subdivided by seven hydroelectric power dams that destroyed about 70% of natural spawning and nursing areas. Stocking is applied in certain river parts to support the natural brown trout population. Adjacent river segments with different management strategies (stocked vs. not stocked) facilitated the simultaneous assessment of genetic impacts of dams and stocking based on analyses of 16 short tandem repeat loci. Dams were expected to increase genetic differentiation between and reduce genetic diversity within river sections. Contrastingly, stocking was predicted to promote genetic homogenization and diversity, but also potentially lead to loss of private alleles and to genetic erosion. Our results showed comparatively low heterozygosity and clear genetic differentiation between adjacent sections in nonstocked river parts, indicating that dams prevent migration and contribute to genetic isolation and loss of genetic diversity. Furthermore, genetic differentiation was low and heterozygosity relatively high across stocked sections. However, in stocked river sections, we found signatures of recent bottlenecks and reductions in private alleles, indicating that only a subset of individuals contributes to reproduction, potentially leading to divergence away from the natural genetic state. Taken together, these results indicate that stocking counteracts the negative fragmentation effects of dams, but also that stocking practices should be planned carefully in order to ensure long‐term preservation of natural genetic diversity and integrity in brown trout and other species in regulated river systems.
Undersøkelse av antibiotikaresistensmarkørgenet neomycin fosfotransferase II (nptII) i prøver fra 12 ville arter fra Norge I et prosjekt fra Miljødirektoratet har vi testa for tilstedeværelse av nptII genet i 219 prøver fra 12 ulike ville arter fra hele Norge. Utvalget av prøver inkluderte planter (løvetann, rødkløver og markjordbær), insekter (skogmaur, rognebærmøll og liten høstmåler), snegl (brunsnegl), fisk (ørret og rognkjeks) og pattedyr (rødrev, brunbjørn og isbjørn). Vi brukte to ulike sanntids-PCR (Real-Time-PCR) tester for å undersøke fo tilstedeværelsen av kopier av nptII-genet i de 219 prøvene. Vi fant at nesten alle prøvene var negative (99%), mens kun tre enkeltprøver (løvetann, rødkløver og skogmaur) viste et svært lavt nivå av nptII (3-4 kopier). De positive prøvene kan være naturlige varianter eller kontaminering fra forskningslaboratorier. Vi konkluderer med at der er behov for utvida undersøkelser innenen for dette fagfeltet.
We reconstructed family relationships, parent-child and siblings, among the brown bear (Ursus arctos) sampled in Sør-Varanger, Norway. Basis of this study are observed family relationships by the wildlife management. We compared this strong indication of relatedness with testing particular family relationships using SNP- and STR-genotype data of 154 brown bears sampled mainly non-invasively in the area from 2004 to 2016. We calculated likelihood ratios (LRs) and reconstructed family groups with the program FAMILIAS, which was used to reconstruct family relationships in human forensics. When the LR of each relationship, parent-child or siblings, was tested, 40 (38.1%) relationships were confirmed based solely on genetic data. The allele sharing analysis visualized as dendrograms supported that a large proportion of the remaining observed cases that were not confirmed as parent-child or siblings did share a closer family relationship. More detailed analysis is necessary to deduce the nature of these relationships (cousins, uncle-nephew etc.). Based on the genetic data we found, that the minimum number of cubs per year was on average 4.08. The applied SNP-chip has been developed on the Swedish brown bear population, a population different to the bears living in Sør-Varanger. The performance of the SNP-chip in this study rises questions of its applicability for family analysis in other brown bear populations and shows the need for further evaluation of the individual loci on the chip. Nevertheless, the combined SNP-data from all loci seems to provide power enough to detect the previously reported subpopulation structure. The observational data, sampling effort and quality of the sample material of the brown bears in Sør-Varanger is remarkable and the material provides an excellent testing ground to validate and improve the SNP-chip to reconstruct family groups.